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1.
Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing ; 16(2):276-288, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883131

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness that can spread from person to person. Since the COVID-19 pandemic is spreading rapidly over the world and its outbreak has affected different people in different ways, it is significant to study or predict the evolution of its epidemic trend. However, most of the studies focused solely on either classical epidemiological models or machine learning models for COVID-19 pandemic forecasting, which either suffer from the limitation of the generalization ability and scalability or the lack of surveillance data. In this work, we propose T-SIRGAN that integrates the strengths of the epidemiological theories and deep learning models to be able to represent complex epidemic processes and model the non-linear relationship for more accurate prediction of the growth of COVID-19. T-SIRGAN first adopts the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model to generate epidemiological-based simulation data, which are then fed into a generative adversarial network (GAN) as adversarial examples for data augmentation. Then, Transformers are used to predict the future trends of COVID-19 based on the generated synthetic data. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the superiority of our method. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccine based on the difference between the predicted and the reported number of COVID-19 cases.

2.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):188, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880661

ABSTRACT

Background: Lenacapavir (LEN), a potent first-in-class inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid function, is in development for treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. CAPELLA is an ongoing, Phase II/III study in heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) people with HIV-1 (PWH) with multidrug-resistance and ongoing viremia (≥ 400 copies/mL) evaluating LEN in combination with an optimized background regimen (OBR). Methods: In the randomized cohort (Cohort 1), participants were assigned (2:1) to add oral LEN or placebo to their failing regimen (600 mg on Day 1[D] and 2 and 300 mg on D8). At D15, those on oral LEN received subcutaneous (SC) LEN 927 mg every 6 months;those on placebo started the 2-week oral lead-in, followed by SC Q6M. All randomized participants initiated an investigator-selected, OBR at D15. In the non-randomized cohort (Cohort 2), participants started OBR concurrent with LEN (oral lead-in → SC). We report the secondary endpoint of W52 efficacy by FDA-snapshot algorithm in the randomized cohort and additional available efficacy and safety from both cohorts. Results: 72 participants were enrolled: 36 in each cohort. Overall, 25% were female, 38% Black, median age 52 years, 19% had VL > 100k c/mL, 64% had CD4 <200 cells/μ L, 46% had HIV-1 resistant to all 4 major classes (NRTI, NNRTI, PI, InSTI), and 17% did not have any fully active agents in the OBR. In Cohorts 1 and 2 at W26, 81% (29/36) and 81% (29/36) achieved VL<50 c/mL. At W52, in Cohort 1, 83% (30/36) had VL< 50 c/mL;most in Cohort 2 have not reached W52 yet. At W52, CD4 count increased by a median 83 cells/μ L (Q1 to Q3: 21 to 142, n=41). Eight participants had emergent LEN resistance (4 in Cohort 1 and 4 in Cohort 2);other than 1 who died at W11 (previously reported), all 7 either had evidence of poor adherence to the OBR (n=4) or did not have any fully active agents in the OBR (n=3).No participant experienced a study drug-related serious adverse event. One participant discontinued LEN at W52 due to an AE of Grade 1 injection site nodule. LEN-related injection site reactions (ISRs) occurred in 63% (45/72) and were mostly mild or moderate (43/45). The most common non-ISR AEs were nausea and diarrhea (13% each) and COVID-19 (11%). Conclusion: Subcutaneous LEN in combination with OBR led to high rates of virologic suppression and immunologic recovery in HTE PWH at one year and was well tolerated. These results support the ongoing evaluation of LEN for treatment of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 infection.

3.
Gongcheng Kexue Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Engineering ; 44(6):1080-1089, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876199

ABSTRACT

With the increasing popularity of the Internet and the spread of COVID-19, epidemic-related rumors have attracted significant attention, allowing them to brew quickly and pose extremely negative social impacts. It is of great significance to investigate the propagation process of online rumors and offer tentative strategies to curb it. Based on the traditional susceptible, infected, recovered (SIR) model of online rumor propagation, groups of potential and die-hard rumor believers were introduced in this paper, establishing an authoritative rumor-refuting mechanism. Meanwhile, this paper considered factors such as the time-lag effect of rumor refutation from the nonauthoritative and authoritative institutions and the impact of the popularizing rate of higher education on the propagation and refutation of rumors. As a result of the process, the SEIRD (susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered, die-hard-infected) rumor propagation model was established to study how the proportion of the susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered, and die-hard-infected varies under different popularizing rates of higher education, the presence or absence of the authoritative rumor-refuting institutions, and the time-lag effect of rumor refutation. Finally, the model's effectiveness was verified via experimental simulation, which provided a reference for controlling the spread of online rumor propagation. In addition, the paper proposed a rumor-refuting coefficient to measure the rumor-refuting ability of the nonauthoritative and authoritative institutions. The results show that (1) increasing popularizing rate of higher education significantly slows down the rumor propagation and reduces the rumor propagation peak;(2) refuting the rumors based on the authoritative institutions is decisive for the ultimate elimination of rumors;and (3) eliminating the time-lag effect in refuting rumors facilitates slowing down the propagation of the online rumors. Therefore, the paper puts forward a feasible strategy to eliminate the time-lag effect of online rumor refutation in the future. Copyright ©2022 Chinese Journal of Engineering. All rights reserved.

4.
Journal of Safety Science and Resilience ; 3(2):93-104, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1873165

ABSTRACT

In the context of frequent occurrences of disasters worldwide, disaster-coping capability is imperative for risk reduction and contemporary emergency management. The global COVID-19 pandemic since 2020 has further highlighted the significance of resilience construction at different geographical scales. Overall, the conceptual cognition of resilience in disaster management covers multiple elements and has diverse yielding on regional assessment. This study assesses the local resilience to the public health disaster at the prefecture-level cities, focusing on two dimensions consisting of vulnerability and capability in the targeted provincial region of Jiangsu in China. To this end, based on the vulnerability-capability framework, the Rough Analytic Hierarchy Process (RAHP) method was applied to the resilience assessment. Drawing upon the criteria derived from literature, the criteria weights were determined with the RAHP method and we assessed urban resilience with census data. In addition, the hierarchical factors contributing to urban resilience were determined using robustness analysis. This research provides constructive ideas for regional disaster reduction and contributes to the government's capability to improve urban resilience. © 2022

5.
China Review ; 22(1):135-158, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1871281

ABSTRACT

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) regime has enhanced the sharing of information between government departments through “cloud governance” using big data. Local governments have set up big data bureaus, which have created government data-sharing platforms to solve the problem of “data islands” with limited external connectivity. We use the case of COVID-19 containment and crisis management to examine how local governments in China use cloud governance to deal with special tasks, such as the maintenance of social stability, disease prevention and control, and economic recovery. We argue that the CCP’s emphasis on cloud governance is part of its effort to learn new technologies in order to consolidate its rule. © 2022, Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. All rights reserved.

6.
Traditional Medicine Research ; 7(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1870367

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases are common conditions that endanger human health. Their etiology, pathogenesis, and prognosis are complex, and clinical research has been extensive. This paper reviews studies from the PubMed database to assess the progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of respiratory diseases in 2021, focusing on related animal and cell models of coronavirus disease 2019. Traditional Chinese medicine extracts, such as polysaccharides and emodin, and classic prescriptions, such as Mahuang decoction, respond to the treatment of influenza by reducing viral infections and regulating the body’s immune response. Chinese herbal extracts, such as schizandra B and andrographolide, treat asthma by inhibiting inflammatory response pathway formation, NLRP3 inflammasome formation, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Traditional Chinese medicine extracts such as fucoxanthin, and proprietary Chinese medicines such as the Xihuang pill is used in the treatment of lung cancer, as it regulates the cell cycle, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and enhance the body’s immune function. Classic formulas such as the kidney tonic lung formula and proprietary Chinese medicine, such as compound grass stone silkworm granules, relieve airway inflammation and improve lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chinese herbal extracts, such as jostilbene and sage phenol, inhibit epithelial cell–mesenchymal transformation and regulate the levels of inflammatory factors to treat idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis to provide a reliable basis for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

7.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337467

ABSTRACT

The Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant has become the dominant lineage worldwide, and experimental study had shown that SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was more stable on various environmental surfaces than ancestral strain. However, how the changes of stability on surfaces would influence the role of fomite route in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is still unknown. In this study, we modeled the Omicron and ancestral strain SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a household over 1-day period from multiple pathways, i.e., airborne, droplet and contact route. We assumed there were 2 adults and 1 child in the household, and one of the adults was infected with SARS-CoV-2. We assume a scenario of pre-/asymptomatic infection, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 was emitted by breathing and talking, and symptomatic infection, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 was emitted by breathing, talking, and coughing. In pre-/asymptomatic infection, all three routes contributed a role, contact route contribute most (37%-45%), followed by airborne route (34%-38%) and droplet route (21%-28%). In symptomatic infection, droplet route was the dominant pathway (48%-71%), followed by contact route (25%-42%), airborne route played a negligible role (<10%). In the contact route, indirect contact (fomite) route dominated (contributed more than 97%). Compared with ancestral strain, though the contribution of contact route increased in Omicron variant transmission, the increase was slight, from 25%-41% to 30%-45%.

8.
Advanced Engineering Informatics ; 52, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1859243

ABSTRACT

Emergencies, such as pandemics (e.g., COVID-19), warrant urgent production and distribution of goods under disrupted supply chain conditions. An innovative logistics solution to meet the urgent demand during emergencies could be the factory-in-a-box manufacturing concept. The factory-in-a-box manufacturing concept deploys vehicles to transport containers that are used to install production modules (i.e., factories). The vehicles travel to customer locations and perform on-site production. Factory-in-a-box supply chain optimization is associated with a wide array of decisions. This study focuses on selection of vehicles for factory-in-a-box manufacturing and decisions regarding the optimal routes within the supply chain consisting of a depot, suppliers, manufacturers, and customers. Moreover, in order to contrast the options of factory-in-a-box manufacturing with those of conventional manufacturing, the location of the final production is determined for each customer (i.e., factory-in-a-box manufacturing with production at the customer location or conventional manufacturing with production at the manufacturer locations). A novel multi-objective optimization model is presented for the vehicle routing problem with a factory-in-a-box that aims to minimize the total cost associated with traversing the edges of the network and the total cost associated with visiting the nodes of the network. A customized multi-objective hybrid metaheuristic solution algorithm that directly considers problem-specific properties is designed as a solution approach. A case study is performed for a vaccination project involving factory-in-a-box manufacturing along with conventional manufacturing. The case study reveals that the developed solution method outperforms the ε-constraint method, which is a classical exact optimization method for multi-objective optimization problems, and several well-known metaheuristics. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

9.
View ; : 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1850257

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19, caused by SARS-Cov-2) is a big challenge for global health systems and the economy. Rapid and accurate tests are crucial at early stages of this pandemic. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is the current gold standard method for detection of SARS-Cov-2. It is impractical and costly to test individuals in large-scale population screens, especially in low- and middle-income countries due to their shortage of nucleic acid testing reagents and skilled staff. Accordingly, sample pooling, such as for blood screening for syphilis, is now widely applied to COVID-19. In this paper, we survey and review several different pooled-sample testing strategies, based on their group size, prevalence, testing number, and sensitivity, and we discuss their efficiency in terms of reducing cost and saving time while ensuring sensitivity.

11.
Oncology Nursing Forum ; 49(2):E166-E167, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849420
12.
2022 International Conference on Big Data, Information and Computer Network, BDICN 2022 ; : 177-181, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846058

ABSTRACT

Airline delay analysis aims to evaluate which factors most likely contribute to airline delays, which can help airline companies avoid airline delays and make better flight planning to minimize their loss. Flight delay is attributed to various factors, such as bad weather conditions, physical flaws, delayed flight arrivals, and crew-related issues. With the help of Big Data visualization and analysis, various factors contributing to airline delays in the United States are investigated to make suggestions for airline companies. First, this paper pre-processes the dataset by restricting the time period to rule out the influence of Covid-19 on the irregularity of airline schedules. To obtain the most accurate results, we expurgate missing data. Then, this paper visualizes the correlations between various factors, including months, airline carriers, departure times, weather conditions, and airline delay rate. Each factor is assigned as strong, weak, or no correlation with airline delay. Next, this paper evaluates the results by comparing findings from other research or reports, which support the result from the study. Finally, the optimal situation is analyzed for a flight to depart on time, and suggestions are provided for airline companies to reduce their delay rate. Our analysis shows that the correlation between airline carriers, departure times, and airline delay is strong. There is a weak correlation between weather conditions and airline delays. There is no correlation between months and plane age to an airline delay. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334871

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the efficacy and effectiveness of the two FDA-approved mRNA vaccines. Here, we explored various strategies to develop novel mRNAs vaccines to achieve safer and wider coverage of VOCs. Firstly, we constructed a cohort of mRNAs that feature a furin cleavage mutation in the spike (S) protein of predominant VOCs, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1) and Delta (B.1.617.2). Not present in the mRNA vaccines currently in use, the mutation abolished the cleavage between the S1 and S2 subunits, potentially enhancing the safety profile of the immunogen. Secondly, we systematically evaluated the induction of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) in vaccinated mice, and discovered that individual VOC mRNAs elicited strong neutralizing activity in a VOC-specific manner. Thirdly, the IgG produced in mice immunized with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs showed potent cross-reactivity with other VOCs, which was further corroborated by challenging vaccinated mice with the live virus of VOCs. However, neither WA-Furin nor Beta-Furin mRNA elicited strong neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. Hence, we further developed an Omicron-specific mRNA vaccine that restored protection against the original and the sublineages of Omicron variant. Finally, to broaden the protection spectrum of the new Omicron mRNA vaccine, we tested the concept of bivalent immunogen. Instead of just fusing two RBDs head-to-tail, we for the first time constructed an mRNA-based chimeric immunogen by introducing the RBD of Delta variant into the entire S antigen of Omicron. The resultant chimeric mRNA was capable of inducing potent and broadly acting nAb against Omicron (both BA.1 and BA.2) and Delta, which paves the way to develop new vaccine candidate to target emerging variants in the future.

14.
IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances in Systems Science and Engineering (RASSE) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822042

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has caused severe damage to the supply chain, and manufacturers may face long-term supply disruptions. A new product design change program taking into account product life cycle and lead time is introduced and incorporated into a disruption recovery model for a serial supply chain that minimizes manufacturer losses after supply chain disruption. A mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is presented addressing this multi-period, multi-supplier, and multi-stage problem with long-term supply disruptions. A heuristic algorithm is designed to solve the model. In a numerical example, five disruption scenarios of the recovery model are solved. The results show that the proposed disruption recovery strategy can effectively reduce the profit loss of manufacturer due to supply disruption, and demonstrate the role of the product life cycle in the selection of product design change options. The proposed model can offer a potentially useful tool to help the manufacturers decide on the optimal recovery strategy whenever the supply chain system experiences a massive disruption.

15.
18th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) ; : 42-45, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822033

ABSTRACT

The wide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global concern and millions of people have been infected. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is important for screening and diagnosis of this disease, where segmentation of the lung infections plays a critical role for quantitative assessment of the disease progression. Currently, 3D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have achieved state-of-the-art performance for automatic medical image segmentation tasks. However, most 3D segmentation CNNs have a large set of parameters and huge floating point operations (FLOPs), causing high command for equipments. In this work, we propose LCOV-Net, a lightweight 3D CNN for accurate segmentation of COVID-19 pneumonia lesions from CT volumes. The core component of LCOV-Net is a lightweight attention-based convolutional block (LACB), which consists of a spatiotemporal separable convolution branch to reduce parameters and a lightweight feature calibration branch to improve the learning ability. We combined our LACB module with 3D U-Net as LCOV-Net, and tested our method on a dataset of CT scans of 130 COVID-19 patients for the infection lesion segmentation. Experimental results show that: (1) our LCOV-Net outperforms existing lightweight networks for 3D segmentation and (2) compared with the widely used 3D U-Net, our LCOV-Net improved the Dice score by around 20.36% and reduced the parameter number by 90.16%, leading to 27.93% speedup. Models and code are available at https://github.com/afeizqf/LCOVNet.

16.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(4):457-462, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818645

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the methodological quality of pediatric COVID-19 guidelines using the AGREE Ⅱ. Methods Domestic and foreign pediatric COVID-19 guidelines from inception to 1st Oct 2021 were electronically searched in PubMed, CBM, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Data, Medlive, NGC, GIN, and NICE databases and relevant websites. Two researchers independently assessed the methodological quality of the guidelines by using AGREE Ⅱ. Results A total of 21 guidelines were included. The AGREE Ⅱ results revealed that the average scores of included guidelines in 6 domains (scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigor of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence) were 62.70%, 36.24%, 20.34%, 50.42%, 22.12% and 53.17%, respectively. Conclusion The methodological quality of pediatric COVID-19 guidelines is poor. Guideline developers should follow the requirements of AGREE Ⅱ in guideline development.

18.
Journal of Operations Management ; : 20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1813554

ABSTRACT

This study explores how firms sought to effectively match their internal competence with external resources from the supply chain network to improve operational resilience (OR) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Drawing upon matching theory, this study provides an internal-external matching perspective based on flexibility-stability features of OR to explain the operational mechanisms underlying the different matchings between internal flexibility (i.e., product diversity)/stability (i.e., operational efficiency) and external flexibility (i.e., structural holes)/stability (i.e., network centrality). We find that more heterogeneous matchings between internal (external) flexibility and external (internal) stability have a complementary effect that enhances OR, whereas more homogeneous matchings between internal flexibility (or stability) and external flexibility (or stability) have a substitutive effect that reduces OR. This study provides valuable contributions to research focusing on the supply chain, organizational resilience, and operations management.

20.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

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