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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the effectiveness on stress urinary incontinence (SUI) prevention of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for pregnant women has been inconclusive, we are planning to conduct a trial to evaluate a video program designed for prevention of SUI developed through combining PFMT with global postural reeducation (GPR). METHODS: As a randomized controlled trial, eligible participants will be randomized (1:1) into an exercise group and a control group to perform PFMT regularly following video guidance or with no intervention, respectively. The experimental stage will be from the 16th gestation week (GW) to the 12th month postpartum, with eight appointments at the 16th, 28th, 37th GW, delivery, the 6th week and the 3rd, 6th, and 12th month postpartum. Data will be collected regarding urinary leakage symptoms, the stress test, the modified Oxford Scale, pelvic floor ultrasound, perineal laceration classification at delivery, neonatal Apgar score, and questionnaires (PISQ-12, ICIQ-UI SF, I-QOL, OABSS). The primary outcome is the occurrence of the symptomatic SUI and positive stress test at the 6th week postpartum. DISCUSSION: This protocol is anticipated to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention via video app for the design of a future randomized control trial (RCT). TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: ChiCTR2000029618).


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Urinary Incontinence, Stress , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pelvic Floor , Pregnancy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Incontinence, Stress/prevention & control
2.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488170

ABSTRACT

Transplant centers seeking to increase coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine coverage may consider requiring vaccination for healthcare workers or for candidates. The authors summarize current data to inform an ethical analysis of the harms, benefits, and individual and societal impact of mandatory vaccination, concluding that vaccine requirements for healthcare workers and transplant candidates are ethically justified by beneficence, net utility, and fiduciary duty to patients and public health. Implementation strategies should mitigate concerns about respect for autonomy and transparency for both groups. We clarify how the same arguments might be applied to related questions of caregiver vaccination, allocation of other healthcare resources, and mandates for non-COVID-19 vaccines. Finally, we call for effort to achieve global equity in vaccination as soon as possible.

3.
Front Med ; 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303365

ABSTRACT

Consecutively hospitalized patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China were retrospectively enrolled from January 2020 to March 2020 to investigate the association between the use of renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RAS-I) and the outcome of this disease. Associations between the use of RAS-I (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)), ACEI, and ARB and in-hospital mortality were analyzed using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models in overall and subgroup of hypertension status. A total of 2771 patients with COVID-19 were included, with moderate and severe cases accounting for 45.0% and 36.5%, respectively. A total of 195 (7.0%) patients died. RAS-I (hazard ratio (HR)= 0.499, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.325-0.767) and ARB (HR = 0.410, 95% CI 0.240-0.700) use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19. For patients with hypertension, RAS-I and ARB applications were also associated with a reduced risk of mortality with HR of 0.352 (95% CI 0.162-0.764) and 0.279 (95% CI 0.115-0.677), respectively. RAS-I exhibited protective effects on the survival outcome of COVID-19. ARB use was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among patients with COVID-19.

4.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 845-851, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, data concerning the epidemiological features, viral shedding, and antibody dynamics between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients remain controversial. METHODS: We enrolled 193 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects in Ningbo and Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China, from January 21 to March 6, 2020. All subjects were followed up to monitor the dynamics of serum antibody immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG against SARS-CoV-2 using colloidal gold-labeled and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Of those, 31 were asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers, 148 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, and 14 presymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Compared to symptomatic COVID-19 patients, asymptomatic carriers were younger and had higher levels of white blood cell and lymphocyte, lower level of C-reactive protein, and shorter viral shedding duration. Conversion of IgM from positive to negative was shorter in asymptomatic carriers than in COVID-19 patients (7.5 vs. 25.5 days, P = 0.030). The proportion of those persistently seropositive for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 was higher in COVID-19 patients than in asymptomatic carriers (66.1% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.037). Viral load was higher in symptomatic patients than presymptomatic patients (P = 0.003) and asymptomatic carriers (P = 0.004). Viral shedding duration was longer in presymptomatic COVID-19 patients than in asymptomatic carriers (48.0 vs. 24.0 days, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic carriers acquired infection more from intra-familial transmission than did COVID-19 patients (89.0% vs. 61.0%, P = 0.028). In 4 familial clusters of SARS-CoV-2 infection, asymptomatic carriers were mainly children and young adults while severe COVID-19 was mainly found in family members older than 60 years with comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic carriers might have a higher antiviral immunity to clear SARS-CoV-2 than symptomatic COVID-19 patients and this antiviral immunity should be contributable to innate and adaptive cellular immunity rather than humoral immunity. The severity of COVID-19 is associated with older age and comorbidities in familial clustering cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Seroconversion , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
5.
J Virus Erad ; 7(2): 100040, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225320

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia took place caused by a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 virus), named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A series of strict prevention and control measures were then implemented to reduce the spread of the epidemic. Influenza, another respiratory tract virus, may also respond to these measures. To assess the impact of these measures, we used the total number of passengers movement in mainland China from 2018 to 2020 and daily number of railway passenger flow during the 2020 Spring Festival travel rush to reflect the population movement and to analyze newly and cumulatively confirmed COVID-19 and influenza cases. We found that implementing the series of measures against COVID-19 mitigated both COVID-19 and influenza epidemics in China. Prevention and control measures for COVID-19 might be used to control respiratory tract infections to reduce the national health economic burden caused by these pathogens.

6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 195: 113876, 2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001609

ABSTRACT

In this study, we developed a sensitive and efficient analytical approach combining a 96-well plate-based protein precipitation strategy with ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in order to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of sivelestat and its metabolite XW-IMP-A in samples of plasma from ALI/ARDS patients with SIRS. The samples were separated via gradient elution with a C18 column (Phenomenex Kinetex, C18, 2.6 µm, 100 Å, 50 × 2.1 mm) using 0.1 % formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile-methanol (1:1, V:V) (B) as a mobile phase at a 0.6 mL/min flow rate. UPLC-MS/MS spectra were generated in positive ion mode, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to detect the following transitions: m/z 435.1 → 360.0 for sivelestat, m/z 469.0 → 394.0 for sivelestat-IS, m/z 351.0 → 276.0 for XW-IMP-A, and m/z 384.9 → 310.0 for XW-IMP-A-IS. This assay was run for 2.5 min in total, and achieved lowest limit of quantitation values of 2.0 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL for sivelestat and XW-IMP-A, respectively, while remaining highly linear from 2-500 ng/mL for sivelestat (r2 ≥ 0.9900) and from 0.5-125 ng/mL for XW-IMP-A (r2 ≥ 0.9900). These validated data were consistent with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) acceptance criteria. In addition, this method was successfully applied to the steady-state PK evaluation of ALI/ARDS patients with SIRS.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reproducibility of Results , Sulfonamides , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
Phytomedicine ; 85: 153531, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qingfei Paidu Tang (QPT), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which was suggested to be able to ease symptoms in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has been recommended by clinical guidelines and widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, whether it decreases mortality remains unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to explore the association between QPT use and in-hospital mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study based on a real-world database was conducted. METHODS: We identified patients consecutively hospitalized with COVID-19 in 15 hospitals from a national retrospective registry in China, from January through May 2020. Data on patients' characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were extracted from the electronic medical records. The association of QPT use with COVID-19 related mortality was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models based on propensity score analysis. RESULTS: Of the 8939 patients included, 28.7% received QPT. The COVID-19 related mortality was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8% to 1.7%) among the patients receiving QPT and 4.8% (95% CI 4.3% to 5.3%) among those not receiving QPT. After adjustment for patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, QPT use was associated with a relative reduction of 50% in-hospital COVID-19 related mortality (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.66 p < 0.001). This association was consistent across subgroups by sex and age. Meanwhile, the incidences of acute liver injury (8.9% [95% CI, 7.8% to 10.1%] vs. 9.9% [95% CI, 9.2% to 10.7%]; odds ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.81% to 1.14%], p = 0.658) and acute kidney injury (1.6% [95% CI, 1.2% to 2.2%] vs. 3.0% [95% CI, 2.6% to 3.5%]; odds ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.62 to 1.17], p = 0.318) were comparable between patients receiving QPT and those not receiving QPT. The major study limitations included that the study was an observational study based on real-world data rather than a randomized control trial, and the quality of data could be affected by the accuracy and completeness of medical records. CONCLUSIONS: QPT was associated with a substantially lower risk of in-hospital mortality, without extra risk of acute liver injury or acute kidney injury among patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury , Adult , Aged , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Retrospective Studies
8.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(12): 2095-2102, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which could be caused by both systematic responses from multi-organ dysfunction and direct virus infection. While advanced evidence is needed regarding its clinical features and mechanisms. We aimed to describe two phenotypes of AKI as well as their risk factors and the association with mortality. METHODS: Consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China from 1 January 2020 to 23 March 2020 were included. Patients with AKI were classified as AKI-early and AKI-late according to the sequence of organ dysfunction (kidney as the first dysfunctional organ or not). Demographic and clinical features were compared between two AKI groups. Their risk factors and the associations with in-hospital mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4020 cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included and 285 (7.09%) of them were identified as AKI. Compared with patients with AKI-early, patients with AKI-late had significantly higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers. Both AKIs were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, with similar fully adjusted hazard ratios of 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-4.49] for AKI-early and 3.09 (95% CI 2.17-4.40) for AKI-late. Only hypertension was independently associated with the risk of AKI-early. While age, history of chronic kidney disease and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were associated with the risk of AKI-late. CONCLUSIONS: AKI among patients with COVID-19 has two clinical phenotypes, which could be due to different mechanisms. Considering the increased risk for mortality for both phenotypes, monitoring for AKI should be emphasized during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
9.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess ; 38(1): 148-159, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024072

ABSTRACT

Coix seed is an important food and traditional Chinese medicine in China and other Asian countries. Notably, coix seed is currently being used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, coix seeds are generally contaminated by mycotoxins, and this risk cannot be ignored. In this paper, we developed a method that involves direct extraction and UHPLC-HRMS analysis for the simultaneous detection of 24 mycotoxins in coix seeds. UHPLC-HRMS instrument and data acquisition parameters, and the sample pretreatment were optimised. One-step extraction showed several advantages compared to the three commercial solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, including ease of use, reduced time of sample preparation, low cost, good recovery, and acceptable matrix effect. The method validation results indicate that all mycotoxins have good linearity and sensitivity. Recoveries were between 74.2-101.1%, and RSD ranged from 0.1-5.8%. The LOQs for 24 mycotoxins were in the range of 0.5-100 µg/kg. To survey the contamination levels of these mycotoxins in commercial coix seeds, more than 70 samples were collected from Chinese markets and were analysed using the newly developed method. Zearalenone (positive ratio: 98.7%, range:1.1-1562 µg/kg), deoxynivalenol (positive ratio: 87%, range: 8.4-382.5 µg/kg), nivalenol (positive ratio: 85.7%, range: 26.8-828.2 µg/kg), fumonisin B1 (positive ratio: 84.4%, range:2.5-314.5 µg/kg), fumonisin B2 (positive ratio: 75.3%, range:1.6-72.8 µg/kg), fumonisin B3 (positive ratio: 48%, range:1.0-203.6 µg/kg), aflatoxin B1 (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 0.39-14.7 µg/kg), sterigmatocystin (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 1.4-51.6 µg/kg), and tenuazonic acid (positive ratio: 19.5%, range 36.1-105.7 µg/kg) were the most frequent mycotoxin contaminants. These results highlight the importance of routine monitoring and control of mycotoxins in coix seeds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Coix/chemistry , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Mycotoxins/analysis , Mycotoxins/toxicity , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seeds/chemistry , Solvents , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization/methods
11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100503, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805325

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients had been profoundly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 especially after quarantine restrictions in China. We aimed to explore the treatment changes and delays of early breast cancer (EBC) during the first quarter of 2020. Methods: We did this retrospective, multicentre, cohort study at 97 cancer centres in China. EBC patients who received treatment regardless of preoperative therapy, surgery or postoperative therapy during first quarter of 2020 were included. Findings: 8397 patients were eligible with a median age of 50 (IQR 43-56). 0·2% (15/8397) of EBC patients were confirmed as COVID-19 infection. Only 5·2% of breast cancer diagnosis occurred after quarantine in Hubei compared with 15·3% in other provinces (OR= 0·30, 95%CI 0·24-0·38). postoperative endocrine therapy were least affected compared with different regions after quarantine (OR=0·37 [95%CI 0·19-0·73]). The proportion of surgery decreased from 16·4% in December last year to 2·6% in February in Hubei. Compared with intervals from diagnosis to treatment before quarantine restrictions, the average time increased with significance from 3·5 to 7·7 days in Hubei and 5·7 to 7·7 days in other provinces (p< 0·001). There were also 18·5 and 7·2 days delay in Hubei and other provinces respectively when calculating interval from surgery to postoperative therapy. Interpretation: EBC from high risk regions had a comparative rate of COVID-19 infection. After implementation of COVID-19 quarantine restrictions, fewer diagnosis and surgery with significant delays were seen when compared with treatment before. Funding: Beijing Medical Award Foundation (YJ0120).

12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234764, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601962

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan have affected more than 250 countries and regions worldwide. However, most of the clinical studies have been focused on Wuhan, and little is known about the disease outside of Wuhan in China. In this retrospective cohort study, we report the early clinical features of 80 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the hospital in Beijing. The results show that 27 (33.8%) patients had severe illness. Six (7.5%) patients were admitted to the ICU, and 3 (3.8%) patients died. Forty-eight percent (39/80) of the patients had a history of living/traveling in Wuhan. Patients with severe- illness were significantly older (average age, 71 years old vs 44 years old) and had a high incidence of expectoration (59.3% vs 34.0%), shortness of breath (92.6% vs 9.4%), anorexia (51.9% vs 18.9%) and confusion(18.5% vs 0%) compared with nonsevere patients. The systolic blood pressure (median, 130 mmHg vs 120 mmHg) was higher and the oxygen saturation (median, 98.3% vs 92.0%) was significantly lower in severe patients than nonsevere patients. In addition, myoglobin (median, 56.0 ng/mL vs 35.0 ng/mL), troponin I (median, 0.02 pg/mL vs 0.01 pg/mL), C-reactive protein (median, 69.7 mg/L vs 12.9 mg/L) and neutrophils (median, 3.3×109/L vs 2.2×109/L) were significantly increased, while lymphocytes (median, 0.8×109/L vs 1.2×109/L), albumin (mean, 32.8 g/L vs 36.8 g/L) and the creatinine clearance rate (median, 91.2 vs 108.2 ml/min/1.73m2) were significantly decreased among severe patients. Our study revealed that older patients with high levels of C-reactive protein, myoglobin, troponin I, and neutrophil and high systolic blood pressure as well as low levels of lymphocytes, and albumin and a low creatinine clearance rate and oxygen saturation were more likely to have severe disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Beijing/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Creatinine/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension , Lymphocytes , Male , Middle Aged , Myoglobin/blood , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Troponin I/blood
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