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1.
Data Brief ; 42: 108166, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867042

ABSTRACT

The dataset presents the raw data collected through an online survey of senior high school students and their parents from 24 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions (96 cities) of China. We conducted the online survey using electronic self-administered questionnaires designed as student-version and parent-version during 26th February and 4th March of 2020. The questionnaires were designed using the online survey tool Sojump (Shanghai Information Co.), and released through WeChat platform (Tencent Corp) following principals-head teachers-students/parents approach. All the students and the parents were asked to answer the questions voluntarily and anonymously after reading informed consent at the fore page of the questionnaires. The information collected from students included: 1) demographic characteristics, including sex, date of birth, name of high school, academic year, and self-evaluated performance level; 2) educational levels and occupations of parents; 3) degree preferences, including the willingness to learn medicine (prior and post COVID-19 outbreak), preferred medical career (clinician, public health practitioner, pharmacist, nurse or others), and main motivations for selecting or unselecting medical study; 4) infection of COVID-19 in acquaintances; 5) health literacy level on infectious diseases assessed using the Infectious Disease-specific Health Literacy Scale (IDSHL), and 6) anxiety level evaluated using the Chinese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7). Information collected from parents included sex of their children and name of high school attended by their children, as well as their own educational level, occupation, anxiety symptoms, attitude toward their children's studying medicine, and main reasons for supportive or unsupportive attitudes, which were similar to the main motivations or de-motivations for medical study listed in the student-version questionnaire. Date and time for completion of the questionnaire were auto-recorded by the Sojump system. The dataset was established at the early stage of pandemic of COVID-19, and is valuable for understanding the instant psychological impacts of the outbreak of an emerging fatal infectious disease on senior high school students and their patents, and can provide evidence for policymakers on mental health intervention and medical education in China. The data are provided with this article.

3.
Jie Fang Jun Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 47(4):359-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843215

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Methods Retrospectively analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of 138 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 from October 25, 2021 to November 19, 2021 in Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The epidemiological and demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, chest CT, treatment and prognosis data were collected, with a final follow-up date of November 27, 2021. Results As of November 19, 2021, a total of 144 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported in Gansu Province, of which 138 cases [65 males (47.1%) and 73 females (52.9%), aged 2-87 (42.7±21.0) years old, with the clinical classification of mainly common type (48.6%, 67/138)] were concentrically treated in the Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The transmission mode of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly in confined spaces, with obvious tour group and family aggregation;screening the close contacts and community investigation are the main approaches of finding the infected persons;86.2% (119/138) of confirmed patients have been vaccinated with the domestic inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The most common clinical symptoms are cough (57.2%, 79/138), followed by sore throat (28.3%, 39/138), dry throat (24.6%, 34/138), and expectoration (21.0%, 29/138). Only 20.3% (28/138) of patients have fever, and 4 patients (2.9%) have decreased or lost sense of smell and taste. Laboratory tests showed that serum amyloid A and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. The Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene is 26.31±7.63, and N gene is 26.35±7.17. Chest CT fined that 71.3% (72/101) of confirmed patients showed bilateral lung lobes involvement, and the lesions are mostly located in the lower lobes of both lungs;the lesions are mainly flaky and patchy ground-glass opacities. All confirmed cases are treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, mainly prone position ventilation and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment. The TCM treatment rate is 100% for severe cases. On the basis of respiratory support, nutritional support and anticoagulation, immunotherapy such as neutralizing antibodies are combined. Conclusions The main clinical features of COVID-19 infected by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Gansu Province are low rate of fever, long time for viral nucleic acid turned to negative, low risk of severe illness after vaccination, the good therapeutic effect, no intubation, no extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and no deaths. "One person, one plan" personalized treatment with integrated Chinese and Western medicine can effectively control the progression of the disease and cure the disease.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336200

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has been triggering the new wave of COVID-19 globally. However, the risk factors and outcomes for radiological abnormalities in the early convalescent stage (1 month after onset) of Omicron infected patients are still unknown. Methods: : Patients were retrospectively enrolled if they were admitted to the hospital due to COVID-19 and underwent chest CT scans during hospitalization between 8 January and 24 February 2022. The chest CTs and clinical data obtained at admission and 1 month after onset were longitudinally analyzed. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between laboratory markers and CT scores. Uni-/multi-variable logistic regression tests were performed to explore independent risk factors for radiological abnormalities at admission and residual pulmonary abnormalities after 1 month. Results: : We assessed 316 COVID-19 patients, including 47% with radiological abnormalities at admission and 23% with residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up. In a multivariate regression analysis, age ≥ 50 years, body mass index ≥ 23.87, days after vaccination ≥ 81 days, lymphocyte count ≤ 1.21×10 -9 /L, Interleukin-6 ≥ 10.05 pg/mL and IgG ≤ 14.140 S/CO were independent risk factors for CT abnormalities at admission (odds ratio = 2.870, 4.171, 2.360, 2.826, 3.886 and 2.828, respectively;P < 0.05 for each comparison). The presence of interlobular septal thickening and IL-6 ≥ 5.85 pg/mL were the independent risk factors for residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up (odds ratio = 3.619 and 3.197, respectively;P < 0.05 for each comparison). There were no significant changes in the number of involved lung lobes ( P = 0.308) and total CT score ( P = 0.068) during the early convalescent stage. And the level of IL-6 showed positive correlation with CT score at admission (spearman r = 0.202, P = 0.030). Conclusions: : The higher IL-6 level was a common independent risk factor for CT abnormalities at admission and residual pulmonary abnormalities at 1-month follow-up. And there were no obvious radiographic changes during the early convalescent stage in patients with residual pulmonary abnormalities.

6.
Front Nutr ; 9: 853565, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817991

ABSTRACT

Background: Between January and April 2020, China implemented differentiated prevention and control strategies across the country, based on the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic/pandemic in different regions. These strategies included lockdowns, social distancing, and the closure of public places. These measures may have affected dietary intake to varying degrees. This study aimed to assess variations in food intake and diet quality among pregnant women according to regional severity and related control measures during the most severe period of COVID-19 restrictions in 2020. Methods: A total of 3,678 pregnant women from 19 provinces/municipalities in mainland China were analyzed in this nationwide, multi-center study. Food intake data were obtained and assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Diet quality was quantified using the Diet Balance Index for Pregnancy (DBI-P), which included high bound score (HBS, excessive dietary intake), low bound score (LBS, insufficient dietary intake), and diet quality distance (DQD, dietary imbalance). Linear trend tests and multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the association between food intake, DBI-P and the severity of pandemic. Results: The median daily intake of vegetables, fruit, livestock/poultry meat, dairy, and nuts decreased (p < 0.05) according to low, moderate, and high severity of the pandemic, while no significant differences in cereals/potatoes, eggs, and fish/shrimp intake. The median daily intake of cereals/potatoes exceeded the recommended ranges, and the daily intake of eggs and fish/shrimp was below recommended ranges regardless of the pandemic severity (p < 0.05). Regarding diet quality, HBS decreased (lower excessive consumption) (p = 0.047) and LBS increased (greater insufficient consumption) (p = 0.046) with increased severity of the pandemic. On multivariable analyses, moderate and high pandemic severity were related to lower HBS risk (OR = 0.687, OR = 0.537) and higher LBS risk (ß = 1.517, ß = 3.020) when compared to low pandemic severity. Conclusions: Under more severe COVID-19 pandemic conditions, pregnant women consumed less quality food, characterized by reduced consumption of vegetables, fruit, livestock/poultry meat, dairy and nuts, while the quality of the foods that pregnant women consumed in excess tended to improve, but the overconsumption of cereals/potatoes was a problem.

7.
Infection and drug resistance ; 15:1687-1694, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787266

ABSTRACT

Purpose The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is the severe global pandemic with large numbers of infected cases and deaths in recent decades. The previous studies were all about the influence of albumin (ALB) for the severity and mortality of in-patients infected with COVID-19. But few studies exist about the influence factors to achieve viral negative conversion. Therefore, this study conducted an exploratory study to investigate the effect of albumin on negative conversion rate. Methods Among the 190 hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19 who had a course of disease longer than 30 days, 102 achieved viral negative conversion in 30–45 days and 88 not after 45 days. Taking other variables as concomitant variable, Cox proportional hazard regression model was applied to explore the influence of albumin to negative conversion rate under various factors. Results By comparing patients who could and could not achieve the finally viral negative conversion, a possible nonlinear relationship between the continuous variables and clinical outcomes was examined by a restricted cubic spline regression model. An association was found between albumin levels and hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (P = 0.027). The increase of albumin was accompanied with decreases of hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate (the value of albumin <38 g/L). But when the value of albumin was higher than 38 g/L, the hazard ratio of viral negative conversion rate approached 1, it means that albumin is not a risk factor for the viral negative conversion rate of COVID-19 disease. Conclusion For patients with COVID-19, albumin is a common and observed laboratory parameter. It is associated with final viral negative conversion rate although its underlying mechanism and relationship with the viral negative conversion rate still need to be clarified.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 764203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775974

ABSTRACT

Background: Stigmatization and poor social support are challenges faced by individuals living with HIV or sexually transmitted disease, which can have a profound negative impact on their healthcare. Mother-to-child transmission of either HIV or syphilis can lead to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate stigmatization and social support of pregnant women with HIV or syphilis in eastern China. Methods: This was an explanatory sequential mixed-method study conducted in Zhejiang province, China in 2019. Stigmatization, social support, and the associated factors toward HIV or syphilis were evaluated using questionnaires. The social support rating scale was used to evaluate social support, where a score <25% was defined as poor social support. A logistic regression model was used to explore the association between stigmatization and poor social support. Results: A total of 448 women (HIV positive, N = 93; syphilis, N = 355) were recruited in this study. Higher stigmatization was observed in pregnant women with HIV compared to those with syphilis (53.76% vs. 24.36%, p < 0.001), and poorer social support was observed in women with HIV compared with those with syphilis (40.86% vs. 19.86%, p < 0.001), with significant distributions of the total social support scores (Z = -1.976, p = 0.048) and scores on objectivity (Z = -2.036, p = 0.042) and subjectivity (Z = -2.500, p = 0.012). Similar social support among HIV or syphilis pregnant women was observed in medical healthcare facilities. In multivariable logistic model analysis, stigmatization (OR adj = 2.927; 95%CI, 1.714-4.996; p < 0.001) and ethnic minority (OR adj = 2.373; 95%CI, 1.113-5.056; p = 0.025) were negatively associated with social support. Interestingly, employment status was associated with improved social support (OR adj = 0.345; 95%CI, 0.180-0.662; p = 0.001). Conclusion: Stigmatization among pregnant women with HIV or syphilis remains high. We demonstrated that stigmatization was a significant predictor of low social support in pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. The support shown in medical facilities was similar toward pregnant women with HIV or syphilis. Implementation of stigmatization eradication and social support strategies targeting pregnant women with HIV or syphilis may therefore improve the dual elimination of mother-to-child transmission service.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Social Stigma , Social Support , Syphilis , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Minority Groups , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnant Women , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis/psychology
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 858256, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760238

ABSTRACT

To determine whether aorta becomes immune organ in pathologies, we performed transcriptomic analyses of six types of secretomic genes (SGs) in aorta and vascular cells and made the following findings: 1) 53.7% out of 21,306 human protein genes are classified into six secretomes, namely, canonical, caspase 1, caspase 4, exosome, Weibel-Palade body, and autophagy; 2) Atherosclerosis (AS), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) modulate six secretomes in aortas; and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV, COVID-19 homologous) infected endothelial cells (ECs) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) modulate six secretomes; 3) AS aortas upregulate T and B cell immune SGs; CKD aortas upregulate SGs for cardiac hypertrophy, and hepatic fibrosis; and AAA aorta upregulate SGs for neuromuscular signaling and protein catabolism; 4) Ang-II induced AAA, canonical, caspase 4, and exosome SGs have two expression peaks of high (day 7)-low (day 14)-high (day 28) patterns; 5) Elastase induced AAA aortas have more inflammatory/immune pathways than that of Ang-II induced AAA aortas; 6) Most disease-upregulated cytokines in aorta may be secreted via canonical and exosome secretomes; 7) Canonical and caspase 1 SGs play roles at early MERS-CoV infected ECs whereas caspase 4 and exosome SGs play roles in late/chronic phases; and the early upregulated canonical and caspase 1 SGs may function as drivers for trained immunity (innate immune memory); 8) Venous ECs from arteriovenous fistula (AVF) upregulate SGs in five secretomes; and 9) Increased some of 101 trained immunity genes and decreased trained tolerance regulator IRG1 participate in upregulations of SGs in atherosclerotic, Ang-II induced AAA and CKD aortas, and MERS-CoV infected ECs, but less in SGs upregulated in AVF ECs. IL-1 family cytokines, HIF1α, SET7 and mTOR, ROS regulators NRF2 and NOX2 partially regulate trained immunity genes; and NRF2 plays roles in downregulating SGs more than that of NOX2 in upregulating SGs. These results provide novel insights on the roles of aorta as immune organ in upregulating secretomes and driving immune and vascular cell differentiations in COVID-19, cardiovascular diseases, inflammations, transplantations, autoimmune diseases and cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Angiotensin II , Aorta , COVID-19/genetics , Caspase 1 , Cell Differentiation , Cell Transdifferentiation , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2
10.
Energy (Oxf) ; 249: 123707, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734378

ABSTRACT

The utilization of single-use face masks as the standard PPE to minimize the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased facemask waste. Improper management of the increased facemask waste has a consequential environmental impact. This requires swift actions to invest and implement innovative technologies to manage single-use facemask waste. Thermochemical treatment of disposable face masks could minimize COVID-19 plastic waste and produce value-added products. The present study evaluates the power generation potential and environmental impact of treating estimated daily single-use facemask waste in Africa and Asia via incineration. The environmental assessment was expressed as global warming potential and acidification potential. The formulation of the model equations method was used to estimate the power generation potential. The IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodology and EPA "compilation of air pollutant emissions factors" (AP-42) were used to compute greenhouse and acid gases. The key findings show that the daily single-use facemask waste produced in Asia was 19.12 million kg/day, generating 32.65 million kWh/day of electricity. In Africa, 3.53 million kg/day of single-use facemask waste was produced, generating 6.03 million kWh/day of power. The results also show Asia's total global warming potential was 787,097.6 kt CO2eq/day, and 145,687.7 kt CO2eq/day was recorded in Africa. Besides, the total daily acidification potential of the incineration process in Asia was 7,078,904 kg SO2eq/day, while that in Africa was 1,308,362 kg SO2eq/day. This study will provide scientific guidance for environmental sustainability for treating single-use facemask waste via incineration technology for power generation.

11.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 1433323, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697599

ABSTRACT

We performed a database mining on 102 transcriptomic datasets for the expressions of 29 m6A-RNA methylation (epitranscriptomic) regulators (m6A-RMRs) in 41 diseases and cancers and made significant findings: (1) a few m6A-RMRs were upregulated; and most m6A-RMRs were downregulated in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, and trauma; (2) half of 29 m6A-RMRs were downregulated in atherosclerosis; (3) inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis modulated m6A-RMRs more than lupus and psoriasis; (4) some organ failures shared eight upregulated m6A-RMRs; end-stage renal failure (ESRF) downregulated 85% of m6A-RMRs; (5) Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections modulated m6A-RMRs the most among viral infections; (6) proinflammatory oxPAPC modulated m6A-RMRs more than DAMP stimulation including LPS and oxLDL; (7) upregulated m6A-RMRs were more than downregulated m6A-RMRs in cancer types; five types of cancers upregulated ≥10 m6A-RMRs; (8) proinflammatory M1 macrophages upregulated seven m6A-RMRs; (9) 86% of m6A-RMRs were differentially expressed in the six clusters of CD4+Foxp3+ immunosuppressive Treg, and 8 out of 12 Treg signatures regulated m6A-RMRs; (10) immune checkpoint receptors TIM3, TIGIT, PD-L2, and CTLA4 modulated m6A-RMRs, and inhibition of CD40 upregulated m6A-RMRs; (11) cytokines and interferons modulated m6A-RMRs; (12) NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways upregulated more than downregulated m6A-RMRs whereas TP53, PTEN, and APC did the opposite; (13) methionine-homocysteine-methyl cycle enzyme Mthfd1 downregulated more than upregulated m6A-RMRs; (14) m6A writer RBM15 and one m6A eraser FTO, H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1, and DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, regulated m6A-RMRs; and (15) 40 out of 165 ROS regulators were modulated by m6A eraser FTO and two m6A writers METTL3 and WTAP. Our findings shed new light on the functions of upregulated m6A-RMRs in 41 diseases and cancers, nine cellular and molecular mechanisms, novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory disorders, metabolic cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ failures, and cancers.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Methylation
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323568

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the peripheral area) in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 between the epicenter and peripheral areas of pandemic and thereby generate information that would be potentially helpful in formulating clinical practice recommendations to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Sichuan & Wuhan Collaboration Research Group for COVID-19 established two retrospective cohorts that separately reflect the epicenter and peripheral area during the early pandemic. The epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients in the two groups were compared. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with regard to the outcomes. Results: The Wuhan (epicenter) cohort included 710 randomly selected patients, and the peripheral (Sichuan) cohort included 474 consecutive patients. A higher proportion of patients from the periphery had upper airway symptoms, whereas a lower proportion of patients in the epicenter had lower airway symptoms and comorbidities. Patients in the epicenter had a higher risk of death (aOR=7.64), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR=1.66), delayed time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission (aOR=6.29 and aOR=8.03, respectively), and prolonged duration of viral shedding (aOR=1.64). Conclusions: The worse outcomes in the epicenter could be explained by the prolonged time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission. This could potentially have been associated with elevated systemic inflammation secondary to organ dysfunction and prolonged duration of virus shedding independent of age and comorbidities. Thus, early supportive care could achieve better clinical outcomes.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315338

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is currently prevalent worldwide. We analysed the occurrence of diarrhoea of these patients after treatment. All patients were treated with nebulised α-interferon and oral administration of Lopinavir/Ritonavir tablets. Of the 62 patients, 38 (61.3%) developed diarrhoea after treatment. Of these 38 cases, 63.2% (24/38 cases) had their first diarrhoea within 24 hours after medication. Only 13.2% (5/38 cases) had more than 5 bowel movements per day with a maximum of 10 per day. Patients with diarrhoea had lower white blood cell counts. Leukopenia was a risk factor for the development of diarrhoea. We conclude that COVID-19 patients had a relatively high rate of diarrhoea after treatment. Lopinavir/Ritonavir was speculated to contribute to diarrhea, which is a common adverse drug reaction to Lopinavir/Ritonavir. Patients with reduced white blood cell counts at admission may be more likely to develop diarrhoea after admission.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

15.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(1): 140-150, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In contrast to many Western countries, China has maintained its large psychiatric hospitals. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in inpatients with schizophrenia (SCZ) are unclear. AIM: To assess the prevalence of COVID-19 among inpatients with SCZ and compare the infected to uninfected SCZ patients in a Wuhan psychiatric hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively collected demographic characteristics and clinical profiles of all SCZ patients with COVID-19 at Wuhan's Youfu Hospital. RESULTS: Among the 504 SCZ patients, 84 had COVID-19, and we randomly sampled 174 who were uninfected as a comparison group. The overall prevalence of COVID-19 in SCZ patients was 16.7%. Among the 84 SCZ patients with confirmed COVID-19, the median age was 54 years and 76.2% were male. The most common symptom was fever (82%), and less common symptoms were cough (31%), poor appetite (20%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with SCZ patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 were older (P = 0.006) and significantly lighter (P = 0.002), and had more comorbid physical diseases (P = 0.001). Surprisingly, those infected were less likely to be smokers (< 0.001) or to be treated with clozapine (P = 0.03). Further logistic regression showed that smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 5.61], clozapine treated (OR = 2.95), and male (OR = 3.48) patients with relatively fewer comorbid physical diseases (OR = 0.098) were at a lower risk for COVID-19. SCZ patients with COVID-19 presented primarily with fever, but only one-third had a cough, which might otherwise be the most common mode of transmission between individuals. CONCLUSION: Two unexpected protective factors for COVID-19 among SCZ inpatients are smoking and clozapine treatment.

16.
Atmosphere ; 13(2):222, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1667035

ABSTRACT

Emissions and meteorology are significant factors affecting aerosol pollution, but it is not sufficient to understand their relative contributions to aerosol pollution changes. In this study, the observational data and the chemical model (GRAPES_CUACE) are combined to estimate the drivers of PM2.5 changes in various regions (the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (BTH), the Central China (CC), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD)) between the first month after COVID-19 (FMC_2020) (i.e., from 23 January to 23 February 2020) and the corresponding period in 2019 (FMC_2019). The results show that PM2.5 mass concentration increased by 26% (from 61 to 77 µg m−3) in the BTH, while it decreased by 26% (from 94 to 70 µg m−3) in the CC, 29% (from 52 to 37 µg m−3) in the YRD, and 32% (from 34 to 23 µg m−3) in the PRD in FMC_2020 comparing with FMC_2019, respectively. In the BTH, although emissions reductions partly improved PM2.5 pollution (−5%, i.e., PM2.5 mass concentration decreased by 5% due to emissions) in FMC_2020 compared with that of FMC_2019, the total increase in PM2.5 mass concentration was dominated by more unfavorable meteorological conditions (+31%, i.e., PM2.5 mass concentration increased by 31% due to meteorology). In the CC and the YRD, emissions reductions (−33 and −36%) played a dominating role in the total decrease in PM2.5 in FMC_2020, while the changed meteorological conditions partly worsened PM2.5 pollution (+7 and +7%). In the PRD, emissions reductions (−23%) and more favorable meteorological conditions (−9%) led to a total decrease in PM2.5 mass concentration. This study reminds us that the uncertainties of relative contributions of meteorological conditions and emissions on PM2.5 changes in various regions are large, which is conducive to policymaking scientifically in China.

17.
Scientific reports ; 12(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652367

ABSTRACT

As a novel technology to convert low-frequency energy into electric power, the triboelectric nanogenerator is a hot research topic recently. However, the nature of charge carriers and their transfer mechanisms still remain poorly understood, especially for the cases of liquid–solid triboelectric nanogenerator. In this paper, charges produced by a triboelectric charging process were designed to provide melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with high filtration efficiency by making full use of the electrostatic attraction filtration mechanism. Influences of water conductivity and drying temperature on the filtration efficiency of melt-blown nonwoven fabrics were investigated. And the corresponding properties such as the surface charge potential and charge stability were analyzed by using the electrostatic voltmeter, bio atomic force microscope and thermally stimulated discharge technique. In addition, metal and inorganic elements in the masterbatch and water before and after triboelectric charging were measured in order to uncover the charge transfer mechanism. Melt-blown nonwoven fabrics with filtration efficiency as high as 96.8% was obtained through the triboelectric charging treatment by using water with the conductivity as low as 1.1 μS/cm for the first time. Negative and positive surface charge density appeared randomly on both sides of melt-blown nonwoven fabrics after the triboelectric charging treatment from the bio atomic force microscope measurement while only one kind of surface charge density can be achieved in the research of TENG, that is, negative or positive. It seems there are both electron and ion transfers during the triboelectric charging process and electron transfer seems to have more important contribution for the generation of charges.

18.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649980

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has spread around the world and caused serious public health and social problems. Although several vaccines have been authorized for emergency use, new effective antiviral drugs are still needed. Some repurposed drugs including Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine and Remdesivir were immediately used to treat COVID-19 after the pandemic. However, the therapeutic effects of these drugs have not been fully demonstrated in clinical studies. In this paper, we found an antimalarial drug, Naphthoquine, showed good broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus activity. Naphthoquineinhibited HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, with IC50 = 2.05 ± 1.44 µM, 5.83 ± 0.74 µM, and 2.01 ± 0.38 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition assay was also performed to explore at which stage Naphthoquine functions during SARS-CoV-2 replication. The results suggested that Naphthoquine may influence virus entry and post-entry replication. Considering the safety of Naphthoquine was even better than that of Chloroquine, we think Naphthoquine has the potential to be used as a broad-spectrum drug for coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
1-Naphthylamine/analogs & derivatives , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 1-Naphthylamine/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus NL63, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648939

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Chinese female nurses during the controlled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period and explore its associated socio-demographic factors and job characteristics. Methods: With the multistage, stratified sampling method, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September to October 2020 in China. The survey tool included revised Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with 15 items, socio-demographic and job characteristics. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate factor logistic regression analysis were used to identify the risk factors for burnout of female nurses. Results: During controlled COVID-19 period in China, the overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses was 60.2% with a breakdown in severity as follows: 451 (39.8 %) mild, 163 (14.4%) moderate, and 68 (6.0%) severe burnout. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to job tenure (Waldχ 2 = 14.828, P < 0.05,odds ratio [OR] <1), monthly salary income (Waldχ 2 = 12.460, P < 0.05, OR <1), and night shift (Waldχ 2 = 3.821, P < 0.05, OR > 1). Conclusion: Burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses were prevalent and associated with job tenure, monthly salary income, and night shift. Female nurses who were with shorter job tenure, worked at night shifts, and had lower monthly salaries tended to exhibit increasing high-level burnout than their counterparts. This study serves as an implication for administrators and policy-makers to improve the work conditions of nurses for promoting overall healthcare service quality.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Chemosphere ; 293: 133631, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639538

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the corresponding lockdown measures have been confirmed to reduce the air pollution in major megacities worldwide. Especially at some monitoring hotspots, NO2 has been verified to show a significant decrease. However, the diffusion pattern of these hotspots in responding to COVID-19 is not clearly understood at present stage. Hence, we selected Beijing, a typical megacity with the strictest lockdown measures during COVID-19 period, as the studied city and attempted to discover the NO2 diffusion process through complex network method. The improved metrics derived from the topological structure of the network were adopted to describe the performance of diffusion. Primarily, we found evidences that COVID-19 had significant effects on the spatial diffusion distribution due to combined effect of changed human activities and meteorological conditions. Besides, to further quantify the impacts of disturbance caused by different lockdown measures, we discussed the evolutionary diffusion patterns from lockdown period to recovery period. The results displayed that the difference between normal operation and pandemic operation firstly increased at the cutoff of lockdown measures but then declined after the implement of recovery measures. The source areas had greater vulnerability and lower resilience than receptors areas. Furthermore, based on the conclusion that the diffusion pattern changed during different periods, we explored the key stations on the path of diffusion process to further gain information. These findings could provide references for comprehending spatiotemporal pattern on city scale, which might be help for high-resolution air pollution mapping and prediction.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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