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1.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022003, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780147

ABSTRACT

Many studies have shown that patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different degrees of liver injury. However, the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion into the liver are still not fully understood. This review mainly summarizes the recently published works on the abnormal liver biochemical indicators and the mechanism of viral invasion with liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Generally, SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver was caused by blood circulation or retrograde infection of the digestive tract, which led to the liver injury through direct cytopathic effect induced by virus or immunopathological effect caused by excessive inflammation. Besides these, hypoxia, endothelial injury and drug-induced jury were also the main reasons of liver injury in COVID-19 patients. In the liver function indicators, elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels with reduced albumin levels were observed in COVID-19 patients.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(5)2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742604

ABSTRACT

The axle box in the bogie system of subway trains is a key component connecting primary damper and the axle. In order to extract deep features and large-scale fault features for rapid diagnosis, a novel fault reconstruction characteristics classification method based on deep residual network with a multi-scale stacked receptive field for rolling bearings of a subway train axle box is proposed. Firstly, multi-layer stacked convolutional kernels and methods to insert them into ultra-deep residual networks are developed. Then, the original vibration signals of four fault characteristics acquired are reconstructed with a Gramian angular summation field and trainable large-scale 2D time-series images are obtained. In the end, the experimental results show that ResNet-152-MSRF has a low complexity of network structure, less trainable parameters than general convolutional neural networks, and no significant increase in network parameters and calculation time after embedding multi-layer stacked convolutional kernels. Moreover, there is a significant improvement in accuracy compared to lower depths, and a slight improvement in accuracy compared to networks than unembedded multi-layer stacked convolutional kernels.


Subject(s)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Neural Networks, Computer , Algorithms , Disease Progression , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329659

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) exhibit enhanced transmission and immune escape, reducing the efficacy and effectiveness of the two FDA-approved mRNA vaccines currently in use. Here, we explored various strategies to develop mRNA vaccines that offer potentially safer and wider coverage of VOCs. The initial mouse vaccination results showed that the individual VOC mRNAs carrying furin cleavage mutation induced the generation of neutralizing antibody in a VOC-specific manner. Moreover, we discovered that the antibodies produced from mice immunized with Beta-Furin and Washington (WA)-Furin mRNAs cross-reacted with other VOCs. The broad spectrum of generated nAb was further confirmed when vaccinated mice were challenged with the respective live viruses. However, neither WA-Furin nor Beta-Furin mRNA elicited potent neutralizing activity against the omicron variant. Interestingly, in a mix-and-match booster experiment, omicron-Furin and WA-Furin mRNA elicited comparable protection against omicron. Finally, we tested the concept of bivalent vaccine by introducing the RBD of Delta strain into the intact S antigen of Omicron. The chimeric mRNA induces potent and broadly acting nAb against Omicron and Delta, which paves the way to develop vaccine candidate to target emerging variants in the future.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325219

ABSTRACT

In the middle of March, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. While China experienced a dramatic decline in daily growth rate of COVID-19, multiple importations of new cases from other countries and their related local infections caused a rapid rise. Between March 12 and April 15, we collected nasopharyngeal samples from 109 imported cases from 25 countries and 69 local cases in Guangzhou, China. In order to characterize the transmission patterns and genetic evolution of this virus among different populations, we sequenced the genome of SARS-CoV-2. The imported viral strains were assigned to lineages distributed in Europe (33.0%), America (17.4%), Africa (25.7%), or Southeast/West Asia (23.9%). Importantly, 10 imported cases from Africa formed two novel sub-lineages not identified in global tree previously. A detailed analysis showed that the imported viral strains from Philippines and Pakistan were closely related and within the same sub-lineage, whereas Ethiopia had varied lineages in the African phylogenetic tree. In spite of the diversity of imported SARS-CoV-2, 60 of 69 local infections could be traced back to two specific small lineages imported from Africa. A combined genetic and epidemiological analysis revealed a high-resolution transmission network of the imported SARS-CoV-2 in local communities, which might help inform the public health response and genomic surveillance in other cities and regions. Finally, we observed in-frame deletions on seven loci of SARS-CoV-2 genome, some of which were intra-host mutations, and they exhibited no enrichment on the S protein. Our findings provide new insight into the viral phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 and beta coronavirus.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324125

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To understand the mental health status and needs of the health care workers during the epidemic period of COVID-19, so as to provide scientific basis for the targeted intervention measures. Methods A total of 511 health care workers were randomly selected from two designated tuberculosis medical institutions in Anhui province. Results There were 139 people in epidemic prevention and control positions (27.20%). Depression level: female was higher than male;nurse was higher than doctor;middle and junior job titles were higher than senior titles;junior college degree or below were higher than bachelor's degree, master's degree and above;isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly higher than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). Loneliness scores: doctors were higher than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were higher than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). Social support: doctors were lower than that of medical technicians, and isolation ward, fever clinic and pre-check triage were significantly lower than those of non-prevention and control positions ( P < 0.05). The score of social support was negatively correlated with depression and loneliness ( P < 0.001), while depression was positively correlated with loneliness ( P < 0.001). Health care workers most want to receive one-to-one psychological counseling (29.75%), and provide crisis management (24.07%). The awareness rate of health care workers on COVID-19's knowledge was relatively high. Conclusions The psychological problems of health care workers, especially women, nurses with low educational background, low professional title, and staff in the epidemic prevention and control positions are relatively serious. We should focus on this population, and take targeted intervention measures.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323621

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We aimed to describe the temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and to assess whether a hybrid model can forecast the trend of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. Method: The data of COVID-19 cases were obtained from the website of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, whereas the data on the resident population were obtained from the website of the Hubei Provincial Bureau of Statistics. The temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 were described. A combination of an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and a support vector machine (SVM) was constructed to forecast the trend of COVID-19. Results: : A total of 56,062 confirmed COVID-19 cases, which were mainly concentrated in Wuhan, were reported from 16 January to 16 March 2020 in Hubei Province. The daily number of confirmed cases exponentially increased to 3,156 before 4 February 2020, fluctuated on an upward trend to 4,823 before 13 February 2020, and then markedly decreased to one case after 16 March 2020. The highest mean reproduction number R(t) of 9.48 was recorded on 16 January 2020, after which it decreased to 2.15 on 2 February 2020 and further dropped to less than one on 13 February 2020. In the modelling stage, the mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of the hybrid ARIMA–SVM model decreased by 98.59%, 89.19% and 89.68%, and those of SVM decreased by 98.58%, 87.71% and 88.94% compared with the ARIMA model. Similar results were obtained in the forecasting stage. Conclusion: Public health interventions resulted in the terminal phase of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. The hybrid ARIMA–SVM model may be a reliable tool for forecasting the trend of the COVID-19 epidemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315379

ABSTRACT

Background: While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines under real-world conditions. Methods: Venous blood was collected from 126 adults, before and/or after inactivated COVID-19 vaccine inoculation. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) and S-receptor binding domain IgG in the serum were detected. The isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated by three pools of lyophilized peptides covering the spike, nucleocapsid, and membrane protein of SARS-CoV-2 for evaluating antigen-specific T cell responses against the virus. Findings: The seroconversion rate for S-RBD IgG and NAb after two doses of vaccination was 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85), respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein increased significantly after a single vaccination dose, and continued to increase after the second administration. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses became detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Interpretation: Both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR2100048837).Funding Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Science and Technology Major Project, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Medical Faculty of the University of Duisburg-Essen and Stiftung Universiätsmedizin, University Hospital Essen, Germany, and the Tongji-Rongcheng Center for Biomedicine, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The study protocol was approved by the local medical ethics committee of Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (2021-0570)

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314477

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing has historically been used to retard the spread of infectious diseases, but if it is exercised by hand in large-scale, it is known to be a resource-intensive and quite deficient process. Nowadays, digital contact tracing has promptly emerged as an indispensable asset in the global fight against the coronavirus pandemic. The work at hand offers a meticulous study of all the official Android contact tracing apps deployed hitherto by European countries. Each app is closely scrutinized both statically and dynamically by means of dynamic instrumentation. Depending on the level of examination, static analysis results are grouped in two axes. The first encompasses permissions, API calls, and possible connections to external URLs, while the second concentrates on potential security weaknesses and vulnerabilities, including the use of trackers, in-depth manifest analysis, shared software analysis, and taint analysis. Dynamic analysis on the other hand collects data pertaining to Java classes and network traffic. The results demonstrate that while overall these apps are well-engineered, they are not free of weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and misconfigurations that may ultimately put the user security and privacy at risk.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311955

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, acute respiratory disease (ARD) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) rapidly spread throughout China. Children and adults seemed to differ in the clinical course of the disease. The purpose of the current study is to comparatively analyze the clinical characteristics of children and adult patients with 2019-nCoV infection and to explore the possible causes for the discrepant aspects. Methods: : In this retrospective study, the medical records of 32 cases confirmed with 2019-nCoV ARD from Xi'an eighth hospital (Shaanxi, China) from January 31 to February 16, 2020 were reviewed. Results: : In all 32 patients contained 7 children and 25 adults. All children were family cluster. For adult patients, local residents of Wuhan, recently travelled to Wuhan, patient contacted with people from Wuhan were 14 (56%), 10 (40%), 1 (4%), respectively. The median incubation period of children and adult was 5 days (range, 3 to 12) and 4 days (range, 2 to 12), respectively. Altogether 10 (40%) adult patients had underlying conditions significantly, but no children had. Fever (Children 71.4% vs. Adult 96%) and cough (Children 71.4% vs. Adult 76%) were the most common symptoms in both groups. The third symptom observed in children was diarrhea and/or vomiting (57.1%), for adult it was myalgia or fatigue (52%). On admission, 5 (71.4%) children patients showed pneumonia roughly the same as adult patients (20, 80%), and that the two group shared a multitude of common imaging characteristics. 20% of adult with leucopoenia, but leukocytosis was significantly more frequently in children (28.6%, P=0.014). More children had elevated creatine kinase isoenzyme (57.1% vs. 4%, P=0.004). All patients were discharged after symptomatic treatment, including oxygen therapy, antiviral treatment, antibiotic treatment. Only one infant was intravenously injected low-dose glucocorticoids. Conclusions: : Our results multi-dimensionally demonstrate that children with 2019-nCoV infection present a clinical picture which is often distinct from that of adults. Knowledge of these differences will be helpful for the clinical diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) and for a future discussion on age specific infection case definitions.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308148

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the psychological effects of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on medical staff and the general public. Methods: : During the outbreak of COVID-19, an internet-based questionnaire included The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to assess the impact of the epidemic situation on the mental health of medical staff and general population in Wuhan and its surrounding areas. Results: : The results suggest that the outbreak of COVID-19 has affected individuals significantly, the degree of which is related to age, sex, occupation and mental illness. There was a significant difference in PSS-10 and IES-R scores between the medical staff and the general population. The medical staff showed higher PSS-10 scores (16.813 ± 4.87) and IES-R scores (22.40 ± 12.12) compared to members of the general population PSS-10 (14.80 ± 5.60) and IES-R scores (17.89 ± 13.08). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the SDS scores of medical staff (44.52 ± 12.36) and the general public (43.08 ± 11.42). In terms of the need for psychological assistance, 50.97% of interviewees responded that they needed psychological counseling, of which medical staff accounted for 65.87% and non-medical staff accounted for 45.10%. Conclusion: During the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, great attention should be paid to the mental health of the population, especially medical staff, and measures such as psychological intervention should be actively carried out for reducing the psychosocial effects.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307712

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a cluster of cases of acute respiratory illness, novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia, occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Health care workers exposure to a high density of patients are at extremely high risk of becoming infected at the early outbreak of this disease for not realizing the fact of human-to-human transmission among close contacts at that time. The false-negative nasopharyngeal swabs of SARS-CoV-2 caused the delayed diagnosis of COVID-19. The nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in negative nasopharyngeal swabs cases were not reported previously. We wish to alert the potential transmission risk in COVID-19 patients with negative swab tests to the clinicians and stress the role of serological detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2.MethodsThis study evaluated a total of 6 cases and four of them were health care providers who worked in the same ward. All epidemiological and clinical information was collected. Respiratory samples of the patients were tested for influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) RNA The reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was conducted and serological detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG/IgM is performed by chemiluminescence immunoassay kit.ResultsWe reported two related clusters of COVID-19 cases. The first cluster is a nosocomial infection of four health care providers at early January in one ward of university hospital. One of them made sequential familial cluster of infection. For total six cases, four of them (66.7%) showed negative RNA of SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swabs. All patients received either self-quarantined at home or were admitted to hospital for isolated treatment. All recovered and had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM positive (100%) for serological detection of SARS-CoV-2 at recovery stage.ConclusionsOur study provides a cautionary warning that negative results of nasopharyngeal swabs of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection can increase the risk of nosocomial infection among health care providers. Serologic detection for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM is an important test in the assistant diagnosis of COVID-19.

12.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 812479, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686515

ABSTRACT

The neuroprotective effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been well studied; growing evidence suggests that changes in lipid composition may be involved in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may be a target for treatment. However, the influence of early EA intervention on brain lipid composition in patients with PTSD has never been investigated. Using a modified single prolonged stress (mSPS) model in mice, we assessed the anti-PTSD-like effects of early intervention using EA and evaluated changes in lipid composition in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) using a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach. mSPS induced changes in lipid composition in the hippocampus, notably in the content of sphingolipids, glycerolipids, and fatty acyls. These lipid changes were more robust than those observed in the PFC. Early intervention with EA after mSPS ameliorated PTSD-like behaviors and partly normalized mSPS-induced lipid changes, notably in the hippocampus. Cumulatively, our data suggest that EA may reverse mSPS-induced PTSD-like behaviors due to region-specific regulation of the brain lipidome, providing new insights into the therapeutic mechanism of EA.

13.
Energies ; 15(3):1061, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686670

ABSTRACT

We review the latest modeling techniques and propose new hybrid SAELSTM framework based on Deep Learning (DL) to construct prediction intervals for daily Global Solar Radiation (GSR) using the Manta Ray Foraging Optimization (MRFO) feature selection to select model parameters. Features are employed as potential inputs for Long Short-Term Memory and a seq2seq SAELSTM autoencoder Deep Learning (DL) system in the final GSR prediction. Six solar energy farms in Queensland, Australia are considered to evaluate the method with predictors from Global Climate Models and ground-based observation. Comparisons are carried out among DL models (i.e., Deep Neural Network) and conventional Machine Learning algorithms (i.e., Gradient Boosting Regression, Random Forest Regression, Extremely Randomized Trees, and Adaptive Boosting Regression). The hyperparameters are deduced with grid search, and simulations demonstrate that the DL hybrid SAELSTM model is accurate compared with the other models as well as the persistence methods. The SAELSTM model obtains quality solar energy prediction intervals with high coverage probability and low interval errors. The review and new modelling results utilising an autoencoder deep learning method show that our approach is acceptable to predict solar radiation, and therefore is useful in solar energy monitoring systems to capture the stochastic variations in solar power generation due to cloud cover, aerosols, ozone changes, and other atmospheric attenuation factors.

14.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 849-857, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674134

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of the complement system in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum complement C3 levels, clinical worsening, and risk of death in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: Data were collected from 216 adults with COVID-19 admitted to a designated clinical center in Wuhan Union Hospital (China) between February 13, 2020, and February 29, 2020. Their complement C3 levels were measured within 24 h of admission. The primary outcome was a clinical worsening of 2 points on a 6-point ordinal scale. The secondary outcome was all-causes of death. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis was conducted to adjust for the baseline confounders. Results: The median value of C3 was 0.89 (interquartile range, 0.78-1.01) g/L. Clinical worsening occurred in 12.3% (7/57) and 2.5% (4/159) of patients with baseline C3 levels < and ≥0.79 g/L, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 5.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-17.86). After IPTW adjustment, the risk for clinical worsening was 4-fold greater (weighted HR, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.16-18.4) in patients with C3 levels less than 0.79 g/L comparatively. The sensitivity analyses revealed the robustness of the results. No significant associations between C3 levels and death were observed on unadjusted (HR, 2.92; 95% CI, 0.73-11.69) and IPTW analyses (weighted HR, 3.78; 95% CI, 0.84-17.04). Conclusion: Low complement C3 levels are associated with a higher risk for clinical worsening among inpatients with COVID-19. The serum C3 levels may contribute to the identification of patient populations that could benefit from therapeutic complement inhibition.

15.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262052, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643253

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has a catastrophic impact on global well-being and public health. More than 27 million confirmed cases have been reported worldwide until now. Due to the growing number of confirmed cases, and challenges to the variations of the COVID-19, timely and accurate classification of healthy and infected patients is essential to control and treat COVID-19. We aim to develop a deep learning-based system for the persuasive classification and reliable detection of COVID-19 using chest radiography. Firstly, we evaluate the performance of various state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks (CNNs) proposed over recent years for medical image classification. Secondly, we develop and train CNN from scratch. In both cases, we use a public X-Ray dataset for training and validation purposes. For transfer learning, we obtain 100% accuracy for binary classification (i.e., Normal/COVID-19) and 87.50% accuracy for tertiary classification (Normal/COVID-19/Pneumonia). With the CNN trained from scratch, we achieve 93.75% accuracy for tertiary classification. In the case of transfer learning, the classification accuracy drops with the increased number of classes. The results are demonstrated by comprehensive receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and confusion metric analysis with 10-fold cross-validation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Databases, Factual , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Bacterial/pathology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , ROC Curve , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
Gut ; 71(2): 238-253, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.


Subject(s)
Family Health , Helicobacter Infections/prevention & control , Helicobacter pylori , Infection Control/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis , Helicobacter Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult
17.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602189

ABSTRACT

While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in 126 individuals under real-world conditions. After two doses of vaccination, S-receptor binding domain IgG (S-RBD IgG) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were detected in 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85) of individuals, respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein were significantly higher in individuals received two doses of vaccine than those received one dose of vaccine and unvaccinated individuals. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Overall, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in real-world settings, suggesting that both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.

19.
Open Med (Wars) ; 16(1): 1403-1414, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456126

ABSTRACT

There is no specific drug for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the possible clinical efficacy of moderate-dose vitamin C infusion among inpatients with severe COVID-19. Data of 397 adult patients with severe COVID-19 admitted to a designated clinical center of Wuhan Union Hospital (China) between February 13 and February 29, 2020, were collected. Besides standard therapies, patients were treated with vitamin C (2-4 g/day) or not. The primary outcome was all-cause death. Secondary outcome was clinical improvement of 2 points on a 6-point ordinal scale. About 70 participants were treated with intravenous vitamin C, and 327 did not receive it. No significant association was found between vitamin C use and death on inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis (weighted hazard ratio [HR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-7.89). Clinical improvement occurred in 74.3% (52/70) of patients in the vitamin C group and 95.1% (311/327) in the no vitamin C group. No significant difference was observed between the two groups on IPTW analysis (weighted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.55-1.07). Our findings revealed that in patients with severe COVID-19, treatment with moderate dose of intravenous vitamin C had no significant benefit on reducing the risk of death and obtaining clinical improvement.

20.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452921

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/growth & development , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Proteolysis , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
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