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1.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877138

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have shown that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) aggravates anxiety in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), but it is still unclear how long this adverse effect will last. This study aims to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the elevated anxiety symptoms of MHD patients 1 year after the outbreak. Assessment of elevated anxiety symptoms was performed on patients with MHD during early COVID-19 (February 17-February 29, 2020) and 1-year follow-up (March 1-March 13, 2021), and a total of 100 patients had completed face-to-face questionnaires at the first and 1-year follow-up. At the beginning of the outbreak, 40% of the patients with MHD had anxiety symptoms [self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) score ≥ 50], and 11% (SAS score: 60–69) and 2% (SAS score ≥ 70) of the patients had moderate and severe anxiety symptoms, respectively. Multivariate analysis shows that possibility of unaccompanied transfer, possibility of family members or themselves being infected in a hospital, added body temperature monitoring during dialysis, and increased medical procedures are the risk factors in elevated anxiety symptoms during early COVID-19. At the 1-year follow-up, the incidence of anxiety symptoms in the same group of patients declined to 28%, and all the patients had mild anxiety symptoms (SAS score: 50–59), which is significantly lower than that of the early COVID-19 pandemic with statistically significant difference (p = 0.003). Increased protective measures taken by the medical staves were the only risk factor in elevated anxiety symptoms during the 1-year follow-up. This study shows that COVID-19 has a direct impact on the deterioration of anxiety symptoms in patients with MHD. With the changes of the requirements for COVID-19 prevention and control, as well as the enhancement of propaganda and education of the pandemic and psychological care, the severity and risk factors of anxiety symptoms in the patients with MHD are changing. Thus, targeted interventions are suggested to improve the psychological endurance of the patients with MHD.

2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837670

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds Hepcidin has been identified as a systemic iron-regulatory hormone. Recent studies have suggested that iron metabolism disorders may be involved in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objectives To re-evaluate the hepcidin-related iron metabolism parameters and explore the relationship between hepcidin-mediated iron dysmetabolism and COVID-19 severity. Methods COVID-19 is classified as mild and moderate as non-severe, severe and critical as severe. A meta-analysis was conducted. Four bibliographic databases were comprehensively searched up to December 31st 2021. Results Six unique studies with data from 477 COVID-19 patients were included. Compared to non-severe cases, severe cases had higher hepcidin (standardized mean difference (SMD), −0.39;95% Confidence Interval (CI) [−0.76, −0.03];P = 0.03) and ferritin (SMD, −0.84;95% CI [−1.30, −0.38];P = 0.0004). In five out of six studies, a total of 427 patients were tested for serum iron, and there were significant differences in their levels between severe and non-severe cases (SMD, 0.22;95% CI [0.02, 0.41];P = 0.03). A total of 320 patients from four out of six studies were tested for transferrin saturation, and the statistical difference was not significant (SMD, 0.06;95% CI [−0.17, 0.28];P = 0.64). Conclusion Severe COVID-19 cases had higher serum levels of hepcidin and ferritin, and lower serum iron, without significant differences in transferrin saturation. Further studies are needed to verify whether targeting the hepcidin-mediated iron metabolism axis may influence the outcome and treatment of COVID-19.

3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 791267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834396

ABSTRACT

Host cholesterol metabolism remodeling is significantly associated with the spread of human pathogenic coronaviruses, suggesting virus-host relationships could be affected by cholesterol-modifying drugs. Cholesterol has an important role in coronavirus entry, membrane fusion, and pathological syncytia formation, therefore cholesterol metabolic mechanisms may be promising drug targets for coronavirus infections. Moreover, cholesterol and its metabolizing enzymes or corresponding natural products exert antiviral effects which are closely associated with individual viral steps during coronavirus replication. Furthermore, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with clinically significant low cholesterol levels, suggesting cholesterol could function as a potential marker for monitoring viral infection status. Therefore, weaponizing cholesterol dysregulation against viral infection could be an effective antiviral strategy. In this review, we comprehensively review the literature to clarify how coronaviruses exploit host cholesterol metabolism to accommodate viral replication requirements and interfere with host immune responses. We also focus on targeting cholesterol homeostasis to interfere with critical steps during coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Virus Replication
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334353

ABSTRACT

Background: This study explores how the services provided by different types of Chinese communities varied in their impact on the social involvement of their residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous research has shown that services in traditional Chinese communities have supported pandemic governance because of their human resource advantages. However, we argue that the services provided by intelligent communities not only adhered to COVID-19 pandemic governance but also promoted the social involvement of the residents. Methods: : Using a case study approach of the intelligent community Fang Xing and the traditional community Qili Tang, both located in Hefei city in Anhui, China, this article compares traditional and intelligent Chinese community services. We conducted 42 in-person interviews (21 residents, 10 volunteers, 11 staff members), 30 telephone interviews (10 residents, 10 volunteers, 10 staff members), and 50 online video interviews (30 residents, 10 volunteers, 10 staff members) from June to August 2020. Results: : The findings suggest that while the traditional community decreased its residents’ social involvement by restricting certain services during the pandemic, the intelligent community was able to apply COVID-19 governance measures without restricting its residents’ social involvement. In the traditional community, family members were obliged to take responsibility for daily living services and family care tasks. This community often responded slowly when providing required services compared to intelligent communities. The intelligent community contributed greatly to its residents’ social involvement in the process of pandemic governance. It offered an attractive option for residents to act as community service managers and prepared its residents for local-level pandemic governance. Conclusions: : This study provides a better understanding of the relationship between community services and residents’ social involvement in terms of the different dimensions of community services. The intelligent community model can act as a reference for international community development during health emergencies.

5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1366: 87-100, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782742

ABSTRACT

The continued HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide and the battle against emerging infectious diseases caused by coronaviruses underscore the need for the development of an ever-expanding repertoire of antiviral drugs. Entry inhibitors are of particular interest because of their potential to be used as therapeutic or prophylactic treatments for blocking viral invasion. HIV and coronaviruses utilize class I fusion proteins to facilitate their entry and membrane fusion. Discovery of a common hexameric coiled-coil fusion complex resulting from the packing of three C-terminal heptad repeat region from the fusion-mediating subunit of viral fusion proteins against trimeric coiled-coil made up by their N-terminal heptad repeat prompted the search for peptides mimicking the heptad repeat regions that could potentially inhibit viral entry. This has led to the development of effective peptides that are specific to the virus that is developed for. In this review, we focus on peptide-based entry dual inhibitors that block fusion process not only of HIV but also coronaviruses through interrupting their fusogenic six-helical bundle core and which hopefully will help to gain insight into the α-helical secondary structure- and coiled-coil superstructure-based strategies to design entry inhibitors with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses with class I fusion proteins.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , HIV Fusion Inhibitors , HIV Infections , Peptides , Amino Acid Sequence , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/metabolism , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/pharmacology , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Peptides/pharmacology , Protein Structure, Secondary
6.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 35(2): 229-236, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731438

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The negative effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on sleep quality of clinically stable psychiatric patients is unknown. This study examined the prevalence of sleep disturbances and their association with quality of life (QOL) in clinically stable older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This multicenter, cross-sectional study involved older patients attending maintenance treatment at outpatient departments of four major psychiatric hospitals in China. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected. Sleep disturbances, depressive symptoms, and QOL were assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, and 2 items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent associations of socio-demographic and clinical variables with sleep disturbances, while the association between sleep disturbances and QOL was explored with analysis of covariance. RESULTS: A total of 941 patients were recruited. The prevalence of sleep disturbances was 57.1% (95% CI: 53.9-60.2%). Analysis of covariance revealed that QOL was significantly lower in patients with sleep disturbances compared to those without. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that sleep disturbances were positively and independently associated with more severe depressive symptoms (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.26-1.37). Compared to patients with major depressive disorder, those with other psychiatric diagnoses had a significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00-2.08). CONCLUSION: Sleep disturbances were common among clinically stable older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the negative association with QOL, this subpopulation needs regular assessment and timely treatment to reduce their sleep disturbances and improve their QOL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
7.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 35(2): 196-205, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731434

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has profound negative effects on the mental health of clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders. This study examined the influential nodes of psychiatric problems and their associations in this population using network analysis. METHODS: Clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders were consecutively recruited from four major psychiatric hospitals in China from May 22 to July 15, 2020. Depressive and anxiety syndromes (depression and anxiety hereafter), insomnia, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), pain, and fatigue were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire, General Anxiety Disorder, Insomnia Severity Index, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version, and Numeric Rating Scales for pain and fatigue, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1063 participants were included. The network analysis revealed that depression was the most influential node followed by anxiety as indicated by the centrality index of strength. In contrast, the edge connecting depression and anxiety was the strongest edge, followed by the edge connecting depression and insomnia, and the edge connecting depression and fatigue as indicated by edge-weights. The network structure was invariant by gender based on the network structure invariance test (M = .14, P = .20) and global strength invariance tests (S = .08, P = .30). CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to depression and its associations with anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue in the screening and treatment of mental health problems in clinically stable older psychiatric patients affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Pain , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
8.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol ; 35(2): 237-244, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731432

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The pattern of suicidality in older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic is not clear. This study examined the prevalence of suicidality and its association with quality of life (QOL) among older clinically stable patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted from May 22 to July 15, 2020, among four major tertiary psychiatric hospitals in China. Suicidality was assessed by asking 3 standardized questions. Depressive symptoms, pain, and QOL were assessed with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-brief version, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1063 clinically stable patients participated and completed the assessment. The prevalence of suicidality was 11.8% (95% CI: 9.9%-13.7%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that poor treatment adherence (P = .009, OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.17-2.96) and perceived illness worsening during the COVID-19 outbreak (P = .02, OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.15-3.73), being diagnosed with major depressive disorder (P < .001, OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.68-4.64), PHQ-9 total score (P < .001, OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.15-1.24) and NPRS total score (P = .002, OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06-1.29) were associated with higher risk of suicidality. After controlling for covariates, older psychiatric patients with suicidality had lower QOL compared to those without (F(1, 1063) =16.5, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality was common in older patients with clinically stable psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Considering its negative impact on QOL and personal suffering, routine screening and preventive suicide measures should be implemented for older psychiatric patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Suicide , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/psychology
9.
Cell Rep ; 38(10): 110476, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729612

ABSTRACT

Targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins toward specific cells and across cell membranes remains major challenges. Here, we develop protein-based delivery systems utilizing detoxified single-chain bacterial toxins such as diphtheria toxin (DT) and botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-like toxin, BoNT/X, as carriers. The system can deliver large protein cargoes including Cas13a, CasRx, Cas9, and Cre recombinase into cells in a receptor-dependent manner, although delivery of ribonucleoproteins containing guide RNAs is not successful. Delivery of Cas13a and CasRx, together with guide RNA expression, reduces mRNAs encoding GFP, SARS-CoV-2 fragments, and endogenous proteins PPIB, KRAS, and CXCR4 in multiple cell lines. Delivery of Cre recombinase modifies the reporter loci in cells. Delivery of Cas9, together with guide RNA expression, generates mutations at the targeted genomic sites in cell lines and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human neurons. These findings establish modular delivery systems based on single-chain bacterial toxins for delivery of membrane-impermeable therapeutics into targeted cells.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Toxins , COVID-19 , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing , Humans , RNA, Guide/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318901

ABSTRACT

Background: To identify the early predictors of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with hypertension,explore antihypertensive drugs with potential therapeutic effects, and provide a basis for clinical prediction and treatment decisions. Method: A retrospective study was performed on all included cases. Results A total of 68 COVID-19 patients with hypertension were included,27 (39.7%) was severe and 41 (60.3%) was non-severe. Between the non-severe group (n = 41) and the severe group (n = 27),number of elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and abnormal renal function,and albumin,lactate dehydrogenase,ultrasensitive troponin I,PH Value,arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure,sodium,osmotic pressure (OP),blood sugar (BS) and oxygenation index (OI) are significantly different.While age, male gender,comorbidities with diabetes or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease,smoking history,number of abnormal liver function,heart rate,respiratory rate, blood pressure,white blood cell count,hematocrit,potassium and lactic acid are statistically insignificant.Four independent predictors of BNP (P = .026),OP (P = .004),BS (P = .017) and OI (P = .001) are obtained through multivariate binary logistic regression model.The area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of model is 0.904 ([95%CI] [0.832–0.976];P = .000),with excellent performance.Compared with blank control group (n = 27) and other antihypertensive drugs group (n = 20),OP ([287.3 ± 5.7] vs [283.5 ± 6.1];P = .045) ([287.3 ± 5.7] vs [281.9 ± 5.4];P = .007) in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) inhibitors group (n = 21) have increased significantly.Compared with controlled blood pressure group (n = 30),OP ([285.7 ± 6.2] vs [282.2 ± 5.2];P = .012) of uncontrolled group (n = 38) increased significantly. Conclusion Decreased OP and OI, increased BNP and BS are early predictors for severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension.For poorly controlled blood pressure,targeting RAS and OP,early use of RAS inhibitors or combination with loop diuretics may be an effective treatment.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325514

ABSTRACT

Background: The pattern of fatigue in older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak was unknown. This study examined the prevalence of fatigue and its association with overall quality of life (overall QOL) in clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: : This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Fatigue, depressive symptoms, pain, insomnia symptoms, and overall QOL were assessed with standardized instruments. Results: : A total of 1,063 patients were recruited. The prevalence of fatigue was 47.1% (95%CI: 44.1% - 50.1%). An analysis of covariance revealed that overall QOL was significantly lower in patients with fatigue compared to those without (P=0.011). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that more severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.15, P<0.001), insomnia symptoms (OR=1.08, P<0.001) and pain (OR=1.43, P<0.001) were significantly associated with fatigue. Conclusions: : Fatigue is common among clinically stable older patients with psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 outbreak. Considering its negative impact on overall QOL, regular assessment of fatigue and appropriate treatment warrant attention in this subpopulation.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323583

ABSTRACT

Background: With the increasing spread of COVID-19, healthcare workers, especially front-line medical staff, have become more vulnerable to emotional exhaustion. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the influence of time pressure on the emotional exhaustion of front-line healthcare workers, and explore the effects of social sharing and cognitive reappraisal on this. Methods: : This cross-sectional study was conducted in March 2020. A total of 232 questionnaires were completed by front-line healthcare workers in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Hierarchical linear regression and conditional process analysis were performed to explore the relationships among time pressure, social sharing, cognitive reappraisal, and emotional exhaustion. Results: : Time pressure was positively associated with social sharing and emotional exhaustion. Social sharing presented a dark side in terms of the impact on emotional exhaustion. Cognitive reappraisal negatively moderated the relationship between time pressure and social sharing, and it further indirectly influenced the relationship between time pressure and emotional exhaustion through social sharing. Conclusions: : Our findings shed light on how time pressure influences the emotional exhaustion of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 period. Although social sharing is commonly regarded as a positive behavior, we identified a dark side in terms of its impact. We also identified that improving cognitive reappraisal may present a positive strategy toward alleviating emotional exhaustion.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686727

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the compliance rates of health-related behaviors among Chinese preschool children, and to explore how supportive family environment, parental behavior, sociodemographic and community factors affect children's health-related behavior comprehensively. METHOD: Preschool children aged 3 to 6 years were chosen from 5760 villages (residential) committees from 471 counties (districts) of 31 provinces by use of a stratified random sampling procedure, with 10,967 preschool children aged 3-6 years old included. The survey was conducted from September 2020 to November 2020. RESULTS: The proportion of Chinese preschool children who met the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), screen time behavior (ST), and sleep behavior (SLP) guidelines were 62.3%, 52.8%, and 53.8%. Among the supportive family environment factors, parents' time with their children on weekends had the most significant impact on children's MVPA, ST, and SLP, with the odds ratio (OR) values of 2.18 (95%CI:1.97, 2.40), 0.69 (0.63, 0.76), and 1.62 (1.48, 1.79), respectively. Among the parental behavior factors, the mother's exercise frequency had a strong association with the children's MVPA and SLP, with OR values of 1.65 (1.50, 1.83) and 1.24 (1.13, 1.37), respectively; the mother's screen time was inversely associated with the children's ST with an OR value of 0.47 (0.44, 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Different types of family environments were associated with the different levels of MVPA, ST and SLP among Chinese preschool children. In addition to the influence of parents' education and family income, parents could also improve their children's behaviors by providing a supportive family environment. The more of these factors presented in a family, the more likely it was for children to meet the guidelines. Therefore, for those families whose children's health-related behaviors needed to be improved, the parents should create supportive family environments, such as by playing less on mobile phone and spending more time with children.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Health Behavior , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Screen Time , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 31(21):3699-3702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1628297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine treatment of three severe crona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of three severe COVID-19 confirmed patients were retrospectively analyzed.On the basis of conventional western medical treatment, intradermal embedding treatment was used for the Kongzu, Dazhui, and Feishu points. Lung CT reports of patients before and after treatment were compared, including the percentage of neutrophil, lymphocyte, hypersensitive C-reactive protein, oxygen index and other indicators. RESULTS: The three severe COVID-19 patients were discharged from hospital after treatment with significant relief of symptoms. Lung CT re-examination showed absorption of lesions and normal inflammatory indicators, and nucleic acid reexamination was negative. CONCLUSION: At present, elderly patients with severe COVID-19 have complicated conditions and high mortality. As an auxiliary means, intradermal acupuncture combined with western medicine therapy is simple, safe and effective in the treatment of severe COVID-19, which is a new exploration for the treatment of complicated COVID-19 conditions.

15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 3705-3708, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566210

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. The segmentation of COVID-19 pneumonia lesions from CT images is important in quantitative evaluation and assessment of the infection. Though many deep learning segmentation methods have been proposed, the performance is limited when pixel-level annotations are hard to obtain. In order to alleviate the performance limitation brought by the lack of pixel-level annotation in COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation task, we construct a denoising self-supervised framework, which is composed of a pretext denoising task and a downstream segmentation task. Through the pretext denoising task, the semantic features from massive unlabelled data are learned in an unsupervised manner, so as to provide additional supervisory signal for the downstream segmentation task. Experimental results showed that our method can effectively leverage unlabelled images to improve the segmentation performance, and outperformed reconstruction-based self-supervised learning when only a small set of training images are annotated.Clinical relevance-The proposed method can effectively leverage unlabelled images to improve the performance for COVID-19 pneumonia lesion segmentation when only a small set of CT images are annotated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-2, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537240
17.
Aging Dis ; 12(7): 1545-1553, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456556

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which leads to the disruption of immune system, exacerbated inflammation, and even multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are an important subpopulation of T cells that exert immunosuppressive effects. Recent studies have demonstrated that the number of Tregs is significantly reduced in COVID-19 patients, and this reduction may affect COVID-19 patients on several aspects, such as weakening the effect of inflammatory inhibition, causing an imbalance in Treg/Th17 ratio, and increasing the risk of respiratory failure. Treg-targeted therapy may alleviate the symptoms and retard disease progression in COVID-19 patients. This study highlights the recent findings on the involvement of Tregs in the regulation of immune responses to COVID-19, and we hope to provide novel perspectives on the alternative immunotherapeutic strategies for this disease that is currently prevalent worldwide.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456304

ABSTRACT

Background: Lack of quantification of direct and indirect exposure of ophthalmologists during ophthalmic diagnostic process makes it hard to estimate the infectious risk of aerosol pathogen faced by ophthalmologists at working environment. Methods: Accurate numerical models of thermal manikins and computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to investigate direct (droplet inhalation and mucosal deposition) and indirect exposure (droplets on working equipment) within a half-minute procedure. Three ophthalmic examination or treatment scenarios (direct ophthalmoscopic examination, slit-lamp microscopic examination, and ophthalmic operation) were selected as typical exposure distance, two breathing modes (normal breathing and coughing), three levels of ambient RH (40, 70, and 95%) and three initial droplet sizes (50, 70, and 100 µm) were considered as common working environmental condition. Results: The exposure of an ophthalmologist to a patient's expiratory droplets during a direct ophthalmoscopic examination was found to be 95 times that of a person during normal interpersonal interaction at a distance of 1 m and 12.1, 8.8, and 9.7 times that of an ophthalmologist during a slit-lamp microscopic examination, a surgeon during an ophthalmic operation and an assistant during an ophthalmic operation, respectively. The ophthalmologist's direct exposure to droplets when the patient cough-exhaled was ~7.6 times that when the patient breath-exhaled. Compared with high indoor RH, direct droplet exposure was higher and indirect droplet exposure was lower when the indoor RH was 40%. Conclusion: During the course of performing ophthalmic examinations or treatment, ophthalmologists typically face a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by droplet transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmologists , Computer Simulation , Exhalation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0090821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452921

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, and, as of yet, none of the currently available broad-spectrum drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. Host antiviral proteins play an important role in inhibiting viral proliferation. One of the isoforms of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), PABPC4, is an RNA-processing protein, which plays an important role in promoting gene expression by enhancing translation and mRNA stability. However, its function in viruses remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the host protein, PABPC4, could be regulated by transcription factor SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs, covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. PABPC4 recruited the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH8/MARCHF8 to the N protein for ubiquitination. Ubiquitinated N protein was recognized by the cargo receptor NDP52/CALCOCO2, which delivered it to the autolysosomes for degradation, resulting in impaired viral proliferation. In addition to regulating gene expression, these data demonstrate a novel antiviral function of PABPC4, which broadly suppresses CoVs by degrading the N protein via the selective autophagy pathway. This study will shed light on the development of broad anticoronaviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause severe diseases in humans and animals, but none of the currently available drugs or vaccines can effectively control these diseases. During viral infection, the host will activate the interferon (IFN) signaling pathways and host restriction factors in maintaining the innate antiviral responses and suppressing viral replication. This study demonstrated that the host protein, PABPC4, interacts with the nucleocapsid (N) proteins from eight CoVs covering four genera (Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus) of the Coronaviridae family. PABPC4 could be regulated by SP1 and broadly inhibits the replication of CoVs by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) protein through the autophagosomes for degradation. This study significantly increases our understanding of the novel host restriction factor PABPC4 against CoV replication and will help develop novel antiviral strategies.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Blood Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus/growth & development , Poly(A)-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Murine hepatitis virus/growth & development , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/growth & development , Proteolysis , Sp1 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Swine , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Vero Cells
20.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e48, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442679

ABSTRACT

AIM: Based on the development of telemedicine and the experience of using it during the COVID-19 epidemic, we aimed to explore its convenience and shortcomings to provide a reference for the further improvement of telemedicine. BACKGROUND: Traditional healthcare has been significantly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19, which has increased fear in patients with chronic diseases and increased the difficulty of obtaining hospitalized treatment. METHODS: This is a conceptual article. The literature search is based on Pubmed, including articles published between January 2015 and December 2020. The purpose was to determine whether telemedicine is effective in the management of chronic diseases in the epidemic situation and to develop telemedicine and chronic disease management for long-term epidemic situations in the future. FINDINGS: Telemedicine has demonstrated its advantages during the COVID-19 epidemic and can provide diversified clinical care services for patients with chronic diseases; these services have played a vital role in epidemic prevention and control, greatly alleviated the shortage of medical resources, increased the utilization level of medical resources, and reduced the cross-infection risk during treatment in hospitals. Furthermore, the epidemic situation presents opportunities for the development of diagnosis and treatment methods via the internet and active health management modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Telemedicine , Chronic Disease , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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