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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335424

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this paper is to study how the Delta variant spread in a China city, and to what extent the non-pharmaceutical prevention measures of local government be effective by reviewing the contact network of COVID-19 cases in Xi’an, China. Methods: : We organize the case reports of Shaanxi Health Commission into a database by text coding and convert them into structured network data. Then we construct a dynamic contact network for the corresponding analysis and calculate network indicators. we analyze the cases’ dynamic contact network structure and intervals between diagnosis time and isolation time by using data visualization, social network analysis method, and OLS regressions. Results: : The contact network for this outbreak in Xi'an is very sparse, with a density of less than 0.0001. The contact network is a scale-free network. The average degree centrality is 0.741 and the average PageRank score is 0.0005. The network generated from a single source of infection contains 1,371 components. We construct three variables of intervals and analyze the trend of intervals during the outbreak. The mean interval (interval 1) between cases diagnosis time and isolation time is -3.9 days. The mean of the interval (interval 2) between the infector’s diagnosis time and the infectee diagnosis time is 4.2 days. The mean of the interval (interval 3) between infector isolation time and infectee isolation time is 2.9 days. Among the three intervals, only interval 1 has a significant positive correlation with degree centrality. Conclusions: : By integrating COVID-19 case reports of a Chinese city, we can construct a contact network to analyze the dispersion of the outbreak. The network is a scale-free network with multiple hidden pathways that are not detected. The intervals of patients in this outbreak decreased compared to the beginning of the outbreak in 2020. City lockdown has a significant effect on the intervals that can affect patient’s network centrality. Our study highlights the value of case report text. By linking different reports, we can quickly analyze the spread of the epidemic in an urban area.

2.
Light: Science & Applications ; 11(1):106-106, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1799593

ABSTRACT

Can you imagine that one single small capsule can achieve navigation and positioning, and do gastroscopy of the digestive system? Can you imagine that a machine can automatically complete the task of analyzing more than 4800 new coronavirus samples within 24 h? Don’t be surprised, this has become a reality, thanks to Academician Songlin Zhuang and his team, who applied terahertz technology to various fields such as medicine, food safety, ecological environment monitoring, and social security. Dedicating his entire life to optics and terahertz, Academician Zhuang personifies courage, determination and persistence. He believes in science and hard work. He also takes it as his responsibility to pass on the optical spirit and cultivate optical young scientists.

3.
PLoS ONE Vol 16(6), 2021, ArtID e0252841 ; 16(6), 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1790608

ABSTRACT

Background: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) for fear of transmission while breaking social distancing rules. The latest guidelines recommend hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and facemask use. However, public willingness in this setup remains unknown. Methods: A cross-sectional, unrestricted volunteer Internet survey was conducted to assess individuals' attitudes and behaviors toward performing BCPR, pre-existing CPR training, occupational identity, age group, and gender. The raking method for weights and a regression analysis for the predictors of willingness were performed. Results: Among 1,347 eligible respondents, 822 (61%) had negative attitudes toward performing BCPR. Healthcare providers (HCPs) and those with pre-existing CPR training had fewer negative attitudes (p < 0.001);HCPs and those with pre-existing CPR training and unchanged attitude showed more positive behaviors toward BCPR (p < 0.001). Further, 9.7% of the respondents would absolutely refuse to perform BCPR. In contrast, 16.9% would perform BCPR directly despite the outbreak. Approximately 9.9% would perform it if they were instructed, 23.5%, if they wore facemasks, and 40.1%, if they were to perform hands-only CPR. Interestingly, among the 822 respondents with negative attitudes, over 85% still tended to perform BCPR in the abovementioned situations. The weighted analysis showed similar results. The adjusted predictors for lower negative attitudes toward BCPR were younger age, being a man, and being an HCP;those for more positive behaviors were younger age and being an HCP. Conclusions: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, have negative impacts on attitudes and behaviors toward BCPR. Younger individuals, men, HCPs, and those with pre-existing CPR training tended to show fewer negative attitudes and behaviors. Meanwhile, most individuals with negative attitudes still expressed positive behaviors under safer measures such as facemask protection, hands-only CPR, and available dispatch instructions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
Adv Neonatal Care ; 22(1): 15-21, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world; yet, there are few reports of neonatal cases. Thus, information about related clinical care experience is scarce. CLINICAL FINDINGS: This case report includes 26 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan City who were born to mothers with suspected/confirmed COVID-19. The nursing and medical staff implemented care of these infants in strict accordance with infection control measures. INTERVENTION: Emergency measures for the prevention and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the NICU were developed, and neonatal isolation, observation, and treatment were performed. OUTCOMES: Vital signs of the 26 infants remained stable during isolation and treatment, and no complications occurred. During the study period, neither the infants nor the nursing and medical staff were infected with SARS-CoV-2. PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on our strict practices, infants born to mothers with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 should receive care in a single-patient room to support infection control and provide enhanced observation. During initial contact and nursing care, increased attention should be given to the protection of infants born to mothers with suspected/confirmed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EBioMedicine ; 77: 103904, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nearly 4 billion doses of the BNT162b2-mRNA and CoronaVac-inactivated vaccines have been administrated globally, yet different vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) remain incompletely investigated. METHODS: We compare the immunogenicity and durability of these two vaccines among fully vaccinated Hong Kong people. FINDINGS: Standard BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccinations were tolerated and induced neutralizing antibody (NAb) (100% and 85.7%) and spike-specific CD4 T cell responses (96.7% and 82.1%), respectively. The geometric mean NAb IC50 and median frequencies of reactive CD4 subsets were consistently lower among CoronaVac-vaccinees than BNT162b2-vaccinees. CoronaVac did not induce measurable levels of nucleocapsid protein-specific IFN-γ+ CD4+ T or IFN-γ+ CD8+ T cells compared with unvaccinated. Against VOCs, NAb response rates and geometric mean IC50 titers against B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) were significantly lower for CoronaVac (50%, 23.2 and 7.1%, <20) than BNT162b2 (94.1%, 131 and 58.8%, 35.0), respectively. Three months after vaccinations, NAbs to VOCs dropped near to detection limit, along with waning memory T cell responses, mainly among CoronaVac-vaccinees. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that vaccinees especially CoronaVac-vaccinees with significantly reduced NAbs may probably face higher risk to pandemic VOCs breakthrough infection. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund (C7156-20GF and C1134-20GF); the Wellcome Trust (P86433); the National Program on Key Research Project of China (Grant 2020YFC0860600, 2020YFA0707500 and 2020YFA0707504); Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (JSGG20200225151410198 and JCYJ20210324131610027); HKU Development Fund and LKS Faculty of Medicine Matching Fund to AIDS Institute; Hong Kong Innovation and Technology Fund, Innovation and Technology Commission and generous donation from the Friends of Hope Education Fund. Z.C.'s team was also partly supported by the Theme-Based Research Scheme (T11-706/18-N).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
6.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787688

ABSTRACT

Vaccination certainly is the best way to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, the seroconversion effectiveness of two vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in healthcare workers: virus-inactivated CoronaVac (CV, n=303), and adenovirus-vectored Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ, n=447). The IgG antibodies anti-spike glycoprotein and anti-nucleocapsid protein were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) at the time before vaccination (T1), before the second dose (T2), and 30 days after the second dose (T3). Of all individuals vaccinated with AZ, 100% (n=447) exhibited seroconversion, compared to 91% (n=276) that were given CV vaccine. Among individuals who did not respond to the CV, only three individuals showed a significant increase in the antibody level four months later the booster dose. A lower seroconversion rate was observed in elders immunized with CV vaccine probably due to the natural immune senescence, or peculiarity of this vaccine. The AZ vaccine induced a higher humoral response; however, more common side effects were also observed. Non-vaccinated convalescent individuals revealed a similar rate of anti-spike IgG to individuals that were given 2 doses of CV vaccine, which suggests that only a one-shot COVID-19 vaccine could produce an effective immune response in convalescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
China CDC Weekly ; 4(14):293-297, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1786625

ABSTRACT

< -type="Summary"> <sec> What is already known about this topic? Compared with the international mRNA and adenovirus-vectored coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, there is less real-world research data about breakthrough cases in people vaccinated with China-made COVID-19 vaccines. Analyses of clinical outcomes of breakthrough cases will be an important supplement to the clinical trial efficacy and observational effectiveness data of China-made COVID-19 vaccines.</sec><sec> What is added by this report? COVID-19 vaccine age-eligible individuals (≥3 years old) who received full primary series and a booster dose of China-made COVID-19 vaccines had good protection from pneumonia caused by Delta variant infection. There was only one serious Delta case in children (unvaccinated), but among adults 18 years and older, there was good protection from serious illness with primary vaccination and booster vaccination. Among people ≥60 years, full vaccination and booster vaccination was associated with protection from pneumonia and risk of serious COVID-19 caused by Omicron variant infection. There were few serious Omicron cases.</sec><sec> What are the implications for public health practice? Everyone 3 years and older without contraindications should be fully vaccinated against COVID-19;schedule-eligible adults should receive booster doses. The pace of booster dose administration, especially among the elderly, should be accelerated.</sec>

8.
J Evid Based Med ; 15(1): 30-38, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Qingjin Yiqi granules (QJYQ) on post-COVID-19 condition (PCC). METHOD: Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to two groups, the QJYQ group received QJYQ combined with standard rehabilitation treatments (SRTs) and the control group only received SRTs. The treatment course was 14 days. The primary outcomes were modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale and Borg scale, while the secondary outcomes included symptoms score and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD). The safety outcome was the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 388 patients with PCC were enrolled and randomly assigned to the QJYQ group (n = 194) and the control group (n = 194). Compared to the controls, the mMRC scale was improved in the QJYQ group, which was better than that of the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.626 (-1.101, -0.151), p = 0.010]. A significant improvement in Borg scale was also observed in the QJYQ group compared to the control group [ß (95%CI): -0.395(-0.744, -0.046), p = 0.026]. There was no statistically significant difference in symptoms score and 6MWD between the two groups (p = 0.293, p = 0.724). No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: QJYQ can bring benefits to patients with PCC, mainly in the improvement of breathlessness and fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331897

ABSTRACT

Large-scale populations in the world have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines, however, breakthrough infections of SARS-CoV-2 are still growing rapidly due to the emergence of immune-evasive variants, especially Omicron. It is urgent to develop effective broad-spectrum vaccines to better control the pandemic of these variants. Here, we present a mosaic-type trimeric form of spike receptor-binding domain (mos-tri-RBD) as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate, which carries the key mutations from Omicron and other circulating variants. Tests in rats showed that the designed mos-tri-RBD, whether used alone or as a booster shot, elicited potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against not only Omicron but also other immune-evasive variants. Neutralizing antibody titers induced by mos-tri-RBD were substantially higher than those elicited by homo-tri-RBD (containing homologous RBDs from prototype strain) or the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV. Our study indicates that mos-tri-RBD is highly immunogenic, which may serve as a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate in combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron.

10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331581

ABSTRACT

Some patients retested positive for SARS-CoV-2 following negative testing results and discharge. However, the potential risk factors associated with redetectable positive test results in a large sample of patients who recovered from COVID-19 have not been well estimated. A total of 745 discharged COVID-19 patients were enrolled between January 30, 2020, and September 9, 2020, in Guangzhou, China. Data on the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, drug therapy, RT-PCR testing, and contact modes to close contacts were collected. Patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (positive retest patients) were confirmed by guidelines issued by China. The repositive rate in different settings was calculated. Among 745 discharged patients, 157 (21.1%;95% CI, 18.2% to 24.0%) retested positive, of which 55 (35.0%) were asymptomatic, 15 (9.6%) had mild symptoms, 83 (52.9%) had moderate symptoms and 4 (2.6%) had severe symptoms at the first admission. The median time from discharge to repositivity was 8.0 days (IQR, 8.0 to 14.0 days). Most positive retest patients were without clinical symptoms, and lymphocyte cell counts were higher than before being discharged. The likelihood of repositive testing for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was significantly higher among patients who were younger age (OR, 3.88;95% CI, 1.74 to 8.66, 0 to 17 years old), had asymptomatic severity (OR, 4.36;95% CI, 1.47 to 12.95) and did not have clinical symptoms (OR, 1.89;95% CI, 1.32 to 2.70, without fever). We found that the positive retest rate of COVID-19 was relatively high, and these patients tested positive again with a median of 8.0 to 14.0 days after discharge. Positive retest results were mainly observed in young patients without severe clinical symptoms. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of patients could carry viral fragments for a long time, and effective management, such as a prolonged quarantine phase for discharged patients, is necessary.

11.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-19, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764344

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have implicated that the transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) effectively alleviates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) primarily due to immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the role of hUC-MSC-derived exosomes in SLE. This study is carried out to investigate the modifying effects of hUC-MSC-exosomes on the differentiation and function of immune cells in SLE. hUC-MSC-derived exosomes were extracted from the cultural supernatant of hUC-MSCs by ultrahigh speed centrifugation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and flow cytometry were performed to estimate the effect of hUC-MSC-derived exosomes on macrophage and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization. In vivo, hUC-MSC-exosomes were injected intravenously into 28-week-old MRL/lpr mice. We had found that exosomes derived from hUC-MSC restrained the proliferation and inflammation of macrophages in vitro. Besides, MSC-exosomes inhibited CD68+M1 and HLA-DR+M1 but promoted CD206+M2 and CD163+M2 in vitro. Moreover, MRL/lpr mice administrated by intravenous injection of MSC-exosomes had less infiltration of CD14+CD11c+M1 cells but more CD14+CD163+M2 cells as well as Tregs in spleens compared with those in MRL/lpr mice treated by PBS. Additionally, MSC-exosomes could alleviate nephritis, liver and lung injuries of MRL/lpr mice. The survival of lupus mice could be improved after MSC-exosome treatment. This study has suggested that MSC-derived exosomes exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in SLE. MSC-exosomes ameliorate nephritis and other key organ injuries by inducing M2 macrophages and Tregs polarization. As natural nanocarriers, MSC-exosomes may serve as a promising cell-free therapeutic strategy for SLE.Abbreviations: SLE: Systemic lupus erythematosus; hUC-MSCs: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells; MSCs: Mesenchymal stem cells; qRT-PCR: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; ELISA: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Tregs: Regulatory cells; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alfa; IL: Interleukin; COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019; pTHP-1: PMA-induced THP-1 macrophages; TEM: Transmission electron microscopy; LPS: Lipopolysaccharide; EVs: Extracellular vesicles; TRAF1: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1; IRAK1: Interferon-α-interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1; NF-κB: Nuclear factor-κB; BLyS: B lymphocyte stimulator; APRIL: A proliferation-inducing ligand.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329783

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with immune escape ability raises the urgent need for developing cross-neutralizing vaccines against the virus. NVSI-06-08 is a potential broad-spectrum recombinant COVID-19 vaccine that integrates the antigens from multiple SARS-CoV-2 strains into a single immunogen. Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of NVSI-06-08 as a heterologous booster dose in adults previously vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV in a randomized, double-blind, controlled, phase 2 trial conducted in the United Arab Emirates ( NCT05069129 ). Three groups of healthy adults over 18 years of age (600 participants per group) who had administered two doses of BBIBP-CorV 4-6-month, 7-9-month and >9-month earlier, respectively, were vaccinated with either a homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV or a heterologous booster of NVSI-06-08. The primary outcome was immunogenicity and safety of booster vaccinations. The exploratory outcome was cross-reactive immunogenicity against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both booster vaccinations, and the overall safety profile of heterologous boost was quite similar to that of homologous boost. Heterologous NVSI-06-08 booster was immunogenically superior to homologous booster of BBIBP-CorV. Both Neutralizing and IgG antibodies elicited by NVSI-06-08 booster were significantly higher than by the booster of BBIBP-CorV against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also multiple VOCs. Especially, the neutralizing activity induced by NVSI-06-08 booster against the immune-evasive Beta variant was no less than that against the prototype strain, and a considerable level of neutralizing antibodies against Omicron (GMT: 367.67;95%CI, 295.50-457.47) was induced by heterologous booster, which was substantially higher than that boosted by BBIBP-CorV (GMT: 45.03;95%CI, 36.37-55.74). Our findings showed that NVSI-06-08 was safe and immunogenic as a booster dose following two doses of BBIBP-CorV, which was immunogenically superior to homologous boost with another dose of BBIBP-CorV. Our study also indicated that the design of hybrid antigen may provide an effective strategy for broad-spectrum vaccine developments.

13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736468

ABSTRACT

Obesity is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality from COVID-19. The risk is related to the cytokine storm, a major contributor to multiorgan failure and a pathological character of COVID-19 patients with obesity. While the exact cause of the cytokine storm remains elusive, disorders in energy metabolism has provided insights into the mechanism. Emerging data suggest that adipose tissue in obesity contributes to the disorders in several ways. First, adipose tissue restricts the pulmonary function by generation of mechanical pressures to promote systemic hypoxia. Second, adipose tissue supplies a base for SARS-CoV-2 entry by overexpression of viral receptors (ACE2 and DPP4). Third, impaired antiviral responses of adipocytes and immune cells result in dysfunction of immunologic surveillance as well as the viral clearance systems. Fourth, chronic inflammation in obesity contributes to the cytokine storm by secreting more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Fifth, abnormal levels of adipokines increase the risk of a hyper-immune response to the virus in the lungs and other organs to enhance the cytokine storm. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes, immune cells and other cell types (endothelial cells and platelets, etc.) is a common cellular mechanism for the development of cytokine storm, which leads to the progression of mild COVID-19 to severe cases with multiorgan failure and high mortality. Correction of energy surplus through various approaches is recommended in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in the obese patients.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112787, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729558

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and it has become a public health concern worldwide. In addition to respiratory symptoms, some COVID­19 patients also show various gastrointestinal symptoms and even consider gastrointestinal symptoms to be the first manifestation. A large amount of evidence has shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection could disrupt the gut microbiota balance, and disorders of the gut microbiota could aggravate the condition of COVID-19 patients. Therefore, maintaining the gut microbiota balance is expected to become a potential new therapeutic target for treating COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has significant effects in all stages of the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. It can adjust the gut microbiota and is an ideal intestinal microecological regulator. This review summarizes the advantages and clinical efficacy of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 and expounds on the relationship between TCM and the gut microbiota, the relationship between COVID-19 and the gut microbiota, the mechanism of gut microbiota disorders induced by SARS-CoV-2, the relationship between cytokine storms and the gut microbiota, and the role and mechanism of TCM in preventing and treating COVID-19 by regulating the gut microbiota to provide new research ideas for TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

15.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(3): 375-382, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find the correlation between severe computed tomography (CT) lung scores and nasopharyngeal viral load (Ct value) in the severity of COVID-19 disease progression. METHOD: In this study, 37 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were categorized into severely ill and not severely ill samples. Their Ct values, epidemiological data, lung CT, and laboratory test results were collected three times, respectively, on the first day of their hospital admission, 3-5 days thereafter, and prior to hospital discharge. Among the 37 patients, 8 progressed from not severely ill to severely ill; we also paid attention and observed changes in clinical parameters of COVID-19 patients who entered our city from other cities (imported cases) and the infected local residents who contacted these imported patients (non-imported cases). RESULTS: Among the 37 patients, the Ct values and lung severity scores (LSSs) were similar in imported and non-imported cases (F = 0.59 and 2.56; p = 0.45 and 0.12, respectively) but the proportion of severely ill imported patients was significantly higher compared with non-imported patients (F = 7.77; p = 0.01). Additionally, 21.6% of patients' illness worsened; lymphocyte counts and Ct values were significantly lowered, and C-reactive protein and LSS significantly increased during COVID-19 disease progression. Furthermore, LSS negatively correlated with lymphocyte and mononuclear cell counts, as well as Ct values (Pearson's rank = -0.763, -0.824, and -0.588; p = 0.028, 0.012, and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: In the severity of COVID-19 disease progression, nasopharyngeal viral load and lung CT severity were closely related, and LSS negatively correlated with lymphocyte and mononuclear cell counts, as well as Ct values.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load
16.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329338

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 raises attention to epistemological risks related to everyday human activities. Our work quantifies infection transmission risks at different human activity places, including different types of settlements at macro-scale and establishments (restaurants, bars, etc.) at micro-scale, using evidences from COVID-19 in 906 urban areas across four continents. Relatively stable rules of how infection risks are distributed across human settlements and establishments are found. At micro-scale, the infection transmission risks at various establishments differ across countries, but generally, physical activity, entertainment and catering establishments lead to more infections than other activity places. At macro-scale, contrary to common beliefs, we find consistent pattern that transmission does not increase with settlement size and density. When considering interaction between the two scales, there is also consistent pattern that a smaller proportion of infections take place at specific establishments in larger settlements, suggesting that general public spaces such as streets play a greater role in transmission due to longer trips. Though with limitations, our work provides the first steps towards a system of knowledge on the linkage between places, human activities and disease transmission.

17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 625-632, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Tigecycline is a last-resort antibiotic used to treat lethal infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales; however, plasmid-borne tigecycline resistance tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters can confer tigecycline resistance. The aim of the study was to identify novel subtypes and the spread of tmexCD-toprJ. METHODS: Five non-duplicate isolates of different species, carrying tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters or novel subtypes, were isolated from patients across China between November 2018 and June 2019. WGS was performed using Illumina and Nanopore platforms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using a dataset of 77 sequences carrying the tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters, 72 of which were downloaded from NCBI with a blastn identity cut-off of 95%. RESULTS: We detected six different transfer units and two novel subtypes (tmexC1D1.2-toprJ1 and tmexC2D2.2-toprJ2) of the tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters. Among the six transfer units, three were mediated by IS26, while the rest were presumably mediated by Tn5393, hypothetical integrases (xerD-hp clusters-umuC-integrases-tnfxB2-tmexC2D2-toprJ2-umuC) and hypothetical units (hp-hp-hp-tnfxB2-tmexC2D2.2-toprJ2-ΔTn5393-Tn6292). Moreover, two tmexCD-toprJ-like gene clusters co-located on the same plasmid with blaNDM in five isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters may have originated in Pseudomonas spp., being mainly distributed in Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. (64/77). Most tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters in Enterobacterales were located on plasmids, indicating that the gene clusters have a high inter-species transfer risk after transfer to Enterobacterales. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tmexCD-toprJ gene clusters being isolated from Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella oxytoca, revealing that these multiple transfer units should be further studied because of their clinical significance.


Subject(s)
Enterobacter cloacae , Klebsiella oxytoca , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella oxytoca/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , beta-Lactamases/genetics
18.
Foods ; 11(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700376

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted the food supply chain and thus threatened the food security of many people, while the impact of the pandemic on food consumption of people living in rural areas is still unknown. This study filled in the research gaps by employing a three-wave food consumption survey from 2019 to 2021 conducted in rural China. We adopted a random effect model and Poisson regression to quantify the short-run and long-run impacts of COVID-19 on rural households' food consumption and dietary quality. We found that rural households increased the consumption of vegetables, aquaculture products and legumes in the short-run, and these changes in consumption behavior even lasted 1 year after lockdown was lifted. However, the positive impact was much smaller in households not engaged in agricultural production. In addition, our results showed that COVID-19 decreased dietary diversity but increased dietary quality for households still engaged in food-related agriculture production. Our study indicated that COVID-19 did not threaten the food security status of rural families in China. On the contrary, rural families, particularly those still engaged in agricultural production, increased the consumption of several foods to strengthen their resistance against the virus.

19.
SSRN;
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-326548

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated after inoculation in the geriatric population aged 60 years and above with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Methods: 440 people aged 60 years and above were enrolled as study participants and divided into four groups, 330 in the hypertensive group, 330 in the diabetic group, 300 in the hypertensive combined with diabetes group, and 480 in the healthy control group. Two doses of COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated were administered at a 21 days interval and blood samples were collected before vaccination and 28 days after the second dose to evaluate the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Meanwhile, the occurrence of adverse events was actively observed and changes in blood pressure and blood glucose levels after vaccination were recorded. Results: The positive conversion rate was 100% for all participants. The post-inoculation GMT (geometric median titre) of the Covid-19 neutralizing antibodies in the four groups of hypertension, diabetes, combined disease and healthy population were 73.41, 69.93, 73.84 and 74.86, respectively, and the difference in post-vaccination GMT between groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The positive conversion rates and post-vaccination GMT in the hypertension, diabetes and co-morbidities groups were non-inferior compared with healthy controls. The incidence of vaccine-related adverse reactions was 11.93%, 14.29%, 12.50% and 9.38%, respectively. The differences in the incidence of adverse reactions among the four groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). No serious adverse effects were reported during the study. No apparent abnormal fluctuations in blood pressure and blood glucose values were observed after vaccination in participants with hypertension and diabetes. Conclusion: The COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cell), inactivated showed good immunogenicity and safety in the elderly population aged 60 years and above suffering from hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration Details: The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov (registration number: NCT05065879). Funding Information: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2020YFC0842100).

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

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