Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
1.
BMC infectious diseases ; 22(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1888321

ABSTRACT

Background Guizhou is located in the southwest of China with high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) epidemic. To fight this disease, Guizhou provincial authorities have made efforts to establish MDR-TB service system and perform the strategies for active case finding since 2014. The expanded case finding starting from 2019 and COVID-19 pandemic may affect the cases distribution. Thus, this study aims to analyze MDR-TB epidemic status from 2014 to 2020 for the first time in Guizhou in order to guide control strategies. Methods Data of notified MDR-TB cases were extracted from the National TB Surveillance System correspond to population information for each county of Guizhou from 2014 to 2020. The percentage change was calculated to quantify the change of cases from 2014 to 2020. Time trend and seasonality of case series were analyzed by a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Spatial–temporal distribution at county-level was explored by spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial–temporal scan statistic. Results Guizhou has 9 prefectures and 88 counties. In this study, 1,666 notified MDR-TB cases were included from 2014–2020. The number of cases increased yearly. Between 2014 and 2019, the percentage increase ranged from 6.7 to 21.0%. From 2019 to 2020, the percentage increase was 62.1%. The seasonal trend illustrated that most cases were observed during the autumn with the trough in February. Only in 2020, a peak admission was observed in June. This may be caused by COVID-19 pandemic restrictions being lifted until May 2020. The spatial–temporal heterogeneity revealed that over the years, most MDR-TB cases stably aggregated over four prefectures in the northwest, covering Bijie, Guiyang, Liupanshui and Zunyi. Three prefectures (Anshun, Tongren and Qiandongnan) only exhibited case clusters in 2020. Conclusion This study identified the upward trend with seasonality and spatial−temporal clusters of MDR-TB cases in Guizhou from 2014 to 2020. The fast rising of cases and different distribution from the past in 2020 were affected by the expanded case finding from 2019 and COVID-19. The results suggest that control efforts should target at high-risk periods and areas by prioritizing resources allocation to increase cases detection capacity and better access to treatment.

2.
Applied network science ; 7(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609635

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made in how to suppress epidemic spreading on temporal networks via blocking all contacts of targeted nodes or node pairs. In this work, we develop contact blocking strategies that remove a fraction of contacts from a temporal (time evolving) human contact network to mitigate the spread of a Susceptible-Infected-Recovered epidemic. We define the probability that a contact c(i, j, t) is removed as a function of a given centrality metric of the corresponding link l(i, j) in the aggregated network and the time t of the contact. The aggregated network captures the number of contacts between each node pair. A set of 12 link centrality metrics have been proposed and each centrality metric leads to a unique contact removal strategy. These strategies together with a baseline strategy (random removal) are evaluated in empirical contact networks via the average prevalence, the peak prevalence and the time to reach the peak prevalence. We find that the epidemic spreading can be mitigated the best when contacts between node pairs that have fewer contacts and early contacts are more likely to be removed. A strategy tends to perform better when the average number contacts removed from each node pair varies less. The aggregated pruned network resulted from the best contact removal strategy tends to have a large largest eigenvalue, a large modularity and probably a small largest connected component size.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(25): 453-457, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449640

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPIC?: A novel human coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV, is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We have released the primers and probes of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for the laboratory detection of COVID-19 infection. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: Here we provide detailed technical data and evaluate the performance of three novel rRT-PCR assays targeting the ORF1ab, N, and E genes for detection of COVID-19 infection. The application of rRT-PCR assays among four types of specimens (alveolar lavage, sputum, throat swabs, and stool) from patients with COVID-19 indicated that the mean viral loads detected in sputum were higher than other specimens. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: These rRT-PCR assays reported here could be used for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 infection with high sensitivity, specificity, and applicability. Sputum rather than throat swabs and stool should be a priority for specimen collection for laboratory detection of COVID-19.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(25): 447-452, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449635

ABSTRACT

What is already known on this topic? Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by a novel human coronavirus named the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 virus, was reported in December 2019. Complete genomes of the COVID-19 virus from clinical samples using next generation sequencing (NGS) have been reported. What is added by this report? Here we provide the technical data for sequencing complete genome of COVID-19 virus from clinical samples using the Sanger method. Two complete COVID-19 virus genome sequences (named WH19004-S and GX0002) were obtained from clinical samples of COVID-19 patients, and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ORF7a (T/C, nt 27,493) and ORF8 (T/C, nt 28,253) of WH19004-S were identified by Sanger sequencing. What are the implications for public health practice? The COVID-19 virus genome sequencing by Sanger method reported here could be used to generate data of high enough quality without requirement for expensive NGS equipment, which support sequencing complete genomes from clinical samples and monitoring of viral genetic variations of COVID-19 infections.

6.
Virol Sin ; 35(6): 699-712, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217487

ABSTRACT

The on-going global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been underway for about 11 months. Through November 20, 2020, 51 detection kits for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids (24 kits), antibodies (25 kits), or antigens (2 kits) have been approved by the National Medical Products Administration of China (NMPA). Convenient and reliable SARS-CoV-2 detection assays are urgently needed worldwide for strategic control of the pandemic. In this review, the detection kits approved in China are summarised and the three types of tests, namely nucleic acid, serological and antigen detection, which are available for the detection of COVID-19 are discussed in detail. The development of novel detection kits will lay the foundation for the control and prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(1): 39-51, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic warrants accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine candidate, BBIBP-CorV, in humans. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial at Shangqiu City Liangyuan District Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Henan Province, China. In phase 1, healthy people aged 18-80 years, who were negative for serum-specific IgM/IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at the time of screening, were separated into two age groups (18-59 years and ≥60 years) and randomly assigned to receive vaccine or placebo in a two-dose schedule of 2 µg, 4 µg, or 8 µg on days 0 and 28. In phase 2, healthy adults (aged 18-59 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to receive vaccine or placebo on a single-dose schedule of 8 µg on day 0 or on a two-dose schedule of 4 µg on days 0 and 14, 0 and 21, or 0 and 28. Participants within each cohort were randomly assigned by stratified block randomisation (block size eight) and allocated (3:1) to receive vaccine or placebo. Group allocation was concealed from participants, investigators, and outcome assessors. The primary outcomes were safety and tolerability. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, assessed as the neutralising antibody responses against infectious SARS-CoV-2. This study is registered with www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000032459. FINDINGS: In phase 1, 192 participants were enrolled (mean age 53·7 years [SD 15·6]) and were randomly assigned to receive vaccine (2 µg [n=24], 4 µg [n=24], or 8 µg [n=24] for both age groups [18-59 years and ≥60 years]) or placebo (n=24). At least one adverse reaction was reported within the first 7 days of inoculation in 42 (29%) of 144 vaccine recipients. The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (18-59 years, one [4%] in the 2 µg group, one [4%] in the 4 µg group, and two [8%] in the 8 µg group; ≥60 years, one [4%] in the 8 µg group). All adverse reactions were mild or moderate in severity. No serious adverse event was reported within 28 days post vaccination. Neutralising antibody geometric mean titres were higher at day 42 in the group aged 18-59 years (87·7 [95% CI 64·9-118·6], 2 µg group; 211·2 [158·9-280·6], 4 µg group; and 228·7 [186·1-281·1], 8 µg group) and the group aged 60 years and older (80·7 [65·4-99·6], 2 µg group; 131·5 [108·2-159·7], 4 µg group; and 170·87 [133·0-219·5], 8 µg group) compared with the placebo group (2·0 [2·0-2·0]). In phase 2, 448 participants were enrolled (mean age 41·7 years [SD 9·9]) and were randomly assigned to receive the vaccine (8 µg on day 0 [n=84] or 4 µg on days 0 and 14 [n=84], days 0 and 21 [n=84], or days 0 and 28 [n=84]) or placebo on the same schedules (n=112). At least one adverse reaction within the first 7 days was reported in 76 (23%) of 336 vaccine recipients (33 [39%], 8 µg day 0; 18 [21%], 4 µg days 0 and 14; 15 [18%], 4 µg days 0 and 21; and ten [12%], 4 µg days 0 and 28). One placebo recipient in the 4 µg days 0 and 21 group reported grade 3 fever, but was self-limited and recovered. All other adverse reactions were mild or moderate in severity. The most common systematic adverse reaction was fever (one [1%], 8 µg day 0; one [1%], 4 µg days 0 and 14; three [4%], 4 µg days 0 and 21; two [2%], 4 µg days 0 and 28). The vaccine-elicited neutralising antibody titres on day 28 were significantly greater in the 4 µg days 0 and 14 (169·5, 95% CI 132·2-217·1), days 0 and 21 (282·7, 221·2-361·4), and days 0 and 28 (218·0, 181·8-261·3) schedules than the 8 µg day 0 schedule (14·7, 11·6-18·8; all p<0·001). INTERPRETATION: The inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV, is safe and well tolerated at all tested doses in two age groups. Humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 were induced in all vaccine recipients on day 42. Two-dose immunisation with 4 µg vaccine on days 0 and 21 or days 0 and 28 achieved higher neutralising antibody titres than the single 8 µg dose or 4 µg dose on days 0 and 14. FUNDING: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Mega projects of China for Major Infectious Diseases, National Mega Projects of China for New Drug Creation, and Beijing Science and Technology Plan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
8.
Animal Model Exp Med ; 3(1): 93-97, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-847791

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of the Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, has become a public health emergency of international concern. The high fatality of aged cases caused by SARS-CoV-2 was a need to explore the possible age-related phenomena with non-human primate models. METHODS: Three 3-5 years old and two 15 years old rhesus macaques were intratracheally infected with SARS-CoV-2, and then analyzed by clinical signs, viral replication, chest X-ray, histopathological changes and immune response. RESULTS: Viral replication of nasopharyngeal swabs, anal swabs and lung in old monkeys was more active than that in young monkeys for 14 days after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Monkeys developed typical interstitial pneumonia characterized by thickened alveolar septum accompanied with inflammation and edema, notably, old monkeys exhibited diffuse severe interstitial pneumonia. Viral antigens were detected mainly in alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 caused more severe interstitial pneumonia in old monkeys than that in young monkeys. Rhesus macaque models infected with SARS-CoV-2 provided insight into the pathogenic mechanism and facilitated the development of vaccines and therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Antiviral Res ; 173: 104646, 2020 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829317

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are important pathogens that cause upper respiratory tract infections and have neuroinvasive abilities; however, little is known about the dynamic infection process of CoVs in vivo, and there are currently no specific antiviral drugs to prevent or treat HCoV infection. Here, we verified the replication ability and pathogenicity of a reporter HCoV-OC43 strain expressing Renilla luciferase (Rluc; rOC43-ns2DelRluc) in mice with different genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and BALB/c). Additionally, we monitored the spatial and temporal progression of HCoV-OC43 through the central nervous system (CNS) of live BALB/c mice after intranasal or intracerebral inoculation with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. We found that rOC43-ns2DelRluc was fatal to suckling mice after intranasal inoculation, and that viral titers and Rluc expression were detected in the brains and spinal cords of mice infected with rOC43-ns2DelRluc. Moreover, viral replication was initially observed in the brain by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging before the infection spread to the spinal cord of BALB/c mice, consistent with its tropism in the CNS. Furthermore, the Rluc readout correlated with the HCoV replication ability and protein expression, which allowed quantification of antiviral activity in live mice. Additionally, we validated that chloroquine strongly inhibited rOC43-ns2DelRluc replication in vivo. These results provide new insights into the temporal and spatial dissemination of HCoV-OC43 in the CNS, and our methods provide an extremely sensitive platform for evaluating the efficacy of antiviral therapies to treat neuroinvasive HCoVs in live mice.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , Central Nervous System/diagnostic imaging , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Luciferases, Renilla/genetics , Luciferases, Renilla/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Imaging , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697036

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tropism , Virus Replication
11.
Nature ; 583(7818): 830-833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220333

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2. Here we infected transgenic mice that express human ACE2 (hereafter, hACE2 mice) with SARS-CoV-2 and studied the pathogenicity of the virus. We observed weight loss as well as virus replication in the lungs of hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of considerable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and the accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. We observed viral antigens in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. These phenomena were not found in wild-type mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. This mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutic agents and vaccines, as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Transgenes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Complement 3d/genetics , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication , Weight Loss
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL