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1.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 11(3): e1380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750347

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Antibody testing against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been instrumental in detecting previous exposures and analyzing vaccine-elicited immune responses. Here, we describe a scalable solution to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, discriminate between natural infection- and vaccination-induced responses, and assess antibody-mediated inhibition of the spike-angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) interaction. Methods: We developed methods and reagents to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The main assays focus on the parallel detection of immunoglobulin (Ig)Gs against the spike trimer, its receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid (N). We automated a surrogate neutralisation (sn)ELISA that measures inhibition of ACE2-spike or -RBD interactions by antibodies. The assays were calibrated to a World Health Organization reference standard. Results: Our single-point IgG-based ELISAs accurately distinguished non-infected and infected individuals. For seroprevalence assessment (in a non-vaccinated cohort), classifying a sample as positive if antibodies were detected for ≥ 2 of the 3 antigens provided the highest specificity. In vaccinated cohorts, increases in anti-spike and -RBD (but not -N) antibodies are observed. We present detailed protocols for serum/plasma or dried blood spots analysis performed manually and on automated platforms. The snELISA can be performed automatically at single points, increasing its scalability. Conclusions: Measuring antibodies to three viral antigens and identify neutralising antibodies capable of disrupting spike-ACE2 interactions in high-throughput enables large-scale analyses of humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. The reagents are available to enable scaling up of standardised serological assays, permitting inter-laboratory data comparison and aggregation.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2146798, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694847

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of infection during SARS-CoV-2 viral waves, the factors associated with infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection among Canadian adults remain undocumented. Objective: To assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first 2 viral waves in Canada by measuring seropositivity among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study conducted 2 rounds of an online survey about COVID-19 experience and analyzed immunoglobulin G levels based on participant-collected dried blood spots (DBS) to assess the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first and second viral waves in Canada. A sample of 19 994 Canadian adults (aged ≥18 years) was recruited from established members of the Angus Reid Forum, a public polling organization. The study comprised 2 phases (phase 1 from May 1 to September 30, 2020, and phase 2 from December 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021) that generally corresponded to the first (April 1 to July 31, 2020) and second (October 1, 2020, to March 1, 2021) viral waves. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G seropositivity (using a chemiluminescence assay) by major geographic and demographic variables and correlation with COVID-19 symptom reporting. Results: Among 19 994 adults who completed the online questionnaire in phase 1, the mean (SD) age was 50.9 (15.4) years, and 10 522 participants (51.9%) were female; 2948 participants (14.5%) had self-identified racial and ethnic minority group status, and 1578 participants (8.2%) were self-identified Indigenous Canadians. Among participants in phase 1, 8967 had DBS testing. In phase 2, 14 621 adults completed online questionnaires, and 7102 of those had DBS testing. Of 19 994 adults who completed the online survey in phase 1, fewer had an educational level of some college or less (4747 individuals [33.1%]) compared with the general population in Canada (45.0%). Survey respondents were otherwise representative of the general population, including in prevalence of known risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among unvaccinated adults increased from 1.9% in phase 1 to 6.5% in phase 2. The seropositivity pattern was demographically and geographically heterogeneous during phase 1 but more homogeneous by phase 2 (with a cumulative incidence ranging from 6.4% to 7.0% in most regions). The exception was the Atlantic region, in which cumulative incidence reached only 3.3% (odds ratio [OR] vs Ontario, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.21-1.02). A total of 47 of 188 adults (25.3%) reporting COVID-19 symptoms during phase 2 were seropositive, and the OR of seropositivity for COVID-19 symptoms was 6.15 (95% CI, 2.02-18.69). In phase 2, 94 of 444 seropositive adults (22.2%) reported having no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in phase 1 who were retested in phase 2, 111 individuals (81.8%) remained seropositive. Participants who had a history of diabetes (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.90) had lower odds of having detectable antibodies in phase 2. Conclusions and Relevance: The Action to Beat Coronavirus study found that the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Canada was modest until March 2021, and this incidence was lower than the levels of population immunity required to substantially reduce transmission of the virus. Ongoing vaccination efforts remain central to reducing viral transmission and mortality. Assessment of future infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity is practicable through the use of serial online surveys and participant-collected DBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322524

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of infection in Canada’s COVID-19 viral waves, the predictors of infection, and the durability of antibody responses to infection remain undocumented.Methods: We organized serial online surveys of a representative group of Canadian adults about their COVID experience in the first (n=19 994;April-July 2020) and second viral wave (n=14 621;October 2020-March 2021). We paired these with IgG analysis of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in self-collected dried blood spots after the first (n=8967) and second (n=7102) waves.Findings: Canada’s cumulative seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among unvaccinated adults rose from ~2% after the first wave to 7% after the second. The seropositivity pattern was heterogeneous demographically and geographically during the first wave, but more homogeneous by the second (except in the four Atlantic Provinces, cumulative seroprevalence ~3%). Seroprevalence among visible minorities rose sharply from about 2% to >8% from the first to second wave. About a quarter of those reporting COVID symptoms during the second wave were seropositive, and in both waves the odds ratio (OR) of seropositivity for COVID symptoms exceeded six. About one-fifth of seropositives reported no symptoms. Of 134 seropositive adults in the first wave who were retested after the second, 83% (111) remained seropositive at least seven months later. Current smokers and people with a history of diabetes had lower ORs of infection. We calculated the absolute numbers of seropositive adults nationwide, which nearly quadrupled from 0.57 million to 1.90 million, with the largest increases among older adults. Infection fatality rates fell from 3.7 to 2.6/1000 infections, most notably at older ages.Interpretation: Canada’s COVID pandemic grew substantially between the first and second viral waves. Home-based DBS collection offers a practicable way to document evolving demographic and geographic patterns and to assess the levels and durability of population immunity, including from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.Funding: Pfizer Global Medical, Unity Health Foundation, and the Canadian COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Declaration of Interest: None to declare. Ethical Approval: The Ab-C study was approved by the Unity Health Toronto Ethics Review Board.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317138

ABSTRACT

Background: Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are viral antigen tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that produce a rapid result, are inexpensive and easy to operate. They have been advocated for use by the World Health Organisation to help control outbreaks and break the chain of transmission of COVID-19 infections. There are now several studies assessing their accuracy but as yet no systematic review. Our aims were to assess the sensitivity and specificity of LFDs in a systematic review and summarise the sensitivity and specificity of these tests. Methods: A targeted search of Pubmed and Medxriv, using PRISMA principles, was conducted identifying clinical studies assessing the sensitivity and specificity of LFDs as their primary outcome compared to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Based on extracted data sensitivity and specificity was calculated for each study. Data was pooled based on manufacturer of LFD and split based on operator (self-swab or by trained professional) and sensitivity and specificity data were calculated. Results: Twenty-four papers were identified involving over 26,000 test results. Sensitivity from individual studies ranged from 37.7% (95% CI 30.6-45.5) to 99.2% (95% CI 95.5-99.9) and specificity from 92.4% (95% CI 87.5-95.5) to 100.0% (99.7-100.0). BD Veritor was the best performing manufacturer of LFD with a sensitivity of 99.2% (95% CI 95.5-99.9) and specificity of 100.0% (98.9-100.0). Operation of the test by a trained professional or by the test subject with self-swabbing produced comparable results. Conclusions: This systematic review identified that the performance of lateral flow devices is heterogeneous and dependent on the manufacturer. Some perform with high specificity with reasonable sensitivity. Test performance does appear dependent on the operator. Potentially, LFDs could support the scaling up of mass testing to aid track and trace methodology and break the chain of transmission of COVID-19 with the additional benefit of providing individuals with the results in a much shorter time frame.

6.
Transfusion ; 62(1): 37-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This pilot study assesses the ability of plasma collected from Canadian blood donors in the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to neutralize later SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional design was used, and a random cross-sectional sample of all available Canadian Blood Services retention samples (n = 1500/month) was drawn monthly for April and May of 2020. Qualitative IgG analysis was performed on aliquots of specimens using anti-spike, anti-receptor binding domain, and anti-nucleocapsid protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays as well as the Abbott Architect SARS CoV-2 IgG assay (Abbott Laboratories) against the anti-nucleocapsid protein. Selected plasma specimens were then assessed for neutralization against VOCs using pseudotyped lentivirus inhibition assays as well as plaque reduction neutralization test 50% (PRNT50 ). RESULTS: Six specimens with a high neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and three specimens with a low neutralizing titer against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were chosen for further analysis against VOCs. Four of six high neutralizing titer specimens had a reduced neutralizing capacity against beta VOCs by both neutralization methods. Three of six high neutralizing titer specimens had reduced neutralization capacity against gamma VOCs. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary data can be used as a justification for limiting the use of first wave plasma products in upcoming clinical trials but cannot be used to speculate on general trends in the immunity of Canadian blood donors to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257743, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435621

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence studies bridge the gap left from case detection, to estimate the true burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. While multiple anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays are available, no gold standard exists. METHODS: This serial cross-sectional study was conducted using plasma samples from 8999 healthy blood donors between April-September 2020. Each sample was tested by four assays: Abbott SARS-Cov-2 IgG assay, targeting nucleocapsid (Abbott-NP) and three in-house IgG ELISA assays (targeting spike glycoprotein, receptor binding domain, and nucleocapsid). Seroprevalence rates were compared using multiple composite reference standards and by a series of Bayesian Latent Class Models. RESULT: We found 13 unique diagnostic phenotypes; only 32 samples (0.4%) were positive by all assays. None of the individual assays resulted in seroprevalence increasing monotonically over time. In contrast, by using the results from all assays, the Bayesian Latent Class Model with informative priors predicted seroprevalence increased from 0.7% (95% credible interval (95% CrI); 0.4, 1.0%) in April/May to 0.7% (95% CrI 0.5, 1.1%) in June/July to 0.9% (95% CrI 0.5, 1.3) in August/September. Assay characteristics varied over time. Overall Spike had the highest sensitivity (93.5% (95% CrI 88.7, 97.3%), while the sensitivity of the Abbott-NP assay waned from 77.3% (95% CrI 58.7, 92.5%) in April/May to 64.4% (95% CrI 45.6, 83.0) by August/September. DISCUSSION: Our results confirmed very low seroprevalence after the first wave in Canada. Given the dynamic nature of this pandemic, Bayesian Latent Class Models can be used to correct for imperfect test characteristics and waning IgG antibody signals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bayes Theorem , Blood Donors , Canada , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 828, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lateral flow devices (LFDs) are viral antigen tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 that produce a rapid result, are inexpensive and easy to operate. They have been advocated for use by the World Health Organisation to help control outbreaks and break the chain of transmission of COVID-19 infections. There are now several studies assessing their accuracy but as yet no systematic review. Our aims were to assess the sensitivity and specificity of LFDs in a systematic review and summarise the sensitivity and specificity of these tests. METHODS: A targeted search of Pubmed and Medxriv, using PRISMA principles, was conducted identifying clinical studies assessing the sensitivity and specificity of LFDs as their primary outcome compared to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Based on extracted data sensitivity and specificity was calculated for each study. Data was pooled based on manufacturer of LFD and split based on operator (self-swab or by trained professional) and sensitivity and specificity data were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-four papers were identified involving over 26,000 test results. Sensitivity from individual studies ranged from 37.7% (95% CI 30.6-45.5) to 99.2% (95% CI 95.5-99.9) and specificity from 92.4% (95% CI 87.5-95.5) to 100.0% (95% CI 99.7-100.0). Operation of the test by a trained professional or by the test subject with self-swabbing produced comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified that the performance of lateral flow devices is heterogeneous and dependent on the manufacturer. Some perform with high specificity but a great range of sensitivities were shown (38.32-99.19%). Test performance does not appear dependent on the operator. Potentially, LFDs could support the scaling up of mass testing to aid track and trace methodology and break the chain of transmission of COVID-19 with the additional benefit of providing individuals with the results in a much shorter time frame.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Accounting & Finance ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1223433

ABSTRACT

Abstract This paper investigates the disruption to global supply chains caused by COVID-19 and how such disruptions will affect the participation of Chinese businesses in those chains. The focus is on the post-COVID-19 outlook for migrant workers working in the hospitality and garment industries. It is argued that managers within global supply chains will use accounting processes to maintain profitability by cutting costs. Moreover, within corporate supply chains, wages will be driven down in an increasingly competitive labour market, especially for low-skilled workers. The findings show that COVID-19 will have an adverse effect on wages and employment and raise performance expectations.

10.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pregnant women with moderate symptoms of COVID-19 are at risk for progressing to severe or critical illness. While there are limited data on the management of severe COVID-19 during pregnancy, information on pharmacological treatments of moderate COVID-19 is lacking. We report clinical outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized due to moderate COVID-19 illness treated with a 5-day course of remdesivir, antibiotics, and/or glucocorticoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case series of pregnant women hospitalized with moderate symptoms of COVID -19 pneumonia at two INOVA Health System hospitals from April 1 to December 31, 2020. Primary outcome was clinical recovery (breathing on ambient air and/or hospital discharge) on hospital day 7 (HD7). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate which variables were associated with the primary outcome. RESULTS: Out of 748 pregnant women with confirmed infection by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, 35 were hospitalized due to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia (median gestational age 29 weeks). There was no maternal death. Seventeen patients received remdesivir within 48 hours of hospitalization: 15 remained with moderate symptoms and 2 (who also received glucocorticoids) had progressed to critical COVID-19 at remdesivir initiation; all 17 women in this group achieved clinical recovery on HD7. Seven women received remdesivir >48 hours following admission after they began treatment with glucocorticoids ± antibiotics and worsened to severe or critical disease; they all required supplemental oxygen on HD7. Eleven women were treated with antibiotics ± glucocorticoids but no remdesivir; on HD7, 3/11 achieved clinical recovery. Clinical recovery was significantly different among treatment groups; p < 0.001. When analyzing only women who remained with moderate symptoms at pharmacological treatments initiation, all 15 on remdesivir and only 3 of 11 on antibiotics achieved clinical recovery on HD7; p < 0.001. Delaying remdesivir for >48 hours after admission (HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.45-4.16) and >4-day duration of symptoms prior to hospitalization (HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.27-3.50) had an inverse association with clinical recovery. Incidental oligohydramnios was seen in 3/24 (12.5%) of women within 5 days of completing remdesivir treatment. Elevated transaminases was prevalent in women treated with remdesivir (8/24, 33.3%). CONCLUSION: In our cohort, prompt initiation of remdesivir in pregnant women hospitalized with moderate symptoms of COVID-19 pneumonia within 48 hours of admission prevented worsening and allowed a fast clinical recovery by HD7. Deferring remdesivir for >48 hours after hospitalization and duration of symptoms >4 days before admission were independently associated with delayed clinical recovery and longer hospital admission. Ultrasound evaluation of the amniotic fluid in patients recovering from COVID-19 hospitalization should be considered.

12.
Sci Immunol ; 5(52)2020 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842548

ABSTRACT

While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the antibody response in saliva and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Here, we profiled by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) IgG, IgA and IgM responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (full length trimer) and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) in serum and saliva of acute and convalescent patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 ranging from 3-115 days post-symptom onset (PSO), compared to negative controls. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses were readily detected in serum and saliva, with peak IgG levels attained by 16-30 days PSO. Longitudinal analysis revealed that anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgM antibodies rapidly decayed, while IgG antibodies remained relatively stable up to 105 days PSO in both biofluids. Lastly, IgG, IgM and to a lesser extent IgA responses to spike and RBD in the serum positively correlated with matched saliva samples. This study confirms that serum and saliva IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are maintained in the majority of COVID-19 patients for at least 3 months PSO. IgG responses in saliva may serve as a surrogate measure of systemic immunity to SARS-CoV-2 based on their correlation with serum IgG responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
ArXiv ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827585

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the interdisciplinary scientific field of machine perception, computer vision, and biomedical engineering underpin a collection of machine learning algorithms with a remarkable ability to decipher the contents of microscope and nanoscope images. Machine learning algorithms are transforming the interpretation and analysis of microscope and nanoscope imaging data through use in conjunction with biological imaging modalities. These advances are enabling researchers to carry out real-time experiments that were previously thought to be computationally impossible. Here we adapt the theory of survival of the fittest in the field of computer vision and machine perception to introduce a new framework of multi-class instance segmentation deep learning, Darwin's Neural Network (DNN), to carry out morphometric analysis and classification of COVID19 and MERS-CoV collected in vivo and of multiple mammalian cell types in vitro.

14.
arxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | ArXiv | ID: ppcovidwho-2119

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in the interdisciplinary scientific field of machine perception, computer vision, and biomedical engineering underpin a collection of machine learning algorithms with a remarkable ability to decipher the contents of microscope and nanoscope images. Machine learning algorithms are transforming the interpretation and analysis of microscope and nanoscope imaging data through use in conjunction with biological imaging modalities. These advances are enabling researchers to carry out real-time experiments that were previously thought to be computationally impossible. Here we adapt the theory of survival of the fittest in the field of computer vision and machine perception to introduce a new framework of multi-class instance segmentation deelearning, Darwin's Neural Network (DNN), to carry out morphometric analysis and classification of COVID19 and MERS-CoV collected in vivo and of multiple mammalian cell types in vitro.

15.
JCI Insight ; 5(19)2020 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737501

ABSTRACT

Most of the patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mount a humoral immune response to the virus within a few weeks of infection, but the duration of this response and how it correlates with clinical outcomes has not been completely characterized. Of particular importance is the identification of immune correlates of infection that would support public health decision-making on treatment approaches, vaccination strategies, and convalescent plasma therapy. While ELISA-based assays to detect and quantitate antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in patient samples have been developed, the detection of neutralizing antibodies typically requires more demanding cell-based viral assays. Here, we present a safe and efficient protein-based assay for the detection of serum and plasma antibodies that block the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with its receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The assay serves as a surrogate neutralization assay and is performed on the same platform and in parallel with an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against the RBD, enabling a direct comparison. The results obtained with our assay correlate with those of 2 viral-based assays, a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) that uses live SARS-CoV-2 virus and a spike pseudotyped viral vector-based assay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Area Under Curve , COVID-19 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Sampling Studies , Treatment Outcome , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
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