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1.
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience : CIN ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2020485

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess e-learning during Corona epidemic regarding advantages, limitations, and their recommendations for managing learning during the epidemic. Based on a case study, this study used qualitative research. Sixteen students from King Saud University’s College of Education were invited to take part. These students receive their online lectures via the “Zoom” application. A 20-minute WhatsApp one-on-one semiorganized interview was likewise utilized. To guarantee the reliability, iCloud was utilized to record gatherings and meetings for direct record (adaptability, constancy, confirmability, and validity). Results were presented in three themes: advantages of employing distance education, limitations of usages, and recommendations for improvements. Analyzing the feedbacks collected from students by the four interviewers, important characteristics of distance education emerged. They were student-centered learning, which included: comfortable, self-directed learning, asynchronous learning, and flexibility. The most common limitations associated with distance education, in general, included inefficiency, that is, lack of student feedback, and lack of attentiveness. As for recommendations for improvements the most obvious characteristics that became evident in students’ responses were teaching and assessment and quality enhancement.

2.
J Mol Struct ; 1268: 133709, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926790

ABSTRACT

The rapidly evolving Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide with thousands of deaths and infected cases. For the identification of effective treatments against this disease, the main protease (Mpro) of SARS­CoV­2 was found to be an attractive drug target, as it played a central role in viral replication and transcription. Here, we report the results of high-throughput molecular docking with 1,045,468 ligands' structures from 116 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Subsequently, 465 promising candidates were obtained, showing high binding affinities. The dynamic simulation, ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) and drug-likeness properties were further analyzed the screened docking results. Basing on these simulation results, 23 kinds of Chinese herbal extracts were employed to study their inhibitory activity for Mpro of SARS­CoV­2. Plants extracts from Forsythiae Fructus, Radix Puerariae, Radix astragali, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma showed acceptable inhibitory efficiencies, which were over 70%. The best candidate was Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, reaching 78.9%.

5.
Biomark Res ; 10(1): 4, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638929

ABSTRACT

The negatively charged aminophospholipid, phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), is located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in normal cells, and may be exposed to the outer leaflet under some immune and blood coagulation processes. Meanwhile, Ptdser exposed to apoptotic cells can be recognized and eliminated by various immune cells, whereas on the surface of activated platelets Ptdser interacts with coagulation factors prompting enhanced production of thrombin which significantly facilitates blood coagulation. In the case where PtdSer fails in exposure or mistakenly occurs, there are occurrences of certain immunological and haematological diseases, such as the Scott syndrome and Systemic lupus erythematosus. Besides, viruses (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Ebola virus (EBOV)) can invade host cells through binding the exposed PtdSer. Most recently, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been similarly linked to PtdSer or its receptors. Therefore, it is essential to comprehensively understand PtdSer and its functional characteristics. Therefore, this review summarizes Ptdser, its eversion mechanism; interaction mechanism, particularly with its immune receptors and coagulation factors; recognition sites; and its function in immune and blood processes. This review illustrates the potential aspects for the underlying pathogenic mechanism of PtdSer-related diseases, and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies as well.

6.
Cell Res ; 31(12): 1244-1262, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493090

ABSTRACT

The infusion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) potentially improves clinical symptoms, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled (29 patients/group) phase II clinical trial to validate previous findings and explore the potential mechanisms. Patients treated with umbilical cord-derived MSCs exhibited a shorter hospital stay (P = 0.0198) and less time required for symptoms remission (P = 0.0194) than those who received placebo. Based on chest images, both severe and critical patients treated with MSCs showed improvement by day 7 (P = 0.0099) and day 21 (P = 0.0084). MSC-treated patients had fewer adverse events. MSC infusion reduced the levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and promoted the maintenance of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. To explore how MSCs modulate the immune system, we employed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on peripheral blood. Our analysis identified a novel subpopulation of VNN2+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor-like (HSPC-like) cells expressing CSF3R and PTPRE that were mobilized following MSC infusion. Genes encoding chemotaxis factors - CX3CR1 and L-selectin - were upregulated in various immune cells. MSC treatment also regulated B cell subsets and increased the expression of costimulatory CD28 in T cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition, an in vivo mouse study confirmed that MSCs suppressed NET release and reduced venous thrombosis by upregulating kindlin-3 signaling. Together, our results underscore the role of MSCs in improving COVID-19 patient outcomes via maintenance of immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytoskeletal Proteins/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , T-Lymphocytes/cytology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/metabolism , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
7.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 908-913, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482574

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic increased the burden on many healthcare systems and in the process, exposed the need for medical resources and physical space. While few studies discussed the efficient utilization of medical resources and physical space so far. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize experiences related to facilities used for centralized isolation for medical observation and treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic in China and to provide suggestions to further improve the management of confirmed cases, suspected cases, and close contacts. In China, three types of facilities for centralized isolation (Fangcang shelter hospitals, refitted non-designated hospitals, and quarantine hotels) underwent retrofitting for the treatment and isolation of confirmed and suspected cases. These facilities mitigated the immediate high demand for space. Moreover, in order to minimize infection risks in these facilities, regulators and governmental agencies implemented new designs, management measures, and precautionary measures to minimize infection risk. Other countries and regions could refer to China's experience in optimally allocating social resources in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As a conclusion, government should allocate social resources and construct centralized isolation and quarantine facilities for an emergency response, health authorities should issue regulations for centralized isolation facilities and pay strict attention to the daily management of these facilities, a multidisciplinary administration team is required to support the daily operation of a centralized isolation facility, in-depth studies and international collaboration on the centralized isolation policy are encouraged.

8.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118273, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458755

ABSTRACT

Public places favor the transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to dense population, large personal mobility, and higher contact opportunities. In order to protect the health of general public in operating public places during COVID-19 pandemic, this study proposed general precautions and control strategies from perspective of operation management, social distancing, cleaning and disinfection, and personal protection. In addition, with regard of risk level, specific precautions and control strategies were proposed for living service places, outdoor places, and confined places. The comprehensive application of above recommendations could effectively interrupt the spread of COVID-19, and protect the health of general public in public places. This study proposed general and specific precautions and control strategies in public places during COVID-19, and suggested further improvement of pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Disinfection , Humans , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
9.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(36): 704-707, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357736
11.
Front Genet ; 12: 663098, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268247

ABSTRACT

Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from asymptomatic to severe pneumonia and death. A deep understanding of the variation of biological characteristics in severe COVID-19 patients is crucial for the detection of individuals at high risk of critical condition for the clinical management of the disease. Herein, by profiling the gene expression spectrum deduced from DNA coverage in regions surrounding transcriptional start site in plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of COVID-19 patients, we deciphered the altered biological processes in the severe cases and demonstrated the feasibility of cfDNA in measuring the COVID-19 progression. The up- and downregulated genes in the plasma of severe patient were found to be closely related to the biological processes and functions affected by COVID-19 progression. More importantly, with the analysis of transcriptome data of blood cells and lung cells from control group and cases with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we revealed that the upregulated genes were predominantly involved in the viral and antiviral activity in blood cells, reflecting the intense viral replication and the active reaction of immune system in the severe patients. Pathway analysis of downregulated genes in plasma DNA and lung cells also demonstrated the diminished adenosine triphosphate synthesis function in lung cells, which was evidenced to correlate with the severe COVID-19 symptoms, such as a cytokine storm and acute respiratory distress. Overall, this study revealed tissue involvement, provided insights into the mechanism of COVID-19 progression, and highlighted the utility of cfDNA as a noninvasive biomarker for disease severity inspections.

12.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 130320, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1230393

ABSTRACT

Human exposure risks to airborne pollutants, bacteria and viruses in confined spaces have attracted tremendous attention. It is a challenge to degrade these harmful materials over a single device by electrical method other than conventional thermal method. We fabricated an air cleaning device based on a conductive Ag-Co3O4 coating with Ag nanoparticles on a glass fibre cloth (GFC). The device possessed good flexibility and high permeability of the GFC. Powered by low-voltages (< 20 V), the device exhibited a 3-fold formaldehyde conversion in its conventional thermal counterpart, and energy savings of > 90% were achieved. The electrically treated device completely killed Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus within a few minutes at a low surface temperature of < 50 °C. The excellent efficiency of the devices was attributed to the confinement of electric power to the coating. The device can serve as a flexible filter for air cleaners or conditioners to ensure that human health is maintained amid the pandemic.

13.
Leukemia ; 35(9): 2616-2620, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228235

ABSTRACT

We analyzed reports on safety and efficacy of JAK-inhibitors in patients with coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19) published between January 1st and March 6th 2021 using the Newcastle-Ottawa and Jadad scales for quality assessment. We used disease severity as a proxy for time when JAK-inhibitor therapy was started. We identified 6 cohort studies and 5 clinical trials involving 2367 subjects treated with ruxolitinib (N = 3) or baricitinib 45 (N = 8). Use of JAK-inhibitors decreased use of invasive mechanical ventilation (RR = 0.63; [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.47, 0.84]; P = 0.002) and had borderline impact on rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (RR = 0.24 [0.06, 1.02]; P = 0.05) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; RR = 0.50 [0.19, 1.33]; P = 0.16). JAK-inhibitors did not decrease length of hospitalization (mean difference (MD) -0.18 [-4.54, 4.18]; P = 0.94). Relative risks of death for both drugs were 0.42 [0.30, 0.59] (P < 0.001), for ruxolitinib, RR = 0.33 (0.13, 0.88; P = 0.03) and for baricitinib RR = 0.44 (0.31, 0.63; P < 0.001). Timing of JAK-inhibitor treatment during the course of COVID-19 treatment may be important in determining impact on outcome. However, these data are not consistently reported.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Nitriles , Patient Safety , Pyrimidines , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146040, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117650

ABSTRACT

From June 11, 2020, a surge in new cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the largest wholesale market of Beijing, the Xinfadi Market, leading to a second wave of COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Understanding the transmission modes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the personal behaviors and environmental factors contributing to viral transmission is of utmost important to curb COVID-19 rise. However, currently these are largely unknown in food markets. To this end, we completed field investigations and on-site simulations in areas with relatively high infection rates of COVID-19 at Xinfadi Market. We found that if goods were tainted or personnel in market was infected, normal transaction behaviors between sellers and customers, daily physiological activities, and marketing activities could lead to viral contamination and spread to the surroundings via fomite, droplet or aerosol routes. Environmental factors such as low temperature and high humidity, poor ventilation, and insufficient hygiene facilities and disinfection practices may contribute to viral transmission in Xinfadi Market. In addition, precautionary control strategies were also proposed to effectively reduce the clustering cases of COVID-19 in large-scale wholesale markets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors
15.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(12):1163-1166, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1106541

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the epidemiology, clinical features, auxiliary examinations and prognosis of 69 cases with COVID-19 in Hainan province.

16.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 112-114, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077100

ABSTRACT

Many large international cities, such as Shanghai, are facing the threat of more imported cases of COVID-19 because of the frequent flow of people and objects at home and abroad. In the face of the complex and changing disease status of the international community, dealing with this disease effectively is a great challenge to the city's existing public health emergency response capacity and also a major test of designated COVID-19 hospitals. Here, we share our experience as a designated COVID-19 hospital in Shanghai, China in terms of i) A Professional Multi-disciplinary Team, ii) Personalized Treatment Plans for Patients in Severe or Critically Ill Condition, iii) Well-organized Classification of Patients, iv) Establishment of Transitional Wards, v) Nosocomial Infection Prevention and Control, and vi) Identification and Reporting of the Asymptomatic in the hopes that these approaches can serve as a reference for healthcare providers and medical staff who are fighting the pandemic.

17.
Aust Econ Rev ; 54(1): 5-18, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020414

ABSTRACT

This article summarises developments in the Australian economy in 2020. It describes the economic growth and labour market ramifications associated with COVID-19, and the fiscal and monetary policies implemented to help counter its effects. COVID-19 has resulted in considerable slack in an economy that was weak pre-pandemic. While current policies are appropriately focused on stimulating demand and supporting employment, existing challenges such as weak growth in productivity, gross domestic product and real wages are also likely to remain relevant post-pandemic.

18.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 48(2): 203-210, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885766

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an epidemic disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and spreading throughout the world rapidly. Here we evaluated the efficacy of the Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r) and its combination with other drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. We included 170 confirmed COVID-19 patients who had been cured and discharged. Their antiviral therapies were LPV/r alone or combinations with interferon (IFN), Novaferon and Arbidol. We evaluated the medication efficacy by comparing the time of the negative nucleic acid conversion and the length of hospitalization mainly. The LPV/r + Novaferon [6.00 (4.00-8.00) and 7.50 (5.00-10.00) days] had shorter time of the negative nucleic acid conversion (P = .0036) and shorter time of hospitalization (P < .001) compared with LPV/r alone [9.00 (5.00-12.00) and 12.00 (11.00-15.00) days] and LPV/r + IFN [9.00 (7.25-11.00) and 12.00 (10.00-13.50) days]. On the contrary, LPV/r + IFN [9.00 (7.25-11.00) and 12.00 (10.00-13.50) days] had shorter time of the negative nucleic acid conversion (P = .031) and shorter time of hospitalization (P < .001) compared with LPV/r + IFN +Novaferon [10.00 (8.00-11.25) and 13.50 (11.50-17.00) days] and LPV/r + IFN +Arbidol [14.00 (9.75-19.00) and 19.50 (13.25-24.00) days]. In conclusion, the combination of LPV/r and Novaferon may have better efficacy against COVID-19. However, adding IFN based on LPV/r + Novaferon or adding Arbidol based on LPV/r + IFN may not improve the efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Adult , Drug Interactions , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
19.
China Tropical Medicine ; 20(9):904-907, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-860918

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and the negative conversion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test in pharyngeal swabs, feces and urine after treatment, and we look forward to guide the clinical discharge control of patients with COVID-19.

20.
J Food Biochem ; 44(11): e13481, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803248

ABSTRACT

The special attention was paid on the interaction between functional foods and the main protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Here, 10,870 ligands were employed and screened by the molecular docking, which involved 12 kinds of functional foods (carbohydrates, fatty acids, phospholipids, vitamin, ß-sitosterol, flavonoids, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, curcumin, nootkatone, ß-pinene, tincturoid, betulinic acid, and their isomers/analogs/derivatives). Then, 60 ligands were obtained with the good docking affinity. Most of them belong to quercetrin and its isomers/analogs/derivatives, which also showed the highest affinity for the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. The dynamic simulation indicated that quercetrin-protease and quercetrin-analog-protease showed the excellent stability. Compared with reported docking results, quercetrin should be the best inhibitor for the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the green and white tea are rich in quercetrin and its isomers/analogs/derivatives, tea and relative beverages may become a good option to regulate our metabolism and help us to overcome this special time. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The docking and molecular dynamics technology were combined to screen the functional foods, which would be the potential candidate of the inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2. Many functional foods screened in this work belong to necessary nutrients for body. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 would consume some necessary nutrients, and thus, damage our body. It should be further consideration whether exogenous nutrients should be provided to slow, halt, or reverse biochemical alterations and structural deterioration in our body. On the contrary, this work also provided a new possibility to design a functional food or drug to help us overcome this special time.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Functional Food , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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