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1.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, novel coronavirus pneumonia was detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and as the epidemic spread, such cases emerged worldwide. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) named a new mutant Omicron (B.1.1.529), which disrupts the binding of most antibodies to the S protein and has a greater ability to break through the vaccine, posing a serious risk to population safety. Positive pregnant women give birth to positive newborns despite appropriate isolation measures taken by medical staff, suggesting that we may have vertical transmission of the novel coronavirus. This article analyzes and studies the possible vertical transmission path of the new coronavirus in the perinatal period of pregnant women and the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and puts forward effective preventive measures for positive pregnant women to provide further reference for clinical work. METHODS: We searched multiple databases, including PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, WHO COVID-19 database, and CDC database. Search terms included COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, vertical transmission, Omicron, Vaginal, Breast Feeding, Vaccine, Neonatal, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Pregnancy, and Semen. SELECTION CRITERIA: The following criteria were also met: (1) positive maternal novel coronavirus nucleic acid test; (2) reporting of neonatal outcome; (3) language in Chinese or English; (4) study date or location indicated; (5) no suspected or confirmed duplicated reports. RESULTS: There is evidence of vertical transmission, and the risk of possible vertical transmission is 5.7% (75/1314). The article listed four possible vertical transmission routes, namely placental transmission, vaginal upstream transmission, breastfeeding transmission and monocyte, and macrophage transmission route, with placental transmission being the most probable. Meanwhile, SARS-CoV-2 may also enter the placenta to infect the fetus through antibody-dependent enhanced substitution mechanism. We recommend three methods for early surveillance of vertical transmission, namely nucleic acid testing, antibody screening, and antigen testing, and analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the article provides recommendations in four areas: labor management, neonatal management, nosocomial infection prevention and control, and vaccination. As well as suggesting effective preventive measures for positive pregnant women and analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination, it is recommended that pregnant women should be vaccinated promptly, but considering that the vaccine may cause fever, it is recommended to consider vaccination cautiously in the first trimester of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The article concludes that vertical transmission is possible, with placental transmission being the most likely, and that the risk of possible vertical transmission is 5.7% (75/1314). Good personal protection, patient isolation, ward disinfection, and vaccination are the best means of interrupting SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 27(5): 157, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876486

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which broke out at the end of 2019, is a global pandemic and seriously threatens human health. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control COVID-19. At present, more than 13 COVID-19 vaccines have been urgently authorized for use, but the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has brought unprecedented challenges to the protective efficiency of these COVID-19 vaccines. In particular, the recent emergence of Delta and Omicron variants, which are rapidly spreading worldwide, may bring many challenges to the medical systems. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis can induce non-specific trained immunity, protecting against infectious diseases caused by respiratory viruses. Therefore, there is a hypothesis that BCG plays an essential role in reducing the incidence, severity, hospitalization, and mortality of COVID-19 and enhancing the protection efficiency of the COVID-19 vaccine. To confirm this hypothesis, 56 clinical trials have been conducted globally to assess BCG's protective effectiveness against COVID-19 infection. Herein, this review discussed the trained immunity induced by BCG and its underlying mechanisms and summarised BCG's latest research progress in preventing COVID-19, especially the ongoing clinical trials. We hope this review will provide new strategies for fighting against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 , BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Immunity, inflammation and disease ; 10(6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1864160

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), has led to a global pandemic in an unprecedented time frame. Systemic vascular involvement in COVID‐19 has been identified, and SARS‐CoV‐2 has also been found to cause multiple organ ischemia and posterior ocular segment disease in mammals, raising concerns about the human retinal microvascular involvement in SARS‐CoV‐2. Objective To objectively assess the presence of retinal microvascular impairment in COVID‐19 patients by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), so as to facilitate the clinical system management of COVID‐19 patients. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Ovid, CBM to collect eligible studies. The main outcomes included the vessel density (VD), area or perimeter of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), central foveal thickness (CFT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in our meta‐analysis. Results We eventually included five studies with a total of 401 participants. Our meta‐analysis showed that nonacute infectious COVID‐19 or post‐COVID‐19 patients presented significantly lower foveal VD of deep capillary plexus (WMD = −4.22, 95% CI [−8.00, −0.43]) and thinner SCT (WMD = −10.33, 95% CI [−19.08, −1.57]) than healthy controls. The foveal VD and parafoveal VD of superficial capillary plexus, parafoveal VD of deep capillary plexus, CFT, area, and perimeter of FAZ showed no significant differences between the groups. Conclusion The patients of nonacute infectious COVID‐19 or post‐COVID‐19 displayed alterations in the retinal microvasculature and choroidal vessels, including a significantly lower foveal VD in deep capillary plexus and thinner SCT. The impairment may be a medium to long‐term process. Close ophthalmic surveillance is necessary for COVID‐19 patients or post‐COVID‐19 patients. Our meta‐analysis showed that patients of nonacute infectious COVID‐19 or post‐COVID‐19 presented significantly lower foveal vessel density of deep capillary plexus and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness than healthy controls. The impairment of SARS‐CoV‐2 to retinal microvessels and choroidal vessels maybe a medium to long‐term process. Close ophthalmic surveillance is necessary for COVID‐19 patients or post‐COVID‐19 patients.

4.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(6): e619, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a global pandemic in an unprecedented time frame. Systemic vascular involvement in COVID-19 has been identified, and SARS-CoV-2 has also been found to cause multiple organ ischemia and posterior ocular segment disease in mammals, raising concerns about the human retinal microvascular involvement in SARS-CoV-2. OBJECTIVE: To objectively assess the presence of retinal microvascular impairment in COVID-19 patients by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), so as to facilitate the clinical system management of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Ovid, CBM to collect eligible studies. The main outcomes included the vessel density (VD), area or perimeter of foveal avascular zone (FAZ), central foveal thickness (CFT), subfoveal choroidal thickness (SCT) in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: We eventually included five studies with a total of 401 participants. Our meta-analysis showed that nonacute infectious COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 patients presented significantly lower foveal VD of deep capillary plexus (WMD = -4.22, 95% CI [-8.00, -0.43]) and thinner SCT (WMD = -10.33, 95% CI [-19.08, -1.57]) than healthy controls. The foveal VD and parafoveal VD of superficial capillary plexus, parafoveal VD of deep capillary plexus, CFT, area, and perimeter of FAZ showed no significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: The patients of nonacute infectious COVID-19 or post-COVID-19 displayed alterations in the retinal microvasculature and choroidal vessels, including a significantly lower foveal VD in deep capillary plexus and thinner SCT. The impairment may be a medium to long-term process. Close ophthalmic surveillance is necessary for COVID-19 patients or post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Vessels , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Humans , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1843380

ABSTRACT

With the help of spatial calculation and numerical analysis, this paper reveals the spatial distribution of rehabilitation infrastructures and the accessibility difference in the city Xiamen. The calculation of Moran's I, Z value, and P value are, respectively, −0.229787, −0.122751, and 0.902304 for health facilities and −0.159235, 0.186166, and 0.852315 for fitness facilities. Such calculation results indicate an uneven pattern and varied accessibility numerical values. The reasons for this influence are diverse, but it is worth noting that the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) calculation shows that compared to fitness facilities, the standard deviation of accessibility numerical value of health facilities decreased significantly, which indicates that the accessibility of health service facilities is becoming better, while the change of accessibility of fitness facilities is not obvious. It is pointed out this is due to society's insufficient attention and education on daily health. For better rehabilitation under the pandemic, the importance of fitness facilities should be noticed. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 859421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834355

ABSTRACT

Plasmalogens and Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF) are both bioactive ether phospholipids. Whereas plasmalogens are recognized for their important antioxidant function and modulatory role in cell membrane structure and dynamics, PAF is a potent pro-inflammatory lipid mediator known to have messenger functions in cell signaling and inflammatory response. The relationship between these two types of lipids has been rarely studied in terms of their metabolic interconversion and reciprocal modulation of the pro-inflammation/anti-inflammation balance. The vinyl-ether bonded plasmalogen lipid can be the lipid sources for the precursor of the biosynthesis of ether-bonded PAF. In this opinion paper, we suggest a potential role of plasmalogenic analogs of PAF as modulators and PAF antagonists (anti-PAF). We discuss that the metabolic interconversion of these two lipid kinds may be explored towards the development of efficient preventive and relief strategies against PAF-mediated pro-inflammation. We propose that plasmalogen analogs, acting as anti-PAF, may be considered as a new class of bioactive anti-inflammatory drugs. Despite of the scarcity of available experimental data, the competition between PAF and its natural plasmalogenic analogs for binding to the PAF receptor (PAF-R) can be proposed as a mechanistic model and potential therapeutic perspective against multiple inflammatory diseases (e.g., cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancers, and various manifestations in coronavirus infections such as COVID-19).

7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
8.
Security and Communication Networks ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1731348

ABSTRACT

In the era of the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) virus, it has become imperative to audit the environment surrounding us to prioritize public health and the healthcare system. This study aims to accelerate the reform of the economic development modes and the construction of a resource-friendly society. The environmental protection-oriented ecoenvironmental performance audit system is studied here. Based on the current situation of regional ecological pollution in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the situation and existing problems are analyzed for the ecoenvironment in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from the perspectives of biodiversity, water ecoenvironment, wetland ecoenvironment, and forest ecoenvironment. Then, the situation is deeply analyzed for the ecoenvironmental performance audit project in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Afterward, we explore the basic characteristics of the environmental audit and summarize the implementation path of resource and environmental audit. The results show that there are some problems in the control and utilization of funds for environmental protection and the development and protection of resources in the cities along the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Then we analyze the problems in the ecoenvironmental performance audit of the Yangtze River Economic Belt and give some suggestions for improving the ecoenvironmental performance audit work. The objective of this paper is to improve the application effect of ecoenvironmental performance audit and provide references for future environmental protection work which will have great impacts on public health and the development of healthcare services.

9.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700377

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDAfter the initial surge in COVID-19 cases, large numbers of patients were discharged from a hospital without assessment of recovery. Now, an increasing number of patients report postacute neurological sequelae, known as "long COVID" - even those without specific neurological manifestations in the acute phase.METHODSDynamic brain changes are crucial for a better understanding and early prevention of "long COVID." Here, we explored the cross-sectional and longitudinal consequences of COVID-19 on the brain in 34 discharged patients without neurological manifestations. Gray matter morphology, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and volumes of white matter tracts were investigated using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques to explore dynamic brain changes from 3 to 10 months after discharge.RESULTSOverall, the differences of cortical thickness were dynamic and finally returned to the baseline. For cortical CBF, hypoperfusion in severe cases observed at 3 months tended to recover at 10 months. Subcortical nuclei and white matter differences between groups and within subjects showed various trends, including recoverable and long-term unrecovered differences. After a 10-month recovery period, a reduced volume of nuclei in severe cases was still more extensive and profound than that in mild cases.CONCLUSIONOur study provides objective neuroimaging evidence for the coexistence of recoverable and long-term unrecovered changes in 10-month effects of COVID-19 on the brain. The remaining potential abnormalities still deserve public attention, which is critically important for a better understanding of "long COVID" and early clinical guidance toward complete recovery.FUNDINGNational Natural Science Foundation of China.


Subject(s)
Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 833942, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699875

ABSTRACT

To explore the application and effect of "WeChat cloud service" in the emergency intensive care unit (EICU) in the context of an epidemic, we examined 774 patients admitted to an EICU between February 2020 and June 2021. Patients admitted from February 2020 to December 2020 were selected as the control group (n = 503) and those from January 2021 to June 2021 comprised the observation group (n = 271). There were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, disease, and length of stay in the EICU between the groups. The control group received the general (routine) daily service, such as communicating with families through in-person information transmission, and receiving self-provided drugs and daily supplies during the specified visiting time; the observation group received the "WeChat cloud service" providing the chance of communication, supplies, and payment through the platform at any time. We used a T-test and χ2-test to analyse the incidence of delirium, labour costs, and patient and family satisfaction throughout ICU treatment for comparison. Results indicated that the observation group had lower labour costs, less incidence of delirium, and greater patient and family satisfaction than the control group. The "WeChat cloud service" was beneficial for preventing and controlling coronavirus disease 2019 during the epidemic and providing an improved patient experience.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315709

ABSTRACT

Glucocorticoids (GCs) have drawn great concern due to widespread contamination in the environment and application in treating COVID-19. Most studies on GC removal mainly focused on aquatic environment, while GC behaviors in soil were less mentioned. In this study, degradation of three selected GCs in soil have been investigated using citric acid (CA)-modified Fenton-like processes (H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA and CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA treatments). The results showed that GCs in soil can be removed by modified Fenton-like processes (removal efficiency > 70% for 24 h). CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA was more efficient than H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA at low oxidant dosage (< 0.28–0.69 mmol/g) for long treatment time (> 4 h). Besides the chemical assessment with GC removal, effects of Fenton-like processes were also evaluated by biological assessments with bacteria and plants. CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA was less harmful to the richness and diversity of microorganisms in soil compared to H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA. Weaker phytotoxic effects were observed on GC-contaminated soil treated by CaO 2 /Fe(III)/CA than H 2 O 2 /Fe(III)/CA. This study therefore, recommends CaO 2 based treatments to remediate GC-contaminated soils.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315185

ABSTRACT

Background: There is an urgent need for an effective treatment to cure patients with COVID-19 and reduce the duration of viral shedding. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from the electronic medical records of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were hospitalized in the E1-4 intensive care center of Guanggu Hospital, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, from February 11, 2020, to March 23, 2020. According to the diagnostic results, the hospitalized patients were divided into the experimental group treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) and the control group only treated with conventional therapy without HCQ or CQ. The main outcome was the clearance rate of SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 37 patients were evaluated. Eighteen patients were assigned to the HCQ or CQ group, and 19 were assigned to the routine treatment group. Treatment with HCQ or CQ was not associated with a difference from routine treatment in the viral shedding duration (median, 14 days vs. 10 days;hazard ratio for viral shedding, 0.393;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.151 to 1.022;P=0.056). No significant difference in the viral shedding rate was observed between the groups at any time point (7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days and the end point). Conclusion: Although this is a retrospective analysis, the results suggest that treatment with HCQ or CQ had no impact on the duration of viral shedding.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313341

ABSTRACT

Paper based flexible pressure sensors have received extensive attention due to their recoverability and accessibility. In this paper, we proposed graphical pressure sensors array with multilayered structure. A simple writing method was adopted to achieve the adsorption of sensitive materials on the fiber structure of cellulose paper. Pressure sensors with 1, 3, 5 and 7 stacked layers were fabricated and compared, respectively. The results show that the 7layers sensor combined high sensitivity (44 kPa-1) and fast time response (150 ms). The highly sensitive stacked paper-based sensor array realizes the pressure detection of objects and special-shaped surfaces. A pressure sensor base on commercial corrugated box was also fabricated to compare. The corrugated carton array was made to switch reminder devices for its convenience and accessibility. Since there are many scenarios that require a safe distance, especially under the influence of the COVID-19, the writable paper-based sensor array was used to realize graphical distance perception and warning.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309724

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 showed a significant difference in case fatality rate between different regions at the early stage of the epidemic. In addition to the well-known factors such as age structure, detection efficiency, and race, there was also a possibility that medical resource shortage caused the increase of the case fatality rate in some regions. Methods: : Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, and Wan fang of identified articles were searched through 29 June 2020. Cohort studies and case series with duration information on COVID-19 patients were included. Two independent reviewers extracted the data using a standardized data collection form and assessed the risk of bias. Data were synthesized through description and analysis methods including a meta-analysis. Results: : A total of 109 articles were retrieved. The time interval from onset to the first medical visit of COVID-19 patients in China was 3.38±1.55 days (corresponding intervals in Hubei province, non-Hubei provinces, Wuhan, Hubei provinces without Wuhan were 4.22±1.13 days, 3.10±1.57 days, 4.20±0.97 days, and 4.34±1.72 days, respectively). The time interval from onset to the hospitalization of COVID-19 patients in China was 8.35±6.83 days (same corresponding intervals were 12.94±7.43 days, 4.17±1.45 days, 14.86±7.12 days, and 5.36±1.19 days, respectively), and when it was outside China, this interval was 5.27±1.19 days. Conclusion: In the early stage of the COVID-19 epidemic, patients with COVID-19 did not receive timely treatment, resulting in a higher case fatality rate in Hubei province, partly due to the relatively insufficient and unequal medical resources. This research suggested that additional deaths caused by the out-of-control epidemic can be avoided if prevention and control work is carried out at the early stage of the epidemic. PROSPERO registration number CRD42020195606.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324477

ABSTRACT

Background: A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has caused the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Current diagnostic methods mainly include nucleic acid detection, antibody detection, antigen detection, and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging. Although these methods are crucial for the diagnosis of COVID-19, there is a lack of a rapid and economical method for preliminary screening COVID-19. Methods: We measured the FeNO concentrations of 103 subjects without COVID-19 and 46 patients with COVID-19. Using machine learning (ML) method, we build a ML model based on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentration and features of age, and body size for rapid preliminary screening COVID-19 suspects with low-cost. Findings: The statistical analysis t-test show that there is a significant difference between the FeNO of healthy people and patients with COVID-19. The ML model can screen out the patients with COVID-19 or other diseases, which show abnormal FeNO distributions. An area under the curve of 0.982 and a sensitivity 0.917 have been achieved for preliminary screening COVID-19 suspects. This non-invasive detection method which takes in two minutes and costs less than a dollar could provide a direction for the control of the rapid spread COVID-19. Interpretation During the COVID-19 pandemic, large numbers and extensive testing of COVID-19 patients remains a problem. Public healthy efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread need to find a more economical and faster screening method.

17.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678838

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the global TB mortality rate in 2020 is rising, making TB prevention and control more challenging. Vaccination has been considered the best approach to reduce the TB burden. Unfortunately, BCG, the only TB vaccine currently approved for use, offers some protection against childhood TB but is less effective in adults. Therefore, it is urgent to develop new TB vaccines that are more effective than BCG. Accumulating data indicated that peptides or epitopes play essential roles in bridging innate and adaptive immunity and triggering adaptive immunity. Furthermore, innovations in bioinformatics, immunoinformatics, synthetic technologies, new materials, and transgenic animal models have put wings on the research of peptide-based vaccines for TB. Hence, this review seeks to give an overview of current tools that can be used to design a peptide-based vaccine, the research status of peptide-based vaccines for TB, protein-based bacterial vaccine delivery systems, and animal models for the peptide-based vaccines. These explorations will provide approaches and strategies for developing safer and more effective peptide-based vaccines and contribute to achieving the WHO’s End TB Strategy.

18.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(3): e2102189, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649842

ABSTRACT

Sustainable solutions on fabricating and using a face mask to block the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread during this coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) are required as society is directed by the World Health Organization (WHO) toward wearing it, resulting in an increasingly huge demand with over 4 000 000 000 masks used per day globally. Herein, various new mask technologies and advanced materials are reviewed to deal with critical shortages, cross-infection, and secondary transmission risk of masks. A number of countries have used cloth masks and 3D-printed masks as substitutes, whose filtration efficiencies can be improved by using nanofibers or mixing other polymers into them. Since 2020, researchers continue to improve the performance of masks by adding various functionalities, for example using metal nanoparticles and herbal extracts to inactivate pathogens, using graphene to make masks photothermal and superhydrophobic, and using triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to prolong mask lifetime. The recent advances in material technology have led to the development of antimicrobial coatings, which are introduced in this review. When incorporated into masks, these advanced materials and technologies can aid in the prevention of secondary transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
19.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to analyze the clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and evaluate the diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the clinical manifestation and auxiliary examination of 19 patients with COVID-19 from the Liyuan Hospital intensive care unit (ICU) between January 16, 2020 and February 20, 2020 was undertaken. RESULTS: There were 11 male and 8 female cases among the patients. The median (range) age was 73 (38-91) years. Of these patients, 8 (42.1%) had died and the median duration from ICU admission to death was 2 (interquartile range (IQR): 1-10.75) days. Seven of these 8 patients had underlying diseases. The auxiliary examination showed fever (68.4%), dry cough (15.8%), dyspnea (10.5%), and diarrhea (5.3%). All 19 cases showed ground-glass changes on chest computed tomography. Serum hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and serum amylase A (SAA) were clearly increased in all of the cases. Among the 19 cases, there were 16 (84.2%) cases in which the total number of lymphocytes decreased, 12 cases (63%) had reduced liver function, and 11 cases (58%) had deviant results for fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer, in particular, the D-dimer level was significantly higher in the non-survivors compared with the survivors. CONCLUSION: There were more men than women among critically ill patients. All of the cases showed ground-glass changes on chest computed tomography and the vast majority of patients displayed fever and dry cough. The clinical laboratory indices change significantly, especially the D-dimer level among non-survivors.

20.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res ; 15(1): 38-48, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594479

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is required for the cellular entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. ACE2, via the Ang-(1-7)-Mas-R axis, is part of the antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the renin-angiotensin system. We studied hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypertension and hypertensive human(h) ACE2 transgenic mice to determine the outcome of COVID-19 with or without AT1 receptor (AT1R) blocker treatment. The severity of the illness and the levels of serum cardiac biomarkers (CK, CK-BM, cTnI), as well as the inflammation markers (IL-1, IL-6, CRP), were lesser in hypertensive COVID-19 patients treated with AT1R blockers than those treated with other antihypertensive drugs. Hypertensive hACE2 transgenic mice, pretreated with AT1R blocker, had increased ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 in the kidney and heart, 1 day post-infection. We conclude that those hypertensive patients treated with AT1R blocker may be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, AT1R blockers had no effect on the severity of the illness but instead may have protected COVID-19 patients from heart injury, via the ACE2-angiotensin1-7-Mas receptor axis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Animals , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Inpatients , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
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