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1.
Inj Prev ; 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642894

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research is to identify how data science is applied in suicide prevention literature, describe the current landscape of this literature and highlight areas where data science may be useful for future injury prevention research. DESIGN: We conducted a literature review of injury prevention and data science in April 2020 and January 2021 in three databases. METHODS: For the included 99 articles, we extracted the following: (1) author(s) and year; (2) title; (3) study approach (4) reason for applying data science method; (5) data science method type; (6) study description; (7) data source and (8) focus on a disproportionately affected population. RESULTS: Results showed the literature on data science and suicide more than doubled from 2019 to 2020, with articles with individual-level approaches more prevalent than population-level approaches. Most population-level articles applied data science methods to describe (n=10) outcomes, while most individual-level articles identified risk factors (n=27). Machine learning was the most common data science method applied in the studies (n=48). A wide array of data sources was used for suicide research, with most articles (n=45) using social media and web-based behaviour data. Eleven studies demonstrated the value of applying data science to suicide prevention literature for disproportionately affected groups. CONCLUSION: Data science techniques proved to be effective tools in describing suicidal thoughts or behaviour, identifying individual risk factors and predicting outcomes. Future research should focus on identifying how data science can be applied in other injury-related topics.

2.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Gut ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori infection is mostly a family-based infectious disease. To facilitate its prevention and management, a national consensus meeting was held to review current evidence and propose strategies for population-wide and family-based H. pylori infection control and management to reduce the related disease burden. METHODS: Fifty-seven experts from 41 major universities and institutions in 20 provinces/regions of mainland China were invited to review evidence and modify statements using Delphi process and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation system. The consensus level was defined as ≥80% for agreement on the proposed statements. RESULTS: Experts discussed and modified the original 23 statements on family-based H. pylori infection transmission, control and management, and reached consensus on 16 statements. The final report consists of three parts: (1) H. pylori infection and transmission among family members, (2) prevention and management of H. pylori infection in children and elderly people within households, and (3) strategies for prevention and management of H. pylori infection for family members. In addition to the 'test-and-treat' and 'screen-and-treat' strategies, this consensus also introduced a novel third 'family-based H. pylori infection control and management' strategy to prevent its intrafamilial transmission and development of related diseases. CONCLUSION: H. pylori is transmissible from person to person, and among family members. A family-based H. pylori prevention and eradication strategy would be a suitable approach to prevent its intra-familial transmission and related diseases. The notion and practice would be beneficial not only for Chinese residents but also valuable as a reference for other highly infected areas.

4.
International journal of disaster risk reduction : IJDRR ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615232

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study is to determine the trajectories of physical activity and depressive symptoms and their reciprocal relationship among community-dwelling older adults in the COVID-19 pandemic era. The study population consisted of a cohort of 511 participants aged 60 years and over, who were recruited from eight community health centers in Ya'an, China. The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the Patient Health Questionnaire were respectively used to measure physical activity and depressive symptoms at three time points: before the COVID-19 outbreak (T0), during the outbreak period (T1), and after the subsidence of COVID-19 (T2). The results revealed that physical activity and depressive symptoms fluctuated substantially across T0, T1, and T2. In addition, more severe depressive symptoms at T0 and T1 were significantly associated with lower levels of physical activity at T1 and T2, but the obverse direction of physical activity being associated with subsequent depressive symptoms was not observed in the current study. These findings highlight the importance of supporting old people to remain physically active and combat mental distress early in a pandemic, and prevention and management of depressive symptoms may also be beneficial to promote physical activity.

5.
Nature ; 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616990

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 variant (Omicron) contains 15 mutations on the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron would evade RBD neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) requires immediate investigation. Here, we used high-throughput yeast display screening1,2 to determine the RBD escaping mutation profiles for 247 human anti-RBD NAbs and showed that the NAbs could be unsupervised clustered into six epitope groups (A-F), which is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications3-5. Strikingly, various single mutations of Omicron could impair NAbs of different epitope groups. Specifically, NAbs in Group A-D, whose epitope overlap with ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A, and Q493R. Group E (S309 site)6 and F (CR3022 site)7 NAbs, which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but still, a subset of NAbs are escaped by G339D, N440K, and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that single mutation tolerating NAbs could also be escaped due to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested NAbs are escaped by Omicron. Regarding NAb drugs, the neutralization potency of LY-CoV016/LY-CoV555, REGN10933/REGN10987, AZD1061/AZD8895, and BRII-196 were greatly reduced by Omicron, while VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still function at reduced efficacy. Together, data suggest Omicron would cause significant humoral immune evasion, while NAbs targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region remain most effective. Our results offer instructions for developing NAb drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614037

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: It is important to improve vaccination strategies and immunization programs to achieve herd immunity to infectious diseases. (2) Methods: To assess the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination, we conducted face-to-face surveys and online surveys in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Qinghai provinces. A fixed-effect model and a random effects model were used to analyze factors associated with the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. (3) Findings: We initially recruited 3173 participants, 3172 participants completed the full questionnaire (the response rate was nearly 100%), of which 2169 were valid questionnaires, with an effective rate of 87.3%. The results indicated that 82.6% of participants were willing to receive vaccination when it was available in the community, and 57.2% of deliverymen, 43.3% of medical workers, 78.2% of parents of primary and secondary school children, and 72.2% of parents of preschool children were willing to receive vaccination. The models showed that participants who were male (female vs. male: OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.12, 1.98)), 60 to 69 years-old (60-69 vs. <30: OR = 0.52, 95% CI (0.29, 0.92)), had less education (medium vs. low: OR = 1.50, 95% CI (1.05, 2.23)), had good health status (good vs. low: OR = 0.36, 95% CI (0.15, 0.88)), and had positive attitudes and trust (OR = 0.14, 95% CI (0.10, 0.20)) in vaccines approved by the National Health Commission were more likely to accept vaccination. Participants also had an increased vaccination acceptance if it was recommended by government sources, doctors, relatives, or friends. Most participants learned about COVID-19 vaccination from television, radio, and newspapers, followed by community or hospital campaigns and the internet. (4) Conclusions: Government sources and doctors could increase the acceptance of vaccination by promoting the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccination by the use of mass media and emphasizing the necessity of vaccination for everyone.

7.
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211069281, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of the novel 'TIB' Olfactory Test Device (TIB) and to determine its normative values. METHODS: The study stratified the study subjects into normosmic, hyposmic and anosmic groups according to their olfactory function. The olfactory function of the subjects was evaluated using both the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania of Smell Identification Test (UPSIT-TC) and the TIB. The normosmic group was used to retest with the UPSIT-TC and TIB at an inter-test interval of at least 7 days. The cut-off scores of TIB among the three different groups were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: This study enrolled 180 subjects: 60 in each group. The mean scores of TIB were 44.1 for the normosmic group, 27.5 for the hyposmic group and 10.9 for the anosmic group. The TIB scores were significantly different across the three groups. There was a significant correlation between the first and second TIB tests (r = 0.506). The cut-off scores were 41 for normosmic subjects and 24 for hyposmic subjects. CONCLUSION: The validity and test-retest reliability results suggest that the TIB is an appropriate olfactory test for the Taiwanese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
8.
Psychiatry Investig ; 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605606

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study explores the serial multiple mediation of the correlation between internet addiction and depression by social support and sleep quality of college students during the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: We enrolled 2,688 students from a certain university in Wuhu, China. Questionnaire measures of internet addiction, social support, sleep quality, depression and background characteristics were obtained. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression, among 2,688 college students (median age [IQR]=20.49 [20.0, 21.0] years) was 30.6%. 32.4% of the students had the tendency of internet addiction, among which the proportion of mild, moderate and severe were 29.8%, 2.5% and 0.1%, respectively. In our normal internet users and internet addiction group, the incidence of depression was 22.6% and 47.2%, respectively. The findings indicated that internet addiction was directly related to college students' depression and indirectly predicted students' depression via the mediator of social support and sleep quality. The mediation effect of social support and sleep quality on the pathway from internet addiction to depression was 41.97% (direct effect: standardized estimate=0.177; total indirect effect: standardized estimate= 0.128). The proposed model fit the data well. CONCLUSION: Social support and sleep quality may continuously mediate the link between internet addiction and depression. Therefore, the stronger the degree of internet addiction, the lower the individual's sense of social support and the worse the quality of sleep, which will ultimately the higher the degree of depression. We recommend strengthening monitoring of internet use during the COVID-19 epidemic, increasing social support and improving sleep quality, so as to reduce the risk of depression for college students.

9.
The International Journal of Social Quality ; 11(1-2):31-57, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1599106

ABSTRACT

This article describes, from a sociopolitical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural perspective, the governance practices of the COVID-19 epidemic control response in China. We describe that, in line with the “whole of government approach,” strong resource mobilization and control of government departments, companies, and citizen communities has worked efficiently to rapidly contain the epidemic. Community participation at the grassroots level has played a decisive part. We assume that the deeply rooted collectivistic Chinese culture has made residents trust the government’s decisions and comply with the prevention and control strategies. We pose some intriguing questions for more analytical comparative research. They concern the normative interpretation of the influences of sociopolitical, economic, and cultural forces, as well as the balance between “collectivism” and “individualism” in societies.

10.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(8): 1965-1999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599109

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and irreversible interstitial lung disease that even threatens the lives of some patients infected with COVID-19. PF is a multicellular pathological process, including the initial injuries of epithelial cells, recruitment of inflammatory cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, activation and differentiation of fibroblasts, etc. TGF-[Formula: see text]1 acts as a key effect factor that participates in these cellular processes of PF. Recently, much attention was paid to inhibiting TGF-[Formula: see text]1 mediated cell processes in the treatment of PF with Chinese herbal medicines (CHM), an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. Here, this review first summarized the effects of TGF-[Formula: see text]1 in different cellular processes of PF. Then, this review summarized the recent research on CHM (compounds, multi-components, single medicines and prescriptions) to directly and/or indirectly inhibit TGF-[Formula: see text]1 signaling (TLRs, PPARs, micrRNA, etc.) in PF. Most of the research focused on CHM natural compounds, including but not limited to alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and terpenes. After review, the research perspectives of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1 inhibition in PF were further discussed. This review hopes that revealing the inhibiting effects of CHM on TGF-[Formula: see text]1-mediated cellular processes of PF can promote CHM to be better understood and utilized, thus transforming the therapeutic activities of CHM into practice.


Subject(s)
Cell Physiological Phenomena/drug effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
11.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):65-66, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584839

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of providing person-centered care for our vulnerable populations across the globe. This symposium focuses on improving care for persons with cognitive impairment and dementia in various care settings. The first study explored dyadic experiences of living with early-onset dementia pre and during COVID-19 in China through a person-centered care lens. The second concept analysis presented four interrelated dimensions of Asian American caregiver support, including individual, family, community, and professional health system. The third study investigated undergraduate nursing students’ attitudes toward pursuing jobs of providing care for older adults with dementia in rapidly-aging urban areas in China and its associated factors. The fourth study examined the impact of social isolation on cognitive function and Quality of Life among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients in China. The last study explored an association between perceived control and cognitive function among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients in China. The last two studies suggested that perceived control and social isolation may be potential targets in cognitive interventions for AIS patients. This symposium presents the understanding of dementia caregiver support, the empirical evidence of living with dementia, the attitudes towards dementia care among the next generation of nursing workforce, and the impact of social factors on cognitive functions longitudinally. The presenters emphasize the importance of improving care in long-term care and acute care settings. There is a need to design person and family-centered care to improve health and wellbeing of persons with cognitive impairment.

12.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):66-66, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584838

ABSTRACT

We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 dyads of persons with early-onset dementia (EOD) and their primary informal care partners to explore their dyadic experiences of living EOD in Shanghai, China. Many of them are in their 50s and still need to make familial, financial, and social commitments. They experienced significant disruptions of their "normal" family life and family dynamics, social stigma, and felt marginalized when there was very limited age-appropriate support for them. During COVID-19 pandemic, many persons with EDO and their care partners had decreased social networking opportunities, physical exercises and experienced an increased level of social isolation. The pandemic further complicated their family dynamics, relationships, and communications. Care partners used their strengths to adaptively deal with multiple challenges, cope with the stress, social isolation, and normalize their family life by facilitating collaborative work with persons with EOD.

13.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):66-67, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584837

ABSTRACT

This study examined the impactof social isolation on cognitive function and Quality of Life (QoL) among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients in China. We conducted in-person interviews among 206 AIS patients during the acute stage and at 3-month after onset in three cities between May 2020 and February 2021. The data was collected during and post-COVID-19 period in China. We conducted bivariate and multipleregression analyses.Results show that over time, average level of social isolation decreased, and cognitive function and QoL increased.After controllingfor covariates, social isolation was negatively associated with cognitive function (β=-0.438, p<0.01) and QoL (β=-2.521, p<0.01). These findings suggest that addressing the issue of social isolation could potentially impact patients’ cognitive function and QoL.Future studies are needed to further examine the linkages between long-term social isolation and changes in cognitive function and QoL among AIS patients.

14.
COVID ; 2(1):5-17, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580968

ABSTRACT

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are associated with a range of respiratory symptoms. The discovery of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and SARS-CoV-2 pose a significant threat to human health. In this study, we developed a method (HCoV-MS) that combines multiplex PCR with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), to detect and differentiate seven HCoVs simultaneously. The HCoV-MS method had high specificity and sensitivity, with a 1–5 copies/reaction detection limit. To validate the HCoV-MS method, we tested 163 clinical samples, and the results showed good concordance with real-time PCR. Additionally, the detection sensitivity of HCoV-MS and real-time PCR was comparable. The HCoV-MS method is a sensitive assay, requiring only 1 μL of a sample. Moreover, it is a high-throughput method, allowing 384 samples to be processed simultaneously in 30 min. We propose that this method be used to complement real-time PCR for large-scale screening studies.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 299: 326-334, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When COVID-19 emerged in China in late 2019, most citizens were home-quarantined to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Extended periods of isolation have detrimental effects on an individual's mental health. Therefore, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic should include assessment of psychological distress and its known risk factors, including coping style and emotional regulation. METHODS: This cross-sectional study surveyed 6,027 Chinese university students recruited from May 25, 2020 to June 10, 2020. In addition to sociodemographic information, participant data were collected using online versions of the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ), and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). RESULTS: The incidence of psychological distress was found to be 35.34%. Negative coping style and expressing panic about COVID-19 on social media were the most important predictors of psychological distress. In addition, being male, being a "left-behind child" or having a monthly household income lower than 5000 CNY or higher than 20,000 CNY were associated with higher psychological distress. CONCLUSION: The psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic could be serious. Psychological interventions that reduce nervousness and negative coping style need to be made available to home-quarantined university students, especially those who are male, are "left-behind", have a monthly household income lower than 5000 CNY or higher than 20,000 CNY, or express panic on social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotional Regulation , Psychological Distress , Adaptation, Psychological , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Matter ; 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587033

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic urges us to develop ultra-sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates to identify the infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 virions in actual environments. Here, a micrometer-sized spherical SnS2 structure with the hierarchical nanostructure of "nano-canyon" morphology was developed as semiconductor-based SERS substrate, and it exhibited an extremely low limit of detection of 10-13 M for methylene blue, which is one of the highest sensitivities among the reported pure semiconductor-based SERS substrates. Such ultra-high SERS sensitivity originated from the synergistic enhancements of the molecular enrichment caused by capillary effect and the charge transfer chemical enhancement boosted by the lattice strain and sulfur vacancies. The novel two-step SERS diagnostic route based on the ultra-sensitive SnS2 substrate was presented to diagnose the infectiousness of SARS-CoV-2 through the identification standard of SERS signals for SARS-CoV-2 S protein and RNA, which could accurately identify non-infectious lysed SARS-CoV-2 virions in actual environments, whereas the current PCR methods cannot.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 770197, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581233

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is one of the pathologic changes in COVID-19 patients in convalescence, and it is also a potential long-term sequela in severe COVID-19 patients. Qimai Feiluoping decoction (QM) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula recommended in the Chinese national medical program for COVID-19 convalescent patients, and PF is one of its indications. Through clinical observation, QM was found to improve the clinical symptoms and pulmonary function and reduce the degree of PF of COVID-19 convalescent patients. To further explore the pharmacological mechanisms and possible active components of QM in anti-PF effect, UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the composition of the QM extract and the active components that can be absorbed into the blood, leading to the identification of 56 chemical compounds and 10 active components. Then, network pharmacology was used to predict the potential mechanisms and targets of QM; it predicted that QM exerts its anti-PF effects via the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and TGF-ß signaling pathway. Finally, TGF-ß1-induced A549 cells were used to verify and explore the pharmacological effects of QM and found that QM could inhibit the proliferation of TGF-ß1-induced A549 cells, attenuate EMT, and promote ECM degradation by inhibiting the TGF-ß/Smad3 pathway.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 787819, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581146

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has put the global health system under the spotlight. As part of the medical workforce, nurses play an important role in interacting with and caring for patients; hence, patient-centered communication (PCC) has been emphasized in nursing education. Thus, it is worth investigating how future nurses perceive PCC and PCC-related factors under the special circumstances of COVID-19. For this purpose, the present study analyzed the mechanisms underlying the association between self-efficacy and nurse-patient communication tendency through learning burnout among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The general self-efficacy questionnaire, college students' learning burnout scale, and doctor-patient communication tendency scale were used to survey 2,231 nursing students in higher vocational medical colleges at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: General self-efficacy can directly negatively correlate with the degree of nursing students' overall nurse-patient communication, including caring, sharing, and health promotion. Dejection from learning burnout partially mediated the relationships between self-efficacy and caring and between self-efficacy and sharing; it fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and health promotion. Reduced personal accomplishment partially mediated between self-efficacy and caring, while it fully mediated between self-efficacy and health promotion; however, it did not play a role in the sharing model. Conclusion: Self-efficacy influences nurse-patient communication through learning burnout. Specifically, dejection and reduced personal accomplishment-two aspects of learning burnout-may compromise nursing students' willingness to engage in PCC. Thus, the importance of PCC, especially during critical health situations such as pandemics, should be emphasized further in future nursing education.

20.
Toxics ; 9(12)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580434

ABSTRACT

Wuhan was locked down from 23 January to 8 April 2020 to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Both public and private transportation in Wuhan and its neighboring cities in Hubei Province were suspended or restricted, and the manufacturing industry was partially shut down. This study collected and investigated ground monitoring data to prove that the lockdowns of the cities had significant influences on the air quality in Wuhan. The WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting-Community Multiscale Air Quality) model was used to evaluate the emission reduction from transportation and industry sectors and associated air quality impact. The results indicate that the reduction in traffic emission was nearly 100% immediately after the lockdown between 23 January and 8 February and that the industrial emission tended to decrease by about 50% during the same period. The industrial emission further deceased after 9 February. Emission reduction from transportation and that from industry was not simultaneous. The results imply that the shutdown of industry contributed significantly more to the pollutant reduction than the restricted transportation.

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