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1.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326334

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in late 2019, has since spread around the world and infected hundreds of millions of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While this viral species was unknown prior to January 2020, its similarity to other coronaviruses that infect humans has allowed for rapid insight into the mechanisms that it uses to infect human hosts, as well as the ways in which the human immune system can respond. Here, we contextualize SARS-CoV-2 among other coronaviruses and identify what is known and what can be inferred about its behavior once inside a human host. Because the genomic content of coronaviruses, which specifies the virus's structure, is highly conserved, early genomic analysis provided a significant head start in predicting viral pathogenesis and in understanding potential differences among variants. The pathogenesis of the virus offers insights into symptomatology, transmission, and individual susceptibility. Additionally, prior research into interactions between the human immune system and coronaviruses has identified how these viruses can evade the immune system's protective mechanisms. We also explore systems-level research into the regulatory and proteomic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the immune response. Understanding the structure and behavior of the virus serves to contextualize the many facets of the COVID-19 pandemic and can influence efforts to control the virus and treat the disease.

3.
J Invest Surg ; 35(6): 1350-1356, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As clinical rotations were disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with surgical specialty being the one most severely affected among all disciplines, social media had become increasingly used for surgical education. We aimed to identify and present the application of social media as an essential tool for surgical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for potentially eligible articles published until April 2021. The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were identified and systematically reviewed that related to the application of social media use in surgical education during the COVID-19 pandemic. These may be grouped into 3 discrete categories (online learning, scientific research, networking) and 14 topics (online resources, virtual conferencing, preparing for exams, etc.). CONCLUSIONS: Social media has played a multidimensional critical role in training surgical students and residents in the COVID-19 era, with special superiority that cannot be substituted by other online tools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
mSystems ; 6(6): e0023321, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494991

ABSTRACT

After emerging in China in late 2019, the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread worldwide, and as of mid-2021, it remains a significant threat globally. Only a few coronaviruses are known to infect humans, and only two cause infections similar in severity to SARS-CoV-2: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, a species closely related to SARS-CoV-2 that emerged in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, which emerged in 2012. Unlike the current pandemic, previous epidemics were controlled rapidly through public health measures, but the body of research investigating severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome has proven valuable for identifying approaches to treating and preventing novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Building on this research, the medical and scientific communities have responded rapidly to the COVID-19 crisis and identified many candidate therapeutics. The approaches used to identify candidates fall into four main categories: adaptation of clinical approaches to diseases with related pathologies, adaptation based on virological properties, adaptation based on host response, and data-driven identification (ID) of candidates based on physical properties or on pharmacological compendia. To date, a small number of therapeutics have already been authorized by regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), while most remain under investigation. The scale of the COVID-19 crisis offers a rare opportunity to collect data on the effects of candidate therapeutics. This information provides insight not only into the management of coronavirus diseases but also into the relative success of different approaches to identifying candidate therapeutics against an emerging disease. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic is a rapidly evolving crisis. With the worldwide scientific community shifting focus onto the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19, a large number of possible pharmaceutical approaches for treatment and prevention have been proposed. What was known about each of these potential interventions evolved rapidly throughout 2020 and 2021. This fast-paced area of research provides important insight into how the ongoing pandemic can be managed and also demonstrates the power of interdisciplinary collaboration to rapidly understand a virus and match its characteristics with existing or novel pharmaceuticals. As illustrated by the continued threat of viral epidemics during the current millennium, a rapid and strategic response to emerging viral threats can save lives. In this review, we explore how different modes of identifying candidate therapeutics have borne out during COVID-19.

5.
mSystems ; 6(5): e0009521, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483995

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in late 2019, has since spread around the world and infected hundreds of millions of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While this viral species was unknown prior to January 2020, its similarity to other coronaviruses that infect humans has allowed for rapid insight into the mechanisms that it uses to infect human hosts, as well as the ways in which the human immune system can respond. Here, we contextualize SARS-CoV-2 among other coronaviruses and identify what is known and what can be inferred about its behavior once inside a human host. Because the genomic content of coronaviruses, which specifies the virus's structure, is highly conserved, early genomic analysis provided a significant head start in predicting viral pathogenesis and in understanding potential differences among variants. The pathogenesis of the virus offers insights into symptomatology, transmission, and individual susceptibility. Additionally, prior research into interactions between the human immune system and coronaviruses has identified how these viruses can evade the immune system's protective mechanisms. We also explore systems-level research into the regulatory and proteomic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the immune response. Understanding the structure and behavior of the virus serves to contextualize the many facets of the COVID-19 pandemic and can influence efforts to control the virus and treat the disease. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 involves a number of organ systems and can present with a wide range of symptoms. From how the virus infects cells to how it spreads between people, the available research suggests that these patterns are very similar to those seen in the closely related viruses SARS-CoV-1 and possibly Middle East respiratory syndrome-related CoV (MERS-CoV). Understanding the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus also contextualizes how the different biological systems affected by COVID-19 connect. Exploring the structure, phylogeny, and pathogenesis of the virus therefore helps to guide interpretation of the broader impacts of the virus on the human body and on human populations. For this reason, an in-depth exploration of viral mechanisms is critical to a robust understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and, potentially, future emergent human CoVs (HCoVs).

6.
Support Care Cancer ; 30(3): 2111-2119, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the psychological health status and explore the impact of different factors among thyroid cancer patients during the peak period of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. METHODS: With thyroid cancer patients who had attended Peking Union Medical College Hospital included, we collected their demographic and clinical characteristics, COVID-19-related factors, and outcomes of 4 psychological scales (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI], Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire [GAD-7], Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], and Impact of Events Scale-Revised [IES-R]) through an online questionnaire and used multiple linear regression to find independent risk factors for each psychological symptom. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients were included. Insomnia, anxiety, depression, and clinically relevant post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were reported by 69 (31.5%), 87 (39.7%), 74 (33.8%), and 44 (20.1%) patients, respectively. Based on multiple linear regression, being single/divorced/widowed, having a lower level of education, receiving resources of science lectures during the epidemic, and experiencing disruption of routine treatment or follow-up were associated with poorer psychological health among patients with thyroid cancer. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of psychological symptoms and potential risk factors were found in thyroid cancer patients during the peak period of COVID-19 in China. Based on these findings, the psychological status of these patients should be a focus, and the psychological support systems need to be strengthened for the prevention of psychological crises during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyroid Neoplasms , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Depression , Health Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thyroid Neoplasms/epidemiology
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 584874, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207706

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of COVID-19 prevention and control measures on the transmission of common respiratory viruses in a pediatric population. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. The study population was selected from children with respiratory diseases who attended Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 1, 2018 to January 31, 2021. All children were screened for influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The changes in respiratory virus detection rates before and after the SARS-CoV-2 intervention were analyzed using an interrupted time-series model. Polynomial curve fitting was also used to predict future short-term trends in respiratory virus detection. Results: A total of 56,859 children were seen at Xiamen Children's Hospital from January 1, 2018 to Jan 31, 2021, of which 32,120 were tested for respiratory viruses via pharyngeal swabs. The overall positive detection rates of the four respiratory viral infections decreased significantly (P = 0.0017) after the implementation of the quarantine and school suspension measures in January 2020. Among them, the detection rate of RSV decreased most significantly (P = 0.008), and although there was no statistically significant difference in the detection rates of the influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and adenovirus, a downward trend in the graph was observed. The positive detection rates of RSV in the 0-1-, 1-3-, and 3-7-year-old groups all decreased significantly (P = 0.035, 0.016, and 0.038, respectively). The change in the positive detection rate of RSV was relatively stable in the 7-18-year-old group. A total of 10,496 samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and no positive cases were reported. Conclusions: The combination of preventive and control measures for COVID-19 reduced the detection rate of four common respiratory viruses, with the greatest impact on RSV. If prevention and control measures continue to be maintained, the overall detection rate or absolute number of detections for the four respiratory viruses will remain low in the short term. However, this trend is likely to vary with the changes in measures.

8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(2): 331-342.e5, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009887

ABSTRACT

ApoE4, a strong genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease, has been associated with increased risk for severe COVID-19. However, it is unclear whether ApoE4 alters COVID-19 susceptibility or severity, and the role of direct viral infection in brain cells remains obscure. We tested the neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 in human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models and observed low-grade infection of neurons and astrocytes that is boosted in neuron-astrocyte co-cultures and organoids. We then generated isogenic ApoE3/3 and ApoE4/4 hiPSCs and found an increased rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in ApoE4/4 neurons and astrocytes. ApoE4 astrocytes exhibited enlarged size and elevated nuclear fragmentation upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Finally, we show that remdesivir treatment inhibits SARS-CoV2 infection of hiPSC neurons and astrocytes. These findings suggest that ApoE4 may play a causal role in COVID-19 severity. Understanding how risk factors impact COVID-19 susceptibility and severity will help us understand the potential long-term effects in different patient populations.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins E/metabolism , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tropism/physiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Astrocytes/drug effects , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Cell Differentiation , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Nerve Degeneration/pathology , Neurites/pathology , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/pathology , Organoids/virology , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Synapses/pathology , Vero Cells
9.
Genes Dis ; 7(4): 558-566, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-666065

ABSTRACT

Superspreaders are critical infectious resources in multiple infectious diseases. They can be asymptomatic or present mild symptoms but can transmit pathogens to susceptible populations, leading to severe symptoms, and even death. Early identification of this population is extremely important to inhibit the spread of infectious diseases. Right now, the whole global world is suffering from a devastating infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this article, a superspreader cluster event in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was identified by tracking contacting histories of infected patients. This cluster was found to be originated from an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carrier, which resulted in 13 secondary cases getting infected. All the secondary patients presented with non-typical symptoms of COVID-19, such as fever, dry cough, and myalgia, one of which died of respiratory failure at the end. From this cluster, we learn that people with older ages, low immunity, multiple underlying diseases, especially pulmonary diseases, can contribute to a poor prognosis. Thus, asymptomatic superspreaders of COVID-19 can be extremely dangerous and must be handled time-efficiently.

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