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1.
Environ Res ; : 112205, 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466329

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, ventilation on transport has been improved to control the aerosol transmission. We utilized portable monitors to measure real-time concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0 and black carbon (BC) on six modes of transport and estimate personal exposures under the epidemic prevention. The mean concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0 and BC measured on transport were 18.8 ± 19.4, 16.6 ± 16.5, 12.2 ± 10.8 and 4.1 ± 6.9 µg/m3, respectively. It reduced PM levels on subway to apply the full fresh air mode rather than partial recirculation mode. Airplane had the lowest concentrations and the highest decay rates, implying the most efficient ventilation and filtration. PM were higher on intra-city transport than inter-city, and significantly increased on arrival at stations. BC and BC/PM ratios were higher on road transport than rail transport, indicating the contribution of exhaust emissions. The ventilation mode to exchange air with the outside and the positive association between concentrations and decay rates on high-speed train suggested filtration efficiency should be improved simultaneously with enhancing ventilation. Wearing facemasks on transport further protects passengers against PM exposure, which reduced personal exposure concentrations on four modes of transport lower than 10 µg/m3, the World Health Organization guideline.

2.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130406, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169125

ABSTRACT

During the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries took strong lockdown policy to reduce disease spreading, resulting in mitigating the ambient air pollution due to less traffic and industrial emissions. However, limited studies focused on the household air pollution especially in rural area, the potential risk induced by indoor air pollution exposure was unknown during this period. This field study continuously measured real-time PM2.5 levels in kitchen, living room, and outdoor in the normal days (Period-1) and the days of COVID-19 lockdown overlapping the Chinese Spring Festival (Period-2) in rural homes in China. The average daily PM2.5 concentrations increased by 17.4 and 5.1 µg/m3 in kitchen and living room during Period-2, respectively, which may be due to more fuel consumption for cooking and heating caused by larger family sizes than those during the normal days. The ambient PM2.5 concentration in rural areas in Period-2 decreased by 6.7 µg/m3 compared to the Period-1, less than the drop in urban areas (26.8 µg/m3). An increase of mass fraction of very fine particles in ambient air was observed during lockdown overlapping annual festival days, which could be explained by the residential solid fuel burning. Due to higher indoor air pollution level and longer time spent in indoor environments, daily personal exposure to PM2.5 was 134 ± 40 µg/m3 in Period-2, which was significantly higher than that during in Period-1 (126 ± 27 µg/m3, p < 0.05). The increase of personal PM2.5 exposure during Period-2 could potentially have negative impact on human health, indicating further investigations should be performed to estimate the health impact of global COVID-19 lockdown on community, especially in rural homes using solid fuels as the routine fuels.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Cooking , Environmental Monitoring , Family Characteristics , Holidays , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2
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