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1.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 12(7): 2969-2989, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262519

ABSTRACT

Patients exhibit good tolerance to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines, and the choice of encoded molecules is flexible and diverse. These vaccines can be engineered to express full-length antigens containing multiple epitopes without major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restriction, are relatively easy to control and can be rapidly mass produced. In 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine produced by Pfizer and BioNTech, which has generated enthusiasm for mRNA vaccine research and development. Based on the above characteristics and the development of mRNA vaccines, mRNA cancer vaccines have become a research hotspot and have undergone rapid development, especially in the last five years. This review analyzes the advances in mRNA cancer vaccines from various perspectives, including the selection and expression of antigens/targets, the application of vectors and adjuvants, different administration routes, and preclinical evaluation, to reflect the trends and challenges associated with these vaccines.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 749379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551543

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has had a wide impact on the mental health of college students. This study aims to explore the relationship between time perception, risk perception, and the mental health of college students during COVID-19 through a questionnaire survey. Subjects: One thousand two hundred and eighteen college students, 449 male and 769 female, who studied online during the COVID-19 epidemic were selected. Methods: Time Perception Scale, Risk Perception Scale, and SCL-90 were used to investigate the relationship using correlation analysis. Results: During the COVID-19 period, mental health problems of college students were widespread, and 65.93% of college students reported moderate to severe mental health problems. The correlation analysis showed that risk perception, time perception, and the mental health of college students were significantly related. Risk perception played a partial mediating role between present enjoyment and mental health, and risk perception played a partial mediating role between future time perception and mental health. Conclusion: In the case of sudden public crises, we should pay close attention to the mental health of college students, adjust their attitude toward the present and the future, and pay attention to their perception of risk so as to improve their mental health level under crisis.

3.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2606-2618, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944152

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing huge impact on health, life, and global economy, which is characterized by rapid spreading of SARS-CoV-2, high number of confirmed cases and a fatality/case rate worldwide reported by WHO. The most effective intervention measure will be to develop safe and effective vaccines to protect the population from the disease and limit the spread of the virus. An inactivated, whole virus vaccine candidate of SARS-CoV-2 has been developed by Wuhan Institute of Biological Products and Wuhan Institute of Virology. The low toxicity, immunogenicity, and immune persistence were investigated in preclinical studies using seven different species of animals. The results showed that the vaccine candidate was well tolerated and stimulated high levels of specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Low or no toxicity in three species of animals was also demonstrated in preclinical study of the vaccine candidate. Biochemical analysis of structural proteins and purity analysis were performed. The inactivated, whole virion vaccine was characterized with safe double-inactivation, no use of DNases and high purity. Dosages, boosting times, adjuvants, and immunization schedules were shown to be important for stimulating a strong humoral immune response in animals tested. Preliminary observation in ongoing phase I and II clinical trials of the vaccine candidate in Wuzhi County, Henan Province, showed that the vaccine is well tolerant. The results were characterized by very low proportion and low degree of side effects, high levels of neutralizing antibodies, and seroconversion. These results consistent with the results obtained from preclinical data on the safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Vaccines, Inactivated/adverse effects , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
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