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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-16, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764464

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants is threatening the public health around the world. Endocytosis functions as an important way for viral infection, and SARS-CoV-2 bears no exception. However, the specific endocytic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown. In this study, we used endocytic inhibitors to evaluate the role of different endocytic routes in SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection and found that the viral infection was associated with caveolar/lipid raft- and cytoskeleton-mediated endocytosis, but independent of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Meanwhile, the knockdown of CD147 and Rab5a in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells inhibited SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection, and the co-localization of spike protein, CD147, and Rab5 was observed in pseudovirus-infected Vero E6 cells, which was weakened by CD147 silencing, illustrating that SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entered host cells via CD147-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, Arf6 silencing markedly inhibited pseudovirus infection in Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells, while little change was observed in CD147 konckout-Vero E6 cells. This finding indicated Arf6-mediated CD147 trafficking plays a vital role in SARS-CoV-2 entry. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into CD147-Arf6 axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus entry into the host cells and further suggest that blockade of this pathway seems to be a feasible approach to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection clinically.

2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(11): 1261-1267, 2020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus has caused the outbreak of the acute respiratory disease in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China since December 2019. This study was performed to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients who succumbed to and who recovered from 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: Clinical data were collected from two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan. A retrospective investigation was conducted to analyze the clinical characteristics of fatal cases of COVID-19 (death group) and we compare them with recovered patients (recovered group). Continuous variables were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ test or Fisher exact test as appropriate. RESULTS: Our study enrolled 109 COVID-19 patients who died during hospitalization and 116 recovered patients. The median age of the death group was older than the recovered group (69 [62, 74] vs. 40 [33, 57] years, Z = 9.738, P < 0.001). More patients in the death group had underlying diseases (72.5% vs. 41.4%, χ = 22.105, P < 0.001). Patients in the death group had a significantly longer time of illness onset to hospitalization (10.0 [6.5, 12.0] vs. 7.0 [5.0, 10.0] days, Z = 3.216, P = 0.001). On admission, the proportions of patients with symptoms of dyspnea (70.6% vs. 19.0%, χ = 60.905, P < 0.001) and expectoration (32.1% vs. 12.1%, χ = 13.250, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the death group. The blood oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the death group (85 [77, 91]% vs. 97 [95, 98]%, Z = 10.625, P < 0.001). The white blood cell (WBC) in death group was significantly higher on admission (7.23 [4.87, 11.17] vs. 4.52 [3.62, 5.88] ×10/L, Z = 7.618, P < 0.001). Patients in the death group exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count (0.63 [0.40, 0.79] vs. 1.00 [0.72, 1.27] ×10/L, Z = 8.037, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte percentage (7.10 [4.45, 12.73]% vs. 23.50 [15.27, 31.25]%, Z = 10.315, P < 0.001) on admission, and the lymphocyte percentage continued to decrease during hospitalization (7.10 [4.45, 12.73]% vs. 2.91 [1.79, 6.13]%, Z = 5.242, P < 0.001). Alanine transaminase (22.00 [15.00, 34.00] vs. 18.70 [13.00, 30.38] U/L, Z = 2.592, P = 0.010), aspartate transaminase (34.00 [27.00, 47.00] vs. 22.00 [17.65, 31.75] U/L, Z = 7.308, P < 0.001), and creatinine levels (89.00 [72.00, 133.50] vs. 65.00 [54.60, 78.75] µmol/L, Z = 6.478, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the death group than those in the recovered group. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also significantly higher in the death group on admission (109.25 [35.00, 170.28] vs. 3.22 [1.04, 21.80] mg/L, Z = 10.206, P < 0.001) and showed no significant improvement after treatment (109.25 [35.00, 170.28] vs. 81.60 [27.23, 179.08] mg/L, Z = 1.219, P = 0.233). The patients in the death group had more complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (89.9% vs. 8.6%, χ = 148.105, P < 0.001), acute cardiac injury (59.6% vs. 0.9%, χ = 93.222, P < 0.001), acute kidney injury (18.3% vs. 0%, χ = 23.257, P < 0.001), shock (11.9% vs. 0%, χ = 14.618, P < 0.001), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (6.4% vs. 0%, χ = 7.655, P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the recovered group, more patients in the death group exhibited characteristics of advanced age, pre-existing comorbidities, dyspnea, oxygen saturation decrease, increased WBC count, decreased lymphocytes, and elevated CRP levels. More patients in the death group had complications such as ARDS, acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury, shock, and DIC.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 789505, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699851

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2019 has had a significant impact on people's learning and their lives, including a significant increase in the incidence of academic procrastination and negative emotions. The topic of how negative emotions influences academic procrastination has been long debated, and previous research has revealed a significant relationship between the two. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the mediating and buffering effects of online-shopping addiction on academic procrastination and negative emotions. Methods: The researchers conducted a correlation analysis followed by a mediation analysis and developed a mediation model. The study used stratified sampling and an online questionnaire as the data collection method. In this study, first, five freshmen students at vocational and technical colleges in Guangdong Province, China, were called to distribute the questionnaire. Second, after communicating with them individually, first-year students of Guangdong origin were selected as participants. Finally, 423 freshman students participated by completing the questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: demographic information, an online-shopping-addiction scale, an academic-procrastination scale and a negative-emotions scale. A total of 423 students, 118 males (27.9%) and 305 females (72.1%) from 10 vocational and technical colleges in Guangdong were surveyed. SPSS 25.0 was used to process and analyze the data. The data collected were self-reported. Results: The results showed that: first, academic procrastination was significantly and positively associated with online-shopping addiction (r = 0.176, p < 0.01). Second, academic procrastination was significantly and positively associated with negative emotions (r = 0.250, p < 0.01). Third, online-shopping addiction was significantly and positively associated with negative emotions (r = 0.358, p < 0.01). In addition, academic procrastination had a significant positive predictive effect on online-shopping addiction (ß = 0.1955, t = 3.6622, p < 0.001). Online-shopping addiction had a significant positive predictive effect on negative emotions (ß = 0.4324, t = 7.1437, p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study explored the relationship between students' academic procrastination, negative emotions, and online-shopping addiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that students' level of academic procrastination positively influenced their level of online-shopping addiction and negative emotions, and their level of online-shopping addiction increased their negative emotions. In addition, there was a mediating effect between the degree of participants' online-shopping addiction and their degree of academic procrastination and negative emotions during the pandemic. In other words, with the mediating effect of online-shopping addiction, the higher the level of a participant's academic procrastination, the more likely that the participant would have a high score for negative emotions.

4.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2022: 9781758, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699468

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has evolved many variants with stronger infectivity and immune evasion than the original strain, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Kappa, Iota, Lambda, and 21H strains. Amino acid mutations are enriched in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which plays a crucial role in cell infection. However, the impact of these mutations on protein structure and function is unclear. Understanding the pathophysiology and pandemic features of these SARS-CoV-2 variants requires knowledge of the spike protein structures. Here, we obtained the spike protein structures of 10 main globally endemic SARS-CoV-2 strains using AlphaFold2. The clustering analysis based on structural similarity revealed the unique features of the mainly pandemic SARS-CoV-2 Delta variants, indicating that structural clusters can reflect the current characteristics of the epidemic more accurately than those based on the protein sequence. The analysis of the binding affinities of ACE2-RBD, antibody-NTD, and antibody-RBD complexes in the different variants revealed that the recognition of antibodies against S1 NTD and RBD was decreased in the variants, especially the Delta variant compared with the original strain, which may induce the immune evasion of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Furthermore, by virtual screening the ZINC database against a high-accuracy predicted structure of Delta spike protein and experimental validation, we identified multiple compounds that target S1 NTD and RBD, which might contribute towards the development of clinical anti-SARS-CoV-2 medicines. Our findings provided a basic foundation for future in vitro and in vivo investigations that might speed up the development of potential therapies for the SARS-CoV-2 variants.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309667

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a critical need to identify best practices for communicating health information to the global public. It also provides an opportunity to test theories about risk communication. As part of a larger Psychological Science Accelerator COVID-19 Rapid Project, a global consortium of researchers will experimentally test competing hypotheses regarding the effects of framing messages in terms of losses versus gains. We will examine effects on three primary outcomes: intentions to adhere to policies designed to prevent the spread of COVID-19, opinions about such policies, and the likelihood that participants seek additional policy information. Whereas research on negativity bias and loss aversion predicts that loss-framing will have greater impact, research on encouraging the adoption of protective health behaviour suggests the opposite (i.e., gain-framing will be more persuasive). We will also assess effects on experienced anxiety. Given the potentially low cost and the scalable nature of framing interventions, results could be valuable to health organizations, policymakers, and news sources globally.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323621

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. We aimed to describe the temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 and to assess whether a hybrid model can forecast the trend of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. Method: The data of COVID-19 cases were obtained from the website of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, whereas the data on the resident population were obtained from the website of the Hubei Provincial Bureau of Statistics. The temporal and spatial distribution and the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 were described. A combination of an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and a support vector machine (SVM) was constructed to forecast the trend of COVID-19. Results: : A total of 56,062 confirmed COVID-19 cases, which were mainly concentrated in Wuhan, were reported from 16 January to 16 March 2020 in Hubei Province. The daily number of confirmed cases exponentially increased to 3,156 before 4 February 2020, fluctuated on an upward trend to 4,823 before 13 February 2020, and then markedly decreased to one case after 16 March 2020. The highest mean reproduction number R(t) of 9.48 was recorded on 16 January 2020, after which it decreased to 2.15 on 2 February 2020 and further dropped to less than one on 13 February 2020. In the modelling stage, the mean square error, mean absolute error and mean absolute percentage error of the hybrid ARIMA–SVM model decreased by 98.59%, 89.19% and 89.68%, and those of SVM decreased by 98.58%, 87.71% and 88.94% compared with the ARIMA model. Similar results were obtained in the forecasting stage. Conclusion: Public health interventions resulted in the terminal phase of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. The hybrid ARIMA–SVM model may be a reliable tool for forecasting the trend of the COVID-19 epidemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323620

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)–infected pneumonia (NCIP) is currently ongoing in China. Most of the critically ill patients received high flow nasal cannula (HFNC). However, the experience of HFNC in this population is lacking. Methods We retrospectively collected the NCIP patients who received HFNC in two hospital of Chongqing, China from January 1st to February 18th, 2020. The clinical characteristics were collected. Patients who required upgrading to noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were defined as HFNC failure. Results We enrolled 17 patients in this study. Of them, 7 patients (41%) experienced HFNC failure (6 required upgrading to NIV, and one to NIV and further to intubation). The HFNC failure rate was 0% (0/6), 57% (4/7) and 75% (3/4) (p =0.03 between 3 groups) in patients with PaO2/FiO2 >200, 150-200, and <150 mmHg, respectively. In the successful patients, the respiratory rate, heart rate and PaO2/FiO2 significantly improved from initiation to termination of HFNC (27±3 vs. 21±2 breaths/min, p <0.01;86±15 vs. 76±12 beats/min, p =0.03;and 213±49 vs. 299±125 mmHg, p =0.04, respectively). However, in the unsuccessful patients, the respiratory rate and PaO2/FiO2 significantly deteriorated (22±3 vs. 25±3 breaths/min, p =0.04;and 160±27 vs. 105±24 mmHg, p =0.01, respectively). When they upgraded to NIV, the PaO2/FiO2 improved after 1-2 h of NIV (105±24 vs. 202±111 mmHg, p =0.04). In the total cohort, only PaO2/FiO2 at baseline was lower in unsuccessful patients than that in successful ones (213±49 vs. 160±27 mmHg, p =0.02). Conclusions This study firstly provides the experience of how to use HFNC in patients with NCIP. Patients with lower PaO2/FiO2 were more likely to experience HFNC failure. Among the failure patients, most of them can avoid intubation when they were ungraded to NIV.

8.
Wang, Ke, Goldenberg, Amit, Dorison, Charles, Miller, Jeremy, Uusberg, Andero, Lerner, Jennifer Susan, Gross, James, Marcu, Gabriela Mariana, Agadullina, Elena, Adamkovic, Matus, Roczniewska, Marta, Kassianos, Angelos, Dursun, Pinar, Arinze, Azuka Ikechukwu, Arinze, Nwadiogo Chisom, Ogbonnaya, Chisom, Ndukaihe, Izuchukwu Lawrence Gabriel, Dalgar, Ilker, Akkas, Handan, Macapagal, Paulo Manuel Labalan, Lewis, Savannah, Metin-Orta, Irem, Willis, Megan, Santos, Anabela Caetano, Mokady, Aviv, Reggev, Niv, Vasilev, Martin, Nock, Nora, Parzuchowski, Michal, Barría, Mauricio Espinoza, Vranka, Marek Albert, Ropovik, Ivan, Yao, Xiaohui, Becker, Maja, Manunta, Efisio, Kaminski, Gwenaël, Findor, Andrej, Lewis, David, Aruta, John Jamir Benzon, Zickfeld, Janis, Vásquez, Julio Cruz, Pronizius, Ekaterina, Lamm, Claus, Li, Ranran, Valentova, Jaroslava Varella, Mioni, Giovanna, Cellini, Nicola, Chen, Sau-Chin, Moon, Karis, Azab, Habiba, Todsen, Anna Louise, van§Schie, K.; Bavolar, Jozef, Warmelink, Lara, Ross, Robert, Stephen, Ian David, Hostler, Tom, McCarthy, Randy, Grano, Caterina, Singh§Solorzano, Claudio, Kácha, Ondřej, Arvanitis, Alexios, Xiao, Qinyu, Cárcamo, Rodrigo, Zorjan, Saša, Tajchman, Zuzanna Jagoda, Vilares, Iris, Pavlacic, Jeffrey Michael, Kunst, Jonas, Tamnes, Christian, Atari, Mohammad, Sharifian, MohammadHasan, Hricova, Monika, Kačmár, Pavol, Rahal, Rima-Maria, Zakharov, Ilya, Koehn, Monica, Esteban§Serna, Celia, Hajdu, Nandor, Calin-Jageman, Robert, Krafnick, Anthony James, Očovaj, Sanja Batić, Khosla, Meetu, Urban, Jan, Boudesseul, Jordane, Silva, Jaime, Martončik, Marcel, Šakan, Dušana, Kuzminska, Anna, Djordjevic, Jasna Milosevic, Almeida, Inês, Lazarevic, Ljiljana, Manley, Harry, Zambrano, Danilo, Monteiro, Renan, Musser, Erica, Dunleavy, Daniel, Godbersen, Hendrik, Ruiz-Fernandez, Susana, Reeck, Crystal, Batres, Carlota, Azevedo, Flavio, Alvarez, Daniela Serrato, Chen, Zhang, Verbruggen, Frederick, Ziano, Ignazio, Tümer, Murat, Dubrov, Dmitrii, Karababa, Alper, del§Carmen, Maria, Aberson, Chris, Moller, Arlen, Hubená, Barbora, Ceary, Chris, Singer, Gage Anthony, Perillo, Jennifer Torkildson, Ballantyne, Tonia, Du, Hongfei, Pit, Ilse, Hruška, Matej, Sousa, Daniela, Aczel, Balazs, Szaszi, Barnabas, Barzykowski, Krystian, Micheli, Leticia, Zsido, Andras, Paruzel-Czachura, Mariola, Bialek, Michal, Kowal, Marta, Sorokowska, Agnieszka, Misiak, Michał, Arriaga, Patricia, Oliveira, Raquel Alves, Vaughn, Leigh Ann, Szwed, Paulina, Kossowska, Małgorzata, Kielińska, Julita, Antazo, Benedict Guzman, Stieger, Stefan, Nilsonne, Gustav, simonovic, Nicolle, Taber, Jennifer, Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, Amélie, Domurat, Artur, Ihaya, Keiko, Yamada, Yuki, Urooj, Anum, Gill, Tripat, Bylinina, Lisa, Baklanova, Ekaterina, Albayrak-Aydemir, Nihan, Kappes, Heather Barry, Gjoneska, Biljana, House, Thea, Berkessel, Jana, Muda, Rafał, Chopik, William, Çoksan, Sami, Seehuus, Martin, Khaoudi, Ahmed, Azouaghe, Soufian, Arabi, Kanza A. I. T. E. L.; Djamai, Ikhlas, Wilson, John Paul, Adiguzel, Arca, Kocalar, Halil Emre, Norton, James, Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta, Evans, Kortnee, Chuan-Peng, Hu, De§La§Rosa§Gomez, Anabel, Ankushev, Vladislav, Bogatyreva, Natalia, Grigoryev, Dmitry, Ivanov, Aleksandr, Prusova, Irina, Romanova, Marina, Sarieva, Irena, Terskova, Maria, Hristova, Evgeniya, Janak, Allison, Schei, Vidar, Sverdrup, Therese, Askelund, Adrian Dahl, Collins, Matthew, Boucher, Leanne, Ouherrou, Nihal, Schrötter, Jana, Bokkour, Ahmed, Say, Nicolas, Sinkolova, Sladjana, Janjić, Kristina, Stojanovska, Dragana, Bijlstra, Gijsbert, Mosannenzadeh, Farnaz, Reips, Ulf-Dietrich, Baskin, Ernest, Ishkhanyan, Byurakn, Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna, Dixson, Barnaby, Moreau, David, Sutherland, Clare, Noone, Chris, Anne, Michele, Janssen, Steve, Fu, Cynthia H. Y.; Majeed, Nadyanna, Kunisato, Yoshihiko, Daches, Shimrit, Hartanto, Andree, Vdovic, Milica, Forbes, Paul, Kamburidis, Julia, Rachev, Nikolay, Stoyanova, Alina, Marinova, Evelina, Schmidt, Kathleen, Suchow, Jordan, Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria, Jernsäther, Teodor, Olofsson, Jonas, Bialobrzeska, Olga, Marszalek, Magdalena, Tatachari, Srinivasan, Afhami, Reza, Law, Wilbert.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323615

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy which modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries/regions (N = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vs. both control conditions) had consistent effects in reducing negative emotions and increasing positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world to build resilience during the pandemic and beyond.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321466

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease2019(COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Convalescent plasma, donated by persons who have recovered from COVID-19, is the acellular component of blood that contains antibodies, including those that specifically recognize SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, for COVID-19 patients, Convalescent plasma, could prove lifesaving, such as improving the clinical symptoms, increasing the neutralizing antibody, decreasing the viral load , reducing the death rate, with safety and without seriously ADE. Meanwhile, it is urgent to perform large sample randomized controlled trials to confirm the transfusion timing, dosage, frequency and actively prevent adverse outcomes that may occur, establishing a standard procedure for treatment from convalescent plasma collection, preservation, transport, to transfusion.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321361

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as an infectious disease with cytokine storm, has become an emerging global challenge. To assess the duration of SARS-COV-2 viral shedding and associated risk factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : COVID-19 patients with interleukin (IL)-1b, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokines data consecutively admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 27, 2020 through February 5, 2020 were enrolled and been followed up until March 24, 2020. We utilized Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to assess the duration of viral shedding and risk factors affecting virus clearance. Results: : 246 inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. The median duration of viral shedding was 24 days, ranging from 6 to 63 days. Age, severity of COVID-19, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, ferritin and sIL-2R were associated with duration of viral shedding. Administration of lopinavir-ritonavir, arbidol, oseltamivir and intravenous immunoglobulin did not shorten viral shedding time. Multivariate cox regression analysis revealed that sIL-2R, LDH and severity of COVID-19 were independent factors associated with duration of viral shedding. At stratified analysis, the viral shedding time was positively correlated with age, sIL-2R and LDH in non-corticosteroid subgroup, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte count in corticosteroid group. Conclusions: : The present study demonstrated that elevated sIL-2R, increased LDH and severe status were related to prolongation of viral shedding in COVID-19 inpatients. Further research is urgent to investigate the mechanism of immune reaction involved in the virus clearance process and aim to the optimal antiviral therapy.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313436

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients can recover with a median SARS-CoV-2 clearance of 20 days post initial symptoms (PIS). However, we observed some COVID-19 patients with existing SARS-CoV-2 for more than 50 days PIS. This study aimed to investigate the cause of viral clearance delay and the infectivity in these patients. Demographic data and clinical characteristics of 22 long-term COVID-19 patients were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, peripheral lymphocyte count, and functionality were assessed. SARS-CoV-2-specific and neutralization antibodies were detected, followed by virus isolation and genome sequencing. The median age of the studied cohort was 59.83±12.94 years. All patients were clinically cured after long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection ranging from 53 to 112 days PIS. Peripheral lymphocytes counts were normal. Interferon gamma (IFN-ƴ)-generated CD4+ and CD8+ cells were normal as 24.68±9.60% and 66.41±14.87%. However, the number of IFN-ƴ-generated NK cells diminished (58.03±11.78%). All patients presented detectable IgG, which positively correlated with mild neutralizing activity (ID50=157.2, P=0.05). SARS-CoV-2 was not isolated, and a cytopathic effect was lacking. Only three synonymous variants were identified in spike protein coding regions. In conclusion, decreased IFN-γ production by NK cells and low neutralizing antibodies might favor SARS-CoV-2 long-term existence. Further, low viral load and weak viral pathogenicity was observed in COVID-19 patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Innovation in Aging ; 5(Supplement_1):450-450, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1584558

ABSTRACT

Natural disasters and COVID-19 likely add complexity to caregiving efforts, yet little is known about these effects. We will discuss our findings exploring additional needs and challenges experienced by caregivers during hurricanes, floods, and COVID focused on US Gulf Coast states. We interviewed caregivers of both Veterans (n=13) and non-Veterans (n=11). The presentation will include an overview of 1) types of resources needed or used related to storms and to COVID, including social support and access to information for both emergency planning and recovery;2) caregiver experience before, during, and after the disaster including psychological effects on caregivers and addressing special health needs;3) comparisons of challenges during storms versus COVID including emotional impact and access to health and specialty care;and 4) additional resources used by caregivers of Veterans. We will also address how these data are informing national caregiver support programs.

13.
Photonics ; 8(11):468, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1534229

ABSTRACT

A signal space diversity (SSD) scheme was proposed to be incorporated with spatial modulation (SM) in an intensity-modulation/direct-detection-based multiple-input-single-output (MISO) indoor optical wireless communication (OWC) system to improve bit-error-rate (BER) performance and system throughput. SSD was realized via signal constellation rotation and diversity interleaving using different channel gains to improve the BER. With SM incorporated, the MISO-OWC system throughput increased. Theoretical BER expressions of the SSD scheme were established for the first time by investigating the distance of neighboring constellation symbols upon maximum-likelihood detection. Such BER expressions were further verified by numerical results. The results showed that, except for the slightly-lower-accuracy performance brought by comparable distances of neighboring constellation symbols in cases of low signal-to-noise ratios, these BER expressions were accurate in most scenarios. Moreover, theoretical investigations of channel gain distributions were performed at different signal constellation rotation angles to show the capability of the SSD scheme to improve the BER. The results showed that a significantly improved BER by two orders of magnitude could be achieved using a reasonably high channel-gain ratio and a larger constellation rotation angle. The SSD-SM scheme provides a promising option to achieve transmitter diversity with an enhanced throughput in high-speed indoor OWC systems.

14.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292480

ABSTRACT

The broad economic damage of the COVID-19 pandemic poses the first major test of the bank regulatory reforms put in place after the Global Financial Crisis. Our study assesses the U.S. regulatory framework, with an emphasis on capital and liquidity requirements. Prior to the COVID-19 crisis, banks were well-capitalized and held ample liquid assets, which partly reflects enhanced requirements. The overall robust capital and liquidity levels resulted in a resilient banking system, which maintained lending and market making through the early stages of the pandemic. Trading activity was a source of strength for banks, reflecting in part a prudent regulatory approach. That said, leverage requirements are associated with more repo position netting by banks, with potential implications for market making.

15.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 11 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512135

ABSTRACT

The bronchial vascular endothelial network plays important roles in pulmonary pathology during respiratory viral infections, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A(H1N1) and importantly SARS-Cov-2. All of these infections can be severe and even lethal in patients with underlying risk factors.A major obstacle in disease prevention is the lack of appropriate efficacious vaccine(s) due to continuous changes in the encoding capacity of the viral genome, exuberant responsiveness of the host immune system and lack of effective antiviral drugs. Current management of these severe respiratory viral infections is limited to supportive clinical care. The primary cause of morbidity and mortality is respiratory failure, partially due to endothelial pulmonary complications, including edema. The latter is induced by the loss of alveolar epithelium integrity and by pathological changes in the endothelial vascular network that regulates blood flow, blood fluidity, exchange of fluids, electrolytes, various macromolecules and responses to signals triggered by oxygenation, and controls trafficking of leukocyte immune cells. This overview outlines the latest understanding of the implications of pulmonary vascular endothelium involvement in respiratory distress syndrome secondary to viral infections. In addition, the roles of infection-induced cytokines, growth factors, and epigenetic reprogramming in endothelial permeability, as well as emerging treatment options to decrease disease burden, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Epigenesis, Genetic , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Pulmonary Edema/genetics , Pulmonary Edema/pathology , Pulmonary Edema/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology
16.
Pharmacol Res ; 174: 105955, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487920

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by numerous complications, complex disease, and high mortality, making its treatment a top priority in the treatment of COVID-19. Integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine played an important role in the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of COVID-19 during the epidemic. However, currently there are no evidence-based guidelines for the integrated treatment of severe COVID-19 with TCM and western medicine. Therefore, it is important to develop an evidence-based guideline on the treatment of severe COVID-19 with integrated TCM and western medicine, in order to provide clinical guidance and decision basis for healthcare professionals, public health personnel, and scientific researchers involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and care of COVID-19 patients. We developed and completed the guideline by referring to the standardization process of the "WHO handbook for guideline development", the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and the Reporting Items for Practice Guidelines in Healthcare (RIGHT).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Infectious Disease Medicine/trends , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/trends , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463664

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has caused a serious impact on the global economy, and all countries are in a predicament of fighting the epidemic and recovering their economies. Aiming to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 on the economic resilience of urban agglomerations, the economic data of each quarter from June 2019 to September 2020 of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration are selected, and the economic development index (EDI) is calculated based on the entropy method. Combining the fundamental conditions of urban agglomerations and industrial policies during the COVID-19, urban economic resilience is discussed by the changing trend of the economic development index (EDI) and dividing into resistance and restoration. The results show that: (1) The economic development level of the urban agglomeration has been affected by the epidemic and has changed significantly. The change of endogenous power is the main cause of change; (2) During the outbreak of the COVID-19, the economic resilience of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration shows four different development types: high resistance and restoration, high resistance but low restoration, low resistance but high restoration, low resistance and restoration cities; (3) High resistance but low restoration, low resistance but high restoration, and low resistance and restoration cities influence each other, but the relationship between cities is mainly dependent; (4) The economic restoration within the urban agglomeration forms a synergy, which promotes the economic recovery and development of the urban agglomeration during the recovery period of the COVID-19. Urban agglomerations should enhance the combined effect of resistance and increase the impact of high resistance and restoration cities on surrounding cities in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 347, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437669

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations contribute to increased viral transmissibility and immune escape, compromising the effectiveness of existing vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. An in-depth investigation on COVID-19 pathogenesis is urgently needed to develop a strategy against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we identified CD147 as a universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Meanwhile, Meplazeumab, a humanized anti-CD147 antibody, could block cellular entry of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants-alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, with inhibition rates of 68.7, 75.7, 52.1, 52.1, and 62.3% at 60 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, humanized CD147 transgenic mice were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and its two variants, alpha and beta. When infected, these mice developed exudative alveolar pneumonia, featured by immune responses involving alveoli-infiltrated macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes and activation of IL-17 signaling pathway. Mechanistically, we proposed that severe COVID-19-related cytokine storm is induced by a "spike protein-CD147-CyPA signaling axis": Infection of SARS-CoV-2 through CD147 initiated the JAK-STAT pathway, which further induced expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA); CyPA reciprocally bound to CD147 and triggered MAPK pathway. Consequently, the MAPK pathway regulated the expression of cytokines and chemokines, which promoted the development of cytokine storm. Importantly, Meplazumab could effectively inhibit viral entry and inflammation caused by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Therefore, our findings provided a new perspective for severe COVID-19-related pathogenesis. Furthermore, the validated universal receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and its variants can be targeted for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Basigin/antagonists & inhibitors , Basigin/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Basigin/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System/genetics , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
19.
Technology Analysis & Strategic Management ; : 1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1410982
20.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 698923, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348469

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic placed heavy burdens on emergency care and posed severe challenges to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treatment. This study aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mechanical reperfusion characteristics in STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in a non-epicenter region. Methods: STEMI cases undergoing PPCI from January 23 to March 29 between 2019 and 2020 were retrospectively compared. PPCI parameters mainly included total ischemic time (TIT), the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (S-to-FMC), the period from FMC to wire (FMC-to-W) and the period from door to wire (D-to-W). Furthermore, the association of COVID-19 pandemic with delayed PPCI risk was further analyzed. Results: A total of 14 PPCI centers were included, with 100 and 220 STEMI cases undergoing PPCI in 2020 and 2019, respectively. As compared to 2019, significant prolongations occurred in reperfusion procedures (P < 0.001) including TIT (420 vs. 264 min), S-to-FMC (5 vs. 3 h), FMC-to-W (113 vs. 95 min) and D-to-W (83 vs. 65 min). Consistently, delayed reperfusion surged including TIT ≥ 12 h (22.0 vs.3.6%), FMC-to-W ≥ 120 min (34.0 vs. 6.8%) and D-to-W ≥ 90 min (19.0 vs. 4.1%). During the pandemic, the patients with FMC-to-W ≥ 120 min had longer durations in FMC to ECG completed (6 vs. 5 min, P = 0.007), FMC to DAPT (24 vs. 21 min, P = 0.001), catheter arrival to wire (54 vs. 43 min, P < 0.001) and D-to-W (91 vs. 78 min, P < 0.001). The pandemic was significantly associated with high risk of delayed PPCI (OR = 7.040, 95% CI 3.610-13.729, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Even in a non-epicenter region, the risk of delayed STEMI reperfusion significantly increased due to cumulative impact of multiple procedures prolongation.

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