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Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 77-82, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065180


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An increasing number of reports have observed thrombosis in severe cases of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of thromboembolism in mild/moderate cases of COVID-19. All of the patients had normal coagulation tests and none had any overt thrombotic complications. Our findings indicate that it is important to screen the thrombotic status of cases with mild/moderate COVID-19. METHODS: Between 11 June and 8 July 2020, 23 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 pneumonia consented to having computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CPTA) and computed tomography venography (CTV) scans of the lungs and extremity veins. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was also performed in all patients for screening. The incidence, clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations, imaging features, and prognosis, of patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) were analyzed and compared with those of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without VTE. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (82.6%) had VTE, mainly distal limb thrombosis. Only one of the VTE patients was positive when screened by DUS; the other VTE patients were negative by DUS. All of the mild/moderate patients with VTE were screened by CTPA + CTV. Blood tests for inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical, parameters were all within the normal range, except for WBC and LDH. CONCLUSIONS: When using CTV screening for DVT, we found that the incidence of thrombosis in patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 markedly increased to 82.6% (19/23). Screening for thrombosis is therefore important in patients with COVID-19. CTV is more sensitive than DUS for the detection of thrombosis. More research is now needed to evaluate the significance of thrombosis in COVID-19 pneumonia.

COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging
Front Psychol ; 11: 586408, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-993427


Background: The Chinese government implemented a lockdown to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic during the Chinese Lunar New Year when people have the tradition to visit families and friends. Previous research suggested that heuristic processing increased risky behavioral willingness (e.g., desire to have social gatherings despite the pandemic) and that people's tendency to use heuristic processing varied across different adulthood stages. This study thus investigated the relationships among age, heuristic processing of COVID-19-related information, and the willingness to have social gatherings during the lockdown. Methods: A sample of 1,651 participants was recruited from an online crowdsourcing platform between January 31 and February 04 in 2020, with a mean age of 30.69, 47.9% being women. Participants completed an online questionnaire about heuristic processing of COVID-19-related information, willingness to engage in social gatherings during the lockdown, age, and other demographic information. Results: Age was found to have a U-shaped curvilinear relationship with heuristic processing, and heuristic processing was positively correlated with the willingness to have social gatherings. Further analyses showed that heuristic processing curvilinearly mediated the relationship between age and the willingness to have social gatherings. Conclusion: Compared with young adults, emerging and older adults are more likely to engage in heuristic processing, which in turn, increases the willingness to have social gatherings. Heuristic processing serves as an underlying mechanism to explain the relationship between age and risky behavioral willingness.

Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(1): 380-391, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-958500


Background: With the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), chest computed tomography (CT) is vital for diagnosis and follow-up. The increasing contribution of CT to the population-collected dose has become a topic of interest. Radiation dose optimization for chest CT of COVID-19 patients is of importance in clinical practice. The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the detection of ground-glass nodules and exudative lesions in chest CT among COVID-19 patients and to find an appropriate combination of imaging parameters that optimize detection while effectively reducing the radiation dose. Methods: The anthropomorphic thorax phantom, with 9 spherical nodules of different diameters and CT values of -800, -630, and 100 HU, was used to simulate the lesions of COVID-19 patients. Four custom-simulated lesions of porcine fat and ethanol were also scanned at 3 tube potentials (120, 100, and 80 kV) and corresponding milliampere-seconds (mAs) (ranging from 10 to 100). Separate scans were performed at pitches of 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.15, and 1.49, and at collimations of 10, 20, 40, and 80 mm at 80 kV and 100 mAs. CT values and standard deviations of simulated nodules and lesions were measured, and radiation dose quantity (volume CT dose index; CTDIvol) was collected. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and figure of merit (FOM) were calculated. All images were subjectively evaluated by 2 radiologists to determine whether the nodules were detectable and if the overall image quality met diagnostic requirements. Results: All simulated lesions, except -800 HU nodules, were detected at all scanning conditions. At a fixed voltage of 120 or 100 kV, with increasing mAs, image noise tended to decrease, and the CNR tended to increase (F=9.694 and P=0.033 for 120 kV; F=9.028 and P=0.034 for 100 kV). The FOM trend was the same as that of CNR (F=2.768 and P=0.174 for 120 kV; F=1.915 and P=0.255 for 100 kV). At 80 kV, the CNRs and FOMs had no significant change with increasing mAs (F=4.522 and P=0.114 for CNRs; F=1.212 and P=0.351 for FOMs). For the 4 nodules of -800 and -630 HU, CNRs had no statistical differences at each of the 5 pitches (F=0.673, P=0.476). The CNRs and FOMs at each of the 4 collimations had no statistical differences (F=2.509 and P=0.125 for CNRs; F=1.485 and P=0.309 for FOMs) for each nodule. CNRs and subjective evaluation scores increased with increasing parameter values for each imaging iteration. The CNRs of 4 -800 HU nodules in the qualified images at the thresholds of scanning parameters of 120 kV/20 mAs, 100 kV/40 mAs, and 80 kV/80 mAs, had statistical differences (P=0.038), but the FOMs had no statistical differences (P=0.085). Under the 3 threshold conditions, the CNRs and FOMs of the 4 nodules were highest at 100 kV and 40 mAs (1.6 mGy CTDIvol). Conclusions: For chest CT among COVID-19 patients, it is recommended that 100 kV/40 mAs is used for average patients; the radiation dose can be reduced to 1.6 mGy with qualified images to detect ground-glass nodules and exudation lesions.