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1.
Curr Drug Targets ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rampant all over the world, resulting in unpredictable harm to humans. High blood levels of cytokines and chemokines have been marked in patients with COVID-19 infection, leading to cytokine storm syndrome. Cytokine storm, a violent inflammatory immune response, reveals the devastating effect of immune dysregulation and the critical role of an effective host immune response. METHODS: Scientometric analysis summarizes the literature related to cytokine storm in recent decades and provides a valuable and timely approach to track the development of new trends. In this review, the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases associated with cytokine storm are summarized comprehensively on the basis of scientometric analysis. RESULTS: Field distribution, knowledge structure, and research topic evolution correlated with cytokine storm are revealed, and the occurrence, development, and treatment of disease relevant to cytokine storm are illustrated. CONCLUSION: Cytokine storm can be induced by pathogens and iatrogenic causes, and can also occur in the context of autoimmune diseases and monogenic diseases as well. These reveal the multidisciplinary nature of cytokine storm and remind the complexity of the pathophysiological features, clinical presentation and management. Overall, this scientometric study provides a macroscopic presentation and further direction for researchers who focus on cytokine storms.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 766101, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775975

ABSTRACT

In this study, the blood test index, demographic data, and health promotion behavior of adolescents were analyzed to provide a reference for early prevention and treatment of physical decline and abnormal biochemical indexes of adolescents. Using a cross-sectional study design, 1,436 valid samples were obtained by stratified random sampling, and the data were processed by SPSS21.0 statistical analysis software. The results showed that the overall health-promoting lifestyle of adolescents was good, and the interpersonal support behavior was the best, and the health responsibility and sports participation behavior were the worst; the interpersonal support and sports participation behavior of adolescents with normal weight were significantly better than those with overweight or light weight, while the overall health-promoting behavior of adolescents with high fasting blood glucose (FBG) before meals was poor, those with high glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) had poor nutritional behavior and health responsibility behavior, while those with high uric acid (UA) had poor interpersonal support and stress coping behavior. The overweight rate and abnormal detection rate of UA and triglyceride (TG) in boys were significantly higher than those in girls, and the higher BMI of teenagers, the higher abnormal detection rate of GPT, UA, and TG, the better nutritional behavior, health responsibility behavior, and sports participation behavior, the lower abnormal detection rate of GPT, UA, and TG; the higher education level of parents, the better teenagers' sports participation and health responsibility behavior, the lower the incidence of overweight, the more time they spend playing online games and drinking sugary drinks on weekdays (or holidays), the higher the incidence of overweight.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Body Mass Index , Health Behavior , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male
3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(3): 281-6, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period. METHODS: Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Humans , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
4.
Pattern Recognition ; : 108636, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1730019

ABSTRACT

Accurate and automatic segmentation of medical images can greatly assist the clinical diagnosis and analysis. However, it remains a challenging task due to (1) the diversity of scale in the medical image targets and (2) the complex context environments of medical images, including ambiguity of structural boundaries, complexity of shapes, and the heterogeneity of textures. To comprehensively tackle these challenges, we propose a novel and effective iterative edge attention network (EANet) for medical image segmentation with steps as follows. First, we propose a dynamic scale-aware context (DSC) module, which dynamically adjusts the receptive fields to extract multi-scale contextual information efficiently. Second, an edge-attention preservation (EAP) module is employed to effectively remove noise and help the edge stream focus on processing only the boundary-related information. Finally, a multi-level pairwise regression (MPR) module is designed to combine the complementary edge and region information for refining the ambiguous structure. This iterative optimization helps to learn better representations and more accurate saliency maps. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed network achieves superior segmentation performance to state-of-the-art methods in four different challenging medical segmentation tasks, including lung nodule segmentation, COVID-19 infection segmentation, lung segmentation, and thyroid nodule segmentation. The source code of our method is available at https://github.com/DLWK/EANet

5.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; 75:103621, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1729593

ABSTRACT

In this work, we propose to address the existing problem of biomedical image segmentation that often produces results, which fail to capture the exact contours of the target and suffer from ambiguity. Most previous techniques are suboptimal because they often simply concatenate contour information to alleviate this problem, while ignoring the correlation between regions and contours. As a matter of fact, the relationship between cross-domain features is an important clue for ambiguous pixel segmentation in biomedical images. To this end, we contribute a simple yet effective framework called Contour-Guided Graph Reasoning Network (CGRNet) for more accurate segmentation against ambiguity, which is capable of capturing the semantic relations between object regions and contours through graph reasoning. Specifically, we first perform a global graph representation of the low-level and high-level features extracted by the feature extractor, where clusters of pixels with similar features are mapped to each vertex. Further, we explicitly combine contour information as the geometric prior, which can aggregate features of contour pixels to graph vertices and focus on features along the boundaries. Then, the cross-domain features propagate information through the vertices on the graph to efficiently learn and reason about the semantic relations. Finally, the learned refinement graph features are projected back to the original pixel coordinate space for the final pixel-wise segmentation task. Extensive experiments on the three publicly available Kvasir, CVC-612, and COVID19-100 datasets show the effectiveness of our CGRNet with superior performance to existing state-of-the-art methods. Our code is publicly available at: https://github.com/DLWK/CGRNet.

6.
J Transp Geogr ; 99: 103298, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729965

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused the vast majority of passenger flights to be grounded, but the crisis raised the importance of the network of dedicated cargo flights and, therefore, interest in its development. This paper aims to evaluate the Chinese scheduled freighter network (CSFN) via its topological properties and to explore its changes following the COVID-19 pandemic. Using spatial analysis with the complex network theory (CNT), the paper found that the CSFN displays small-world and scale-free network properties, similar to that of air passenger network. Hangzhou, Shenzhen and Nanjing are the dominant national hubs in the CSFN because they host the headquarters of many e-commerce giant enterprises and have relatively underutilized airport capacities. The CSFN has improved since the COVID-19 pandemic, with increased network average degree, clustering coefficient, and closeness, and reduced average path. These improvements were mainly driven by major hub cities whose centralities had been strengthened with more route connections. Since China's air passenger traffic had quickly restored in the second half of 2020, we argue that the changes in the CSFN during COVID-19 were unlikely to be a result of the substitution effect between freighter and passenger aircraft. It was more likely a result of the higher air cargo demand during the pandemic and airlines' realisation of the importance of freighter operations in China.

7.
Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1692307

ABSTRACT

China Eastern Airlines launched a ‘Wild Your Weekends' programme offering buyers an unlimited number of free trips during weekends, which is unprecedented in the Chinese airline market and also rare around the world. However, it is unclear whether such a promotion is effective in improving airlines’ liquidity. This study adopts the difference-in-differences (DID) method to empirically examine the impacts of this promotion programme on traffic volumes, ticket prices and revenues of China Eastern and its competitors. Our estimations suggest that this programme has overall helped China Eastern improve its liquidity. On one hand, the carrier was forced to lower prices on weekends, probably because passengers formed strong beliefs on China Eastern’s low price due to its promotion programme, and felt psychologically unfair by paying high prices as compared to the programme’s users. This decreased China Eastern’s revenue from non-programme passengers on weekends. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324776

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacterial co-infection in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a critical factor that increases the complexity and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: We collected the clinical laboratory data of 1799 patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to Jinyintan Hospital in Wuhan, China, between January 1 to April 26, 2020. The bacterial co-infection along with disease progression was analyzed. Other inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes (L), neutrocytes (N), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procalcitonin (PCT), were assessed to estimate the progression of COVID-19. Results: We found that 191 of the 1799 (10.62%) patients had bacterial co-infection. The most prevalent causative agents for bacterial co-infection were Klebsiella pneumoniae (91 cases, 5.06%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (66 cases, 3.67%). The most patients with bacterial co-infection showed extensive drug-resistance. The outcomes of patients with bacterial co-infection were worse than those of patients without bacterial co-infection. Conclusions: Secondary bacterial pneumonia during virus infection is a major risk factor for high mortality resulting from severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324279

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (2-[[4-[(7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl) amino]pentyl](ethyl) amino]-ethanol, HCQ), an effective anti-malarial drug, has been applied in the clinics for potential treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the clinical benefits of HCQ require extensive clinical data to confirm, the existence of a chiral center in the molecule to possess two optical isomers suggests that there might be an enantiomeric difference on the treatment of COVID-19. Due to poor resolution and the inability of quantification by previously reported methods for the analysis of HCQ enantiomers, it is necessary to develop an analytical method to achieve baseline separation for quantitative and accurate determination of the enantiomeric purity in order to compare the efficacy and toxicity profiles of different enantiomer. In this study, we developed and validated an accurate and reproducible normal phase chiral HPLC method for the analysis of two enantiomers of HCQ, and the method was further evaluated with biological samples. With this newly developed method, the relative standard deviation of all analytes was lower than 5%, and the limit of quantification was 0.27 μg/ml, 0.34 μg/ml and 0.20 μg/ml for racemate, R- and S-enantiomer, respectively. The present method provides an essential analytical tool for preclinical and clinical evaluation of HCQ enantiomers for potential treatment of COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323532

ABSTRACT

Background: We investigate the mental health status of all the staff members who worked for the designated hospital during the initial stage of COVID-19, so as to understand the severity of mental health problems, and analyze the risk factors. Methods: : Through the patients health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and panic disorder severity scales(PDSS), we surveyed the status of depression and panic disorder of the staff who participated in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in designated hospital in the early stage of epidemic. The data is described by the number of cases (percentage), median and interquartile range. The chi square test was used for categorical variables and the rank sum test was used for continuous variables. The risk factors of severe depression or panic disorder were analyzed by binary logistic regression test. Results: : Totally 702 questionnaires were sent out and 694(98.9%) was received and qualified, the median score of PHQ-9 among all the staff was 1 (IQR,0-4), 143(20.6%) of them had depression, 39 (5.6%) had serious depression;the median score of PDSS was 2 (IQR,0-5), 81 (11.7%) of them had panic disorder and 47(6.7%) of them had severe panic disorder;Among the people in different work lines, the first-line staff scored the highest: PHQ-9 score was 4 (0-8);PDSS score was 4 (1-9), which were significantly higher than the second-line and third-line staff (P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the adjusted risk of severe depression in first-line staff was 6.63 fold(P < 0.001);the risk of severe panic disorder was 2.62 fold (P=0.003) higher than that of non-first line group. Conclusions: : Many staff in the designated hospital for COVID-19 have mental health problems. Among them, first-line workers are a high-risk group with severe depression and panic disorder, and further psychological intervention is needed for them.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322241

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains underdiagnosed globally. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has also severely restricted spirometry, the primary tool used for COPD diagnosis and severity evaluation, due to concerns of virus transmission. Computed tomography (CT)-based deep learning (DL) approaches have been suggested as a cost-effective alternative for COPD identification within smokers. The present study aims to develop weakly supervised DL models that utilize CT image data for the automated detection and staging of spirometry-defined COPD among natural population. Methods: A large, highly heterogenous dataset was established comprising 1393 participants recruited from outpatient, inpatient and physical examination center settings of 4 large public hospitals in China. CT scans, spirometry data, demographic data, and clinical information of each participant were collected for the purpose of model development and evaluation. An attention-based multi-instance learning (MIL) model for COPD detection was trained using CT scans from 837 participants and evaluated using a test set comprised of data from 278 non-overlapping participants. External validation of the COPD detection was performed with 620 low-dose CT (LDCT) scans acquired from the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) cohort. A multi-channel 3D residual network was further developed to categorize GOLD stages among confirmed COPD patients and evaluated using 5-fold cross validation. Spirometry tests were used to diagnose COPD, with stages defined according to the GOLD criteria. Results: The attention-based MIL model used for COPD detection achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.934 on the test set and 0.866 on the LDCT subset acquired from NLST. The model exhibited high generalizability across distinct scanning devices and slice thicknesses, with an AUC above 0.90. The multi-channel 3D residual network was able to correctly grade 76.4% of COPD patients in the test set (423/553) using the GOLD scale, with a Cohen’s weighted Kappa of 0.619 for the assessment of GOLD categorization . Conclusion: The proposed chest CT-DL approach can automatically identify spirometry-defined COPD and categorize patients according to the GOLD scale, with clinically acceptable performance. As such, this approach may be a powerful novel tool for COPD diagnosis and staging at the population level.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310879

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to describe the features of 220 nonemergency (mild or common type) COVID-19 patients from a shelter hospital, as well as evaluate the efficiency of antiviral drug, Arbidol in their disease progressions. Methods: . Basic clinical characteristics were described and the efficacy of Arbidol was evaluated based on gender, age, maximum body temperature of the patients. Results: . Basically, males had a higher risk of fever and more onset symptoms than females. Arbidol could accelerate fever recovery and viral clearance in respiratory specimens, particularly in males. Arbidol also contributed to shorter hospital stay without obvious adverse reactions. Conclusions: . In the retrospective COVID-19 cohort, gender was one of the important factors affecting patient's conditions. Arbidol showed several beneficial effects in these patients, especially in males. This study brought more researches enlightenment in understanding the emerging infectious disease.

13.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17 Suppl 11: e054680, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data collection by smartphone is becoming more widespread in healthcare research. Previous studies reported racial/ethnical differences in the use of digital health technology. However, cross-language group comparison (Chinese- and English-speaking older adults) were not performed in these studies. This project will expand to smartphone technology use in diverse older populations with a focus on Chinese American older adults who are monolingual Chinese-speakers. METHOD: The Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS) evaluates diverse older populations using National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center's Uniform Data Set (NACC UDS). The UDS has different language versions, including English and Chinese. The evaluation includes a medical examination, cognitive assessments, and a research blood draw. Smartphone ownership and usage were captured using a local questionnaire developed by our ADRC. The questionnaire, available in English and Chinese, was administered by our ADRC coordinators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine differences in technology ownership and usages between the two language groups, while controlling for age, gender, education, and cognitive status (measured by Clinical Dementia Rating). RESULT: 33 Chinese- and 117 English-speaking older adults who received a diagnosis of normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment at consensus were included in the data analysis. Results reveal a high prevalence of smartphone ownership in our Chinese- (100%) and English-speaking older participants (86.3%). Participants in both language groups use mobile technology for a wide range of purposes, such as getting news and other information (Chinese=90.9%; English=87.2%), sending/receiving text (Chinese=97.0%; English=96.6%), watching videos/TV shows (Chinese=78.8%; English=69.2%), and taking classes (Chinese=57.5%; English=57.3%). However, Chinese-speaking older adults were less likely than English-speaking older adults to use mobile technology to post their own reviews or comments online (Chinese=9.1%; English=39.3%, p=0.001), download or purchase an app (Chinese=21.2%; English=70.9%, p<0.001), track health/ fitness via apps/website (Chinese=12.1%; English=47.9%, p<0.001) and manage/receive medical care (Chinese=15.2%; English=67.5%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight potential barriers to smartphone usage in Chinese American older adults with limited English proficiency. The results have implications for how smartphone technology can be used in clinical practice and aging research.

15.
Clin Lab ; 68(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a huge threat to public health. Therefore, clinical laboratories must have the ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. With the enhanced detection in Chongqing, many laboratories rapidly implemented assays for the molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 based on real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays. This study aimed to improve the detection capabilities of clinical laboratories by evaluating their performance for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection through the external quality assessment (EQA) programs of 2020 in Chongqing to contribute to the prevention of this epidemic. METHODS: The EQA panels consist of eight positive samples with concentrations within 2.7 - 5.0 log10 copies/mL quantified by digital PCR and two negative samples with other human coronaviruses clinically validated by four commercial assays. All 21 samples from four rounds were distributed to the participating laboratories through cold-chain transportation. Depending on the results from each sample, laboratories were asked to use one or two assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Test results and raw data were also required. All data were evaluated, and the testing performance of commercial assays was compared. For the rounds, all laboratories used commercial assays. RESULTS: Four rounds of EQA programs were performed, and the percent agreements of participants were 97.5% (39/40), 97.5% (39/40), 98.9% (88/89), 100.0% (131/131). Only three false negative results and one false positive result were obtained. Statistical significance in the Ct values of the ORF region and N region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA was found by using one-step, one-step concentration, and magnetic bead methods (p < 0.05). The Ct values of the ORF region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA in P5 and P6 were significantly different in the different batches of reagent A (p < 0.05). The ORF region of SARS-CoV-2-RNA was not detected in a batch of reagent B. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of laboratories in Chongqing have reliable diagnostic ability for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Our data emphasized the importance of EQA for monitoring the performance of clinical laboratories. However, clinical laboratories must first effectively evaluate the performance of reagents prior to their use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azides/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxycytidine/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thymus Gland , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Coronavirus OC43, Human/metabolism , Deoxycytidine/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rats , Thymus Gland/metabolism , Thymus Gland/virology
17.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 116: 132-143, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521577

ABSTRACT

This study empirically measures Beijing's international air connectivity through descriptive statistics and various connectivity indexes. In particular, we comprehensively benchmark Beijing's international air connectivity with other major international exchange centers and gateway airports around the world. It is found that, although Beijing has direct flights to a comparable number of foreign destinations, the city still significantly lags behind other major counterparts in international air connectivity. This is due to Beijing's inferior connection quality in terms of flight frequency, number of seats, flying distance, and its poor international transfer capability. Moreover, a gravity-type model is applied to investigate the determinants of Beijing's route-level direct flight traffic. An index of potential market size is calculated for a sample including candidate overseas airports without direct flights with Beijing. It is found that Beijing has already opened direct flights to most of the candidate airports that have high market potentials. The air transport market potentials to major B&R (Belt-and-Road) cities are very low. However, given China's growing trade and economic ties with the B&R countries, Beijing could consider more favorable policies in support of direct flight operations to B&R countries. It is more important for Beijing to upgrade air connectivity quality by liberalizing restrictions on flight frequency and airfare. The newly opened Beijing Daxing Airport adds valuable capacity for Beijing to better explore international connectivity. Although COVID-19 pandemic forces Beijing to shut down international flight operations until now, the city needs to formulate clearer long-term strategies to improve international its air connectivity.

18.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 16-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world, resulting in a massive death toll. Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. Herein, we review the imaging characteristics and computing models that have been applied for the management of COVID-19. CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up. The quantitative analysis of imaging data using artificial intelligence (AI) is also explored. Our findings indicate that typical imaging characteristics and their changes can play crucial roles in the detection and management of COVID-19. In addition, AI or other quantitative image analysis methods are urgently needed to maximize the value of imaging in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
19.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(5): 557-565, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support device (LVIS) has been successfully used to treat cerebral aneurysm, and the push-pull technique has been used clinically to compact the stent across aneurysm orifice. Our aim was to exhibit the hemodynamic effect of the compacted LVIS stent. METHODS: Two patient-specific aneurysm models were constructed from three-dimensional angiographic images. The uniform LVIS stent, compacted LVIS and Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) with or without coil embolization were virtually deployed into aneurysm models to perform hemodynamic analysis. Intra-aneurysmal flow parameters were calculated to assess hemodynamic differences among different models. RESULTS: The compacted LVIS had the highest metal coverage across the aneurysm orifice (case 1, 46.37%; case 2, 67.01%). However, the PED achieved the highest pore density (case 1, 19.56 pores/mm2; case 2, 18.07 pores/mm2). The compacted LVIS produced a much higher intra-aneurysmal flow reduction than the uniform LVIS. The PED showed a higher intra-aneurysmal flow reduction than the compacted LVIS in case 1, but the results were comparable in case 2. After stent placement, the intra-aneurysmal flow was further reduced as subsequent coil embolization. The compacted LVIS stent with coils produced a similar reduction in intra-aneurysmal flow to that of the PED. CONCLUSIONS: The combined characteristics of stent metal coverage and pore density should be considered when assessing the flow diversion effects of stents. More intra-aneurysmal flow reductions could be introduced by compacted LVIS stent than the uniform one. Compared with PED, compacted LVIS stent may exhibit a flow-diverting effect comparable to that of the PED.


Subject(s)
Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Computer Simulation , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Prosthesis Design , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
20.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(9): 2850-2858, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415197

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection severely threatens global health and economic development. No effective antiviral drug is currently available to treat COVID-19 and any other human coronavirus infections. We report herein that a macrolide antibiotic, carrimycin, potently inhibited the cytopathic effects (CPE) and reduced the levels of viral protein and RNA in multiple cell types infected by human coronavirus 229E, OC43, and SARS-CoV-2. Time-of-addition and pseudotype virus infection studies indicated that carrimycin inhibited one or multiple post-entry replication events of human coronavirus infection. In support of this notion, metabolic labelling studies showed that carrimycin significantly inhibited the synthesis of viral RNA. Our studies thus strongly suggest that carrimycin is an antiviral agent against a broad-spectrum of human coronaviruses and its therapeutic efficacy to COVID-19 is currently under clinical investigation.

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