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1.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 13:13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027382

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the currently ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, has posed a serious threat to global public health. Recently, several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have emerged and caused numerous cases of reinfection in convalescent COVID-19 patients, as well as breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. This calls for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 and its VOCs. Pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitors, targeting the conserved HR1 in spike protein S2 subunit, can broadly and potently inhibit infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, as well as other human coronaviruses (HCoVs). In this review, we summarized the most recent development of pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitors, such as EK1, EK1C4, and EKL1C, and highlighted their potential application in combating current COVID-19 infection and reinfection, as well as future emerging coronavirus infectious diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
American Journal Of Translational Research ; 14(8):5719-5729, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027183

ABSTRACT

Patients with major psychiatric disorders (MPD) that include schizophrenia (SCH), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in MPD patients have not been fully evaluated. This study aimed to investigate adverse events (AEs)/side effects and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in MPD patients. This retrospective study included 2034 patients with SCH, BP, or MDD who voluntarily received either BBIBP-CorV or Sinovac COVID-19 vaccines, and 2034 matched healthy controls. The incidence of AEs/side effects and the efficacy of COIVD-19 vaccinations among the two groups were compared. The risk ratio (RR) of side effects in patients with MPD was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.68) after the first dose and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) following the second dose, suggesting a significantly lower risk in the MPD group versus healthy controls. The RRs of AEs did not differ between patients and controls. Notably, fully vaccinated patients exhibited a decreased risk of influenza with or without fever compared with controls (RR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.31-0.46;RR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.17-0.30;respectively). Further subgroup comparisons revealed a significantly lower risk of influenza with fever in MDD (RR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.08-0.21) and SCH (RR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.17-0.34) than BP (RR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.69-1.06) compared to controls. We conclude that the benefit-risk ratio of COVID-19 vaccination was more favorable in SCH or MDD versus BP when compared with controls. These data indicate that COVID-19 vaccines are safe and protective in patients with MPD from COVID-19.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13:963419, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the factors and their correlation with clinical first-line nurses' sleep, fatigue and mental workload is of great significance to personnel scheduling strategies and rapid responses to anti-pandemic tasks in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era. OBJECTIVE: This multicenter and cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the nurses' sleep, fatigue and mental workload and contributing factors to each, and to determine the correlation among them. METHODS: A total of 1,004 eligible nurses (46 males, 958 females) from three tertiary hospitals participated in this cluster sampling survey. The Questionnaire Star online tool was used to collect the sociodemographic and study target data: Sleep quality, fatigue, and mental workload. Multi-statistical methods were used for data analysis using SPSS 25.0 and Amos 21.0. RESULTS: The average sleep quality score was 10.545 ± 3.399 (insomnia prevalence: 80.2%);the average fatigue score was 55.81 ± 10.405 (fatigue prevalence: 100%);and the weighted mental workload score was 56.772 ± 17.26. Poor sleep was associated with mental workload (r = 0.303, P < 0.05) and fatigue (r = 0.727, P < 0.01). Fatigue was associated with mental workload (r = 0.321, P < 0.05). COVID-19 has caused both fatigue and mental workload. As 49% of nurses claimed their mental workload has been severely affected by COVID-19, while it has done slight harm to 68.9% of nurses' sleep quality. CONCLUSION: In the post-COVID-19 pandemic era, the high prevalence of sleep disorders and fatigue emphasizes the importance of paying enough attention to the mental health of nurses in first-class tertiary hospitals. Efficient nursing strategies should focus on the interaction of sleep, fatigue and mental workload in clinical nurses. In that case, further research on solutions to the phenomenon stated above proves to be of great significance and necessity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: [https://clinicaltrials.gov/], identifier [ChiCTR2100053133].

5.
Transplantation ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterization of anti-HLA versus anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) immune globulin isotypes in organ transplant recipients after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has not been reported. We aimed to determine changes in anti-HLA antibodies in renal transplant patients with COVID-19 and compare the immunoglobulin and epitope-binding pattern versus anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 46 kidney transplant recipients including 21 with longitudinal sampling. Using a semi-quantitative multiplex assay, we determined immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgA, IgG, and IgG1-2-3-4 antibodies against Class I and Class II HLA, and 5 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes including the nucleocapsid protein and multiple regions of the spike protein. RESULTS: Fourteen of 46 (30%) patients had donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (donor-specific antibody [DSA]), 12 (26%) had non-DSA anti-HLA antibodies and 45 (98%) had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Most DSAs targeted HLA-DQ (71%), with a dominant IgG isotype and IgG1 subtype prevalence (93%), and/or IgG3 (64%), followed by IgG2 (36%). Comparatively, there was a higher prevalence of IgA (85% versus 14%, P = 0.0001) and IgM (87%, versus 36%, P = 0.001) in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile, when compared to DSAs, respectively. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile was characterized by increased prevalence of IgM and IgA, when compared to DSAs. The median calculated panel reactive antibody before COVID-19 diagnosis (24%) tended to decrease after COVID-19 diagnosis (10%) but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-HLA antibody strength and calculated panel reactive antibody in kidney transplant recipients after COVID-19 do not significantly increase after infection. Although the IgG isotype was the dominant form in both HLA and SARS-CoV-2 antigens, the alloimmune response had a low IgA pattern, whereas anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were high IgA/IgM.

6.
Journal of Breath Research ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a tremendous threat to global health. PCR and antigen testing have played a prominent role in the detection of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and disease control. An efficient, reliable detection tool is still urgently needed to halt the global COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, FDA emergency approved VOC as an alternative test for COVID-19 detection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this case-control study, we prospectively and consecutively recruited 95 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 106 healthy controls in the designated hospital for treatment of COVID-19 patients in Shenzhen, China. Exhaled breath samples were collected and stored in customized bags and then detected by HPPI-TOFMS for volatile organic components (VOCs). Machine learning (ML) algorithms were employed for COVID-19 detection model construction. Participants were randomly assigned in a 5:2:3 ratio to the training, validation, and blinded test sets. The sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), and other general metrics were employed for the VOCs based COVID-19 detection model performance evaluation. RESULTS: The VOCs based COVID-19 detection model achieved good performance, with a SEN of 92.2% (95% CI: 83.8%, 95.6%), a SPE of 86.1% (95% CI: 74.8%, 97.4%) on blinded test set. Five potential VOC ions related to COVID-19 infection were discovered, which are significantly different between COVID-19 infected patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated a simple, fast, non-invasive VOCs-based COVID-19 detection method and demonstrated that it has good sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing COVID-19 infected patients from controls. It has great potential for fast and accurate COVID-19 detection.

7.
28th International Conference on Computational and Experimental Engineering and Sciences, ICCES 2022 ; 119:127-140, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013879

ABSTRACT

The covariance is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables forming a Cartesian coordinate. Variance is a special case of covariance, when two variables are the same. The root of variance is the standard deviation. The normalization of covariance to standard deviation is called Pearson correlation coefficient. The covariance for the region of first and third quadrant is called upper semi-covariance. The covariance for the region of second and fourth quadrant is called down semi-covariance. Here we present semi-covariance, an accurate ReLU (Rectified Linear Unit) way of measuring the non-linear correlation between variables. Our framework is applied to successfully analyze the association between alternative environment social life factors and the pandemic toll recovery health. The results of our analyses of the 2021 pandemic toll suggest that pesticide residual, annual precipitation, forest coverage, economy development, lifestyle, etc. have different impacts on toll of each country. The pesticide may kill immune system, pandemic lifestyle is impacted. We picked total 8 related factors from 22 countries in order to set up future model for digital twin that predicting pandemic trend. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2013271

ABSTRACT

This cohort study assesses the presence of neutralizing antibodies in the serum samples of children in different age groups during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics ; 24(8):839-845, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010475
10.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:1001246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009916

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.904550.].

11.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009542

ABSTRACT

Background: Pts with R/R LBCL after first-line (1L) treatment (tx) who are unable to undergo high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and HSCT have poor outcomes and limited tx options. PILOT (NCT03483103) evaluated liso-cel, an autologous, CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell product, as 2L tx in pts with R/R LBCL not intended for HSCT. Methods: Eligible pts were adults with R/R LBCL after 1L tx who were not deemed candidates for HDCT and HSCT by their physician and met ≥ 1 frailty criteria: age ≥ 70 yr, ECOG PS = 2, DLCO ≤ 60%, LVEF < 50%, CrCl < 60 mL/min, or ALT/AST > 2 × ULN. Bridging tx was allowed. Pts received lymphodepletion with cyclophosphamide and fludarabine, followed 2-7 days later by liso-cel at a target dose of 100 × 106 CAR+ T cells. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) was graded per Lee 2014 criteria and neurological events (NE) per NCI CTCAE, version 4.03. Primary endpoint was ORR per independent review committee (IRC);all pts had ≥ 6 mo followup (f/u) from first response. Results: Of 74 pts leukapheresed, 61 received liso-cel and 1 received nonconforming product. Common reasons for pre-infusion dropout included death and loss of eligibility (5 each). For liso-cel-treated pts, median age was 74 yr (range, 53-84;79% ≥ 70 yr) and 69%, 26%, and 5% met 1, 2, and 3 frailty criteria, respectively;26% had ECOG PS = 2 and 44% had HCT-CI score ≥ 3. After 1L tx, 54% were chemotherapy refractory, 21% relapsed ≤ 12 mo, and 25% relapsed > 12 mo;51% of pts received bridging chemotherapy. Median (range) on-study f/u was 12.3 mo (1.2-26.5). ORR and CR rate was 80% and 54%, respectively. Median DOR and PFS was 12.1 mo and 9.0 mo, respectively. Median OS has not been reached (Table). Most frequent tx-emergent AEs (TEAE) were neutropenia (51%), fatigue (39%), and CRS (38%), with grade (gr) 3 CRS in 1 pt (2%) and no gr 4/5 CRS. Any-grade NEs were seen in 31%, gr 3 in 5% (n = 3), and no gr 4/5 NEs;7% received tocilizumab, 3% corticosteroids, and 20% both for tx of CRS/NEs. Overall, gr ≥ 3 TEAEs occurred in 79%, with gr 5 in 2 pts (both due to COVID-19). Two pts (3%) had gr 3/4 infections and 15 (25%) had gr ≥3 neutropenia at Day 29. Conclusions: In the PILOT study, liso-cel as 2L tx in pts with LBCL who met ≥ 1 frailty criteria and for whom HSCT was not intended demonstrated substantial and durable overall and complete responses, with no new safety concerns.

12.
Cell Discov ; 8, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2008268

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in S1 subunit and heptad repeat 1 (HR1) domain in S2 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein are the targets of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) and pan-coronavirus (CoV) fusion inhibitory peptides, respectively. However, neither nAb- nor peptide-based drugs can be used orally. In this study, we screened a one-bead-two-compound (OBTC) cyclic γ-AApeptide library against SARS-CoV-2 S protein and identified a hit: S-20 with potent membrane fusion inhibitory activity, but moderate selectivity index (SI). After modification, one derivative, S-20-1, exhibited improved fusion inhibitory activity and SI (>1000). S-20-1 could effectively inhibit infection by pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 and pseudotyped variants of concern (VOCs), including B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron), as well as MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63. It could also inhibit infection of a pseudotyped SARS-related coronavirus WIV1 (SARSr-CoV-WIV1) from bats. Intranasal application of S-20-1 to mice before or after challenge with HCoV-OC43 or SARS-CoV-2 provided significant protection from infection. Importantly, S-20-1 was highly resistant to proteolytic degradation, had long half-life, and possessed favorable oral bioavailability. Mechanistic studies suggest that S-20-1 binds with high affinity to RBD in S1 and HR1 domain in S2 of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Thus, with its pan-CoV fusion and entry inhibitory activity by targeting two sites in S protein, desirable half-life, and promising oral bioavailability, S-20-1 is a potential candidate for further development as a novel therapeutic and prophylactic drug against infection by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, as well as future emerging and reemerging CoVs.

13.
Journal of Industrial and Management Optimization ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2006286

ABSTRACT

Disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods and COVID-19 continue to threaten the lives of people in all countries. In order to cover the basic needs of the victims, emergency logistics should be implemented in time. Location-routing problem (LRP) tackles facility location problem and vehicle routing problem simultaneously to obtain the overall optimization. In response to the shortage of relief materials in the early post-disaster stage, a multi-objective model for the LRP considering fairness is constructed by eval-uating the urgency coefficients of all demand points. The objectives are the lowest cost, delivery time and degree of dissatisfaction. Since LRP is a NP-hard problem, a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm of Discrete Particle Swarm Opti-mization (DPSO) and Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO) is designed to solve the model. In addition, three improvement strategies, namely elite-opposition learning, nonlinear escaping energy, multi-probability random walk, are intro-duced to enhance its execution efficiency. Finally, the effectiveness and perfor-mance of the LRP model and the hybrid metaheuristic algorithm are verified by a case study of COVID-19 in Wuhan. It demonstrates that the hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm is more competitive with higher accuracy and the ability to jump out of the local optimum than other metaheuristic algorithms.

14.
Aip Advances ; 12(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004829

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic imposes a severe challenge to the health care providers and patients in dental clinics as the dental procedures produce abundant airborne materials. Although dental practices use a multi-layered protective procedure to reduce the potential danger from dental aerosols, it is still beneficial to suppress the aerosol generation from the origin as much as possible. Reducing the aerosol generation (especially the droplets of smaller diameters) from the very beginning will ease the burden on all subsequent layers of protection. In this work, we first provide a relatively complete picture of the structure of the spray produced by the air turbine handpiece. We found that the spray consists of two domains: one is the canopy shaped centrifugal zone and the other is a dense ballistic spray core. The droplets from the centrifugal zone are much smaller than those of the spray core and, hence, are more prone to stay in the air. The location of the centrifugal zone also makes it more challenging to be contained by the mouth or rubber dam. To suppress the atomization of the centrifugal zone, we used the food-additive carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) water solutions of different concentrations. The data show that the viscoelastic property of the 0.5 wt. % CMC-Na water solution can effectively suppress the aerosol generation of the centrifugal zone. (C) 2022 Author(s).

15.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(8):e0273344, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002328

ABSTRACT

This study explored the roles of epidemic-spread-related behaviors, vaccination status and weather factors during the COVID-19 epidemic in 50 U.S. states since March 2020. Data from March 1, 2020 to February 5, 2022 were incorporated into panel model. The states were clustered by the k-means method. In addition to discussing the whole time period, we also took multiple events nodes into account and analyzed the data in different time periods respectively by panel linear regression method. In addition, influence of cluster grouping and different incubation periods were been discussed. Non-segmented analysis showed the rate of people staying at home and the vaccination dose per capita were significantly negatively correlated with the daily incidence rate, while the number of long-distance trips was positively correlated. Weather indicators also had a negative effect to a certain extent. Most segmental results support the above view. The vaccination dose per capita was unsurprisingly proved to be the most significant factor especially for epidemic dominated by Omicron strains. 7-day was a more robust incubation period with the best model fit while weather had different effects on the epidemic spread in different time period. The implementation of prevention behaviors and the promotion of vaccination may have a successful control effect on COVID-19, including variants' epidemic such as Omicron. The spread of COVID-19 also might be associated with weather, albeit to a lesser extent.

16.
Medicine ; 101(33):e29249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001497

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to observe the abrasion of implant drills and postoperative reactions for the preparation of the interradicular immediate implant bed during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Thirty-two implant drills were included in four groups: blank, improved surgery, traditional surgery, and control. In the improved surgery group, a dental handpiece with a surgical bur was used to decoronate the first molar and create a hole in the middle of the retained root complex, followed by the pilot drilling protocol through the hole. The remaining root complex was separated using a surgical bur and then extracted. Subsequently, the implant bed was prepared. Implant drills were used in the traditional surgery group to complete the decoronation, hole creation, and implant-drilling processes. The tooth remained intact until the implant bed was prepared. The surface roughness of the pilot drill was observed and measured. Surgery time, postoperative reactions (swelling, pain, and trismus), and fear of coronavirus disease 2019 scale (FCV-19S) were measured and recorded, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference with surface roughness among blank group (0.41 +/- 0.05 mum), improved surgery group (0.37 +/- 0.06 mum), traditional surgery group (0.16 +/- 0.06 mum), and control group (0.26 +/- 0.04 mum) (P < .001). Significant differences were revealed with surgery time between improved surgery group (5.63 +/- 1.77 min) and traditional surgery group (33.63 +/- 2.13 min) (P < .001). Swelling, pain, and trismus (improved group: r >= 0.864, P <= .006;traditional group: r >= 0.741, P <= .035) were positively correlated with the FCV-19S. This study proved that a new pilot drill could only be used once in traditional surgery but could be used regularly in improved surgery. Improved surgery was more effective, efficient, and economical than the traditional surgery. The higher FCV-19S, the more severe swelling, pain, and trismus.

17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000903

ABSTRACT

The global emergency caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic can only be solved with effective and widespread preventive and therapeutic strategies, and both are still insufficient. Here, we describe an ultrathin two-dimensional CuInP(2)S(6) (CIPS) nanosheet as a new agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection. CIPS exhibits an extremely high and selective binding capacity (dissociation constant (K(D)) < 1 pM) for the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern, including Delta and Omicron, inhibiting virus entry and infection in angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-bearing cells, human airway epithelial organoids and human ACE2-transgenic mice. On association with CIPS, the virus is quickly phagocytosed and eliminated by macrophages, suggesting that CIPS could be successfully used to capture and facilitate virus elimination by the host. Thus, we propose CIPS as a promising nanodrug for future safe and effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy, and as a decontamination agent and surface-coating material to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.

18.
World Journal of Clinical Cases ; 10(23):8161-8169, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1998046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been far more devastating than expected, showing no signs of slowing down at present. Heilongjiang Province is the most northeastern province of China, and has cold weather for nearly half a year and an annual temperature difference of more than 60ºC, which increases the underlying morbidity associated with pulmonary diseases, and thus leads to lung dysfunction. The demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province, China with such climatic characteristics are still not clearly illustrated. AIM To illustrate the demographic features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 deceased patients in Heilongjiang Province by comparing with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases. METHODS COVID-19 deceased patients from different hospitals in Heilongjiang Province were included in this retrospective study and compared their characteristics with those of surviving severe and critically ill cases in the COVID-19 treatment center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. The surviving patients were divided into severe group and critically ill group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (the seventh edition). Demographic data were collected and recorded upon admission. Laboratory parameters were obtained from the medical records, and then compared among the groups. RESULTS Twelve COVID-19 deceased patients, 27 severe cases and 26 critically ill cases were enrolled in this retrospective study. No differences in age, gender, and number of comorbidities between groups were found. Neutrophil percentage (NEUT%), platelet (PLT), C-reactive protein (CRP), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), serum troponin I (TNI) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) showed significant differences among the groups (P = 0.020, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The increase of CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels, as well as the decrease of lymphocyte count (LYMPH) and PLT counts, showed significant correlation with death of COVID-19 patients (P = 0.023, P = 0.008, P = 0.045, P = 0.020, P = 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION Compared with surviving severe and critically ill cases, no special demographic features of COVID-19 deceased patients were observed, while some laboratory parameters including NEUT%, PLT, CRP, CK-MB, TNI and BNP showed significant differences. COVID-19 deceased patients had higher CRP, D-dimer and NEUT% levels and lower LYMPH and PLT counts.

19.
Advanced Functional Materials ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1995522

ABSTRACT

With the rapid progress in nanomaterials and biochemistry, there has been an explosion of interest in biomolecule-modified quantum dots (QDs) for biomedical applications. Metal chalcogenide quantum dots (MCQDs), as the most widely studied QDs, have attracted tremendous attention in the biomedical field on account of their unique and excellent optical properties and the ease of biomolecular modifications. Herein, important advances in MCQDs over recent years are reviewed, from materials design to biomedical applications. Especially, this review focuses on the challenges encountered in the applications of MCQDs in biomedical fields and how these problems can be solved by rational design of synthesis methods and modifications, which have opened a universal route to develop the functionalized MCQDs. Moreover, recent processes in bioimaging, biosensing, and cancer therapy based on MCQDs are examined, including the rapid detection and diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review provides broad insights into MCQDs in the biomedical field and will inspire material researchers to develop MCQDs in the future.

20.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(30): 2315-2318, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994236

ABSTRACT

On May 13, 2022, World Health Organization(WHO) Position Paper on Influenza Vaccine (2022 edition) was published. This position paper updates information on influenza epidemiology, high risk population, the impact of immunization on disease, influenza vaccines and effectiveness and safety, and propose WHO's position and recommendation that all countries should consider implementing seasonal influenza vaccine immunization programmes to prepare for an influenza pandemic. In addition, it proposes that the influenza surveillance platform can be integrated with the surveillance of other respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. This position paper has some implications for the prevention and control of influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases in China: (1) Optimize influenza vaccine policies to facilitate the implementation of immunization services; (2) Influenza prevention and control should from the perspective of Population Medicine focus on the individual and community to integrate with "Promotion, Prevention, Diagnosis, Control, Treatment, Rehabilitation"; (3) Incorporate prevention and control of other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza, COVID-19, respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus, and intelligently monitor by integrating multi-channel data to achieve the goal of co-prevention and control of multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
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