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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(9): 963-967, 2020 Sep 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750613

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate and share the novel method for recruiting participants in clinical trials of vaccines in emergency situations. Methods: To publish recruitment notice in local areas of Wuhan through websites and medium, and guide interested persons to log in to the"Clinical Trials of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Reservation and Health Declaration System"to appoint and register their health information. The "Health Declaration System" provides each volunteer evaluation and risk levels to preliminarily exclude those who do not meet the inclusion criteria. Researchers review the qualified volunteers by telephone, organize them to go to the vaccination site, and finally conduct a strict medical screening to determine the final subjects. Results: A total of 4 819 people and 5 132 people registered in the Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ recruitment system respectively, with men 2 912 (60.43%) and 2 887 (56.25%) more than women 1 907 (39.57%) and 2 245 (43.75%), mostly in the 20-39 age group, with 3 211 (66.63%) and 3 966 (77.28%). All 13 districts in Wuhan have interested residents to participate clinical research.The initial qualified rate of the Phase Ⅱ recruitment system was higher than that of Phase Ⅰ, with men 2 047 (70.28%) and 2 135(73.95%), higher than women 1 083 (56.80%) and 1 472 (65.57%); 440 and 689 people were reviewed by telephone in Phase Ⅰ and Phase Ⅱ respectively, and the number of verified volunteers was about 440 (35.00%) and 689 (67.20%); Of the 201 603 people who arrived at the vaccination site, 12 and 26 of them were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 antibody with an antibody positive rate of 6.00% and 4.31% respectively. Conclusion: The novel method for recruiting subjects in this clinical study is efficient and reliable, and the recruitment situation of Phase Ⅰ had set a good example for Phase Ⅱ but the medium-and long-term compliance of subjects and the separation of willingness and behaviors still need to be further studied.

2.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1210-1213, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738429

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and transmission chain of COVID-19 in two families, and to provide scientific evidence for effective prevention and control measures. Methods: Field epidemiological investigation was conducted for the COVID-19 cases occurred in two families and the close contacts in a county of Baotou city in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Descriptive statistical analysis on epidemiological data was conducted. Results: The infection source of the COVID-19 cases in the two families was a man who had living history in Wuhan. After his return, his parents were infected by him. A few days later, the members of a neighbor family were found to be infected, and relatives of this family were also infected after dining together repeatedly. Finally, ten confirmed cases and three suspected cases of COVID-19 were detected in the two families. Conclusions: Human-to-human transmission of COVID-19 can occur not only in a family but also in neighborhoods. The cases in two families had close relationship, indicating the necessity to strengthen the health education about COVID-19 prevention and control and the management of groups at high risk to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in families and neighborhoods.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cities , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
3.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1204-1209, 2020 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737781

ABSTRACT

Objective: By analyzed the transmission patterns of 4 out of the 51 COVID-19 cluster cases in Shaanxi province to provide evidences for the COVID-19 control and prevention. Methods: The epidemiological data of RT-PCR test-confirmed COVID-19 cases were collected. Transmission chain was drawn and the transmission process was analyzed. Results: Cluster case 1 contained 13 cases and was caused by a family of 5 who traveled by car to Wuhan and returned to Shaanxi. Cluster case 2 had 5cases and caused by initial patient who participated family get-together right after back from Wuhan while under incubation period. Cluster case 3 contained 10 cases and could be defined as nosocomial infection. Cluster case 4 contained 4 cases and occurred in work place. Conclusion: Higher contact frequency and smaller places were more likely to cause a small-scale COVID-19 cluster outbreak, with potential longer incubation period. COVID-19 control strategies should turn the attention to infection prevention and control in crowded places, management of enterprise resumption and prevention of nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
4.
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi ; 36(8): 686-690, 2020 Aug 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729670

ABSTRACT

For effective resistance to virus attack and infection and reducing virus transmission chance, it is extremely important for the medical staff and related workers to have their own safe protection. The paper summarizes the occurrence causes, common locations, and prevention ways about the device related pressure ulcers on the face resulted from wearing medical-grade protective equipment for a long working time. The paper proposes the prevention and nursing strategies for device related pressure ulcers and other related skin injuries during application of medical-grade protective equipment. The paper aims to provide reference for the prevention and nursing of device related pressure ulcers and related skin diseases for clinical medical staff, especially to the respectable personnel in front line of fighting against coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Skin Diseases , Humans , Protective Devices
5.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 2020 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724511

ABSTRACT

When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in detecting intracranial abnormalities has been helpful in outbreaks. Although the coronaviruses causing the previous Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome outbreak and the current coronavirus disease 19 pandemic are related, it is important to be aware of their similarities as well as potential differences. This review describes the neuroimaging appearances of selected zoonotic outbreaks so that neuroradiologists can better understand the current pandemic and potential future outbreaks.

6.
Br J Dermatol ; 2020 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714470

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is already well known globally1 . The Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 infection) causes a spectrum of severe clinical manifestations, which leads to a high rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and mortality. We report a first case of COVID-19 with reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV) alpha subfamily (herpes simplex virus I [HSV Ⅰ] and varicella-zoster virus [VZV]). Due to the immunosuppressive state associated with COVID-19, infection of the HHV alpha subfamily (HSV Ⅰ and VZV) could be potentially life threatening.

7.
Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences ; 52(4):711-714, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-707519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current situation of virus exposure risk incidents of nurses against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, and to provide reference evidence for nursing managers to protect nursing staff who were working in the isolation ward METHODS: In the study, 308 nursing staff against COVID-19 working in the isolation ward in Wuhan were conveniently selected to participate in the investigation The designed questionnaires including 7 kinds of protective exposure risk events were made by the team of researchers on the basis of literature review and interview with the nurses in Wuhan All the participants recalled their working experience in the status of dressing in personal protective equipment and filled in the questionnaires online by WeChat according to the same instruction RESULTS: The questionnaires were filled in validly by a total of 304 nursing staff, of whom 88 8% received emergency training on the prevention and dealing measurement of exposure risk events The incidence of shoe cover contamination, falling off or torn was relatively high, about 53 6% Due to the protection of gloves, the incidence of hand or skin contamination was relatively low, about 14 1% The most nervousness of protective exposure risk event for nurses was N95 mask contamination, falling off or shifting, with a score of 8 2±2 3, showing a higher psychiatric burden Single factor analysis found that the number of days in Wuhan was different, the number of the types of protective risk events occurred was different (χ(2)=14 562, P=0 024), orderly multivariate Logistic regression found that men were the independent protective factor for the number of the types of protective exposure risk events that occurred (P=0 019) CONCLUSION: Protective exposure risk events may occur in the work of nursing staff working in the isolation ward in Wuhan It is necessary to guide nurses to prevent the occurrence of protective exposure risk events and effectively deal with them, so as to prevent virus exposure and reduce psycholo-gical burden

8.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(6): 472-476, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-683960

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrinolysis strategy in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the COVID-19 epidemic, and to provide reference value for optimization of fibrinolytic process on the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff. Methods: The efficacy and safety of fibrinolysis were retrospectively analyzed in 7 patients with acute STEM, who hospitalized from February 29, 2020 to April 3, 2020 in the Department of Cardiology, Wuhan Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. To optimize the fibrinolytic process on the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff, a full-time medical team in charge of fibrinolysis under third-grade protection was established. The acute STEMI patients were treated immediately in a fixed and isolated area in emergency department before receiving green channel fibrinolysis. Blood samples for complete blood count, COVID-19 antibody test and nasopharyngeal swab samples for COVID-19 nucleic acid test were made before fibrinolysis, while the chest CT examination was accomplished after fibrinolysis. By comparing differences of time from the first electrocardiogram (ECG) to fibrinolysis before and after the improvement of fibrinolytic process, the effect of optimization of the fibrinolytic process was evaluated. Results: In the present study, seven patients with acute STEMI received fibrinolysis therapy, 6 of them achieved reperfusion and no bleeding was observed in all of the patients. Five out of the 7 patients were hospitalized after fibrinolysis, and the hospitalization days were 19.6 days on average. By following up to April 14, 2020, none of the 7 patients died. The first 2 patients were treated according to the routine medical procedure and the time from the first ECG to fibrinolysis were 201 and 106 minutes, respectively. After the optimization of the fibrinolytic process, the time from the first ECG to fibrinolysis of the last 5 patients were 42, 46, 51, 43 and 54 minutes, respectively,which was significantly shorter than that before optimization. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 epidemic, fibrinolysis in patients with acute STEMI is safe, effective and easy to implement. Therefore, it is recommended as the top priority for the patients with acute STEMI with indications for fibrinolysis. On the premise of prevention and control of COVID-19 transmission, including self-protection of medical staff, the duration of myocardial ischemia can be shortened by optimization of the fibrinolytic process.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Epidemics , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of paediatric patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS: Paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 15 and March 15, 2020, from seven hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, were collected retrospectively and analysed. RESULTS: Thirty-two children with COVID-19, ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years, were enrolled. Family aggregation occurred in 87.5% of infant and preschool-aged children (7/8), and also school-aged children (14/16), but in only 12.5% (1/8) of adolescents (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). Most of these patients had mild symptoms: mainly fever (20/32) followed by cough (10/32) and fatigue (4/32). The average durations of viral RNA in respiratory samples and gastrointestinal samples were 15.8 d and 28.9 d, respectively. Detox duration in faeces decreased with age: 39.8 d, 27.5 d and 20.4 d in infants and preschool children, school children, and adolescents respectively (p0-6, -18 <0.01, p0-6, -14 <0.05). Pneumonia was found in 14 children, but there was no statistical significance in the incidence of pneumonia between different age groups. Thirty patients were treated with antiviral drugs, and all patients were stable and gradually improved after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with COVID-19 had a mild process and a good prognosis. More attention should be paid to investigation of household contact history in the diagnosis of COVID-19 in young children. Viral RNA lasts longer in the gastrointestinal system than in the respiratory tract, especially in younger children.

11.
Harv Data Sci Rev ; 2020(Suppl 1), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-627047

ABSTRACT

With only 536 cases and 11 fatalities, India took the historic decision of a 21-day national lockdown on March 25 The lockdown was first extended to May 3 soon after the analysis of this paper was completed, and then to May 18 while this paper was being revised In this paper, we use a Bayesian extension of the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (eSIR) model designed for intervention forecasting to study the short- and long-term impact of an initial 21-day lockdown on the total number of COVID-19 infections in India compared to other less severe non-pharmaceutical interventions We compare effects of hypothetical durations of lockdown on reducing the number of active and new infections We find that the lockdown, if implemented correctly, can reduce the total number of cases in the short term, and buy India invaluable time to prepare its healthcare and disease-monitoring system Our analysis shows we need to have some measures of suppression in place after the lockdown for increased benefit (as measured by reduction in the number of cases) A longer lockdown between 42-56 days is preferable to substantially "flatten the curve" when compared to 21-28 days of lockdown Our models focus solely on projecting the number of COVID-19 infections and, thus, inform policymakers about one aspect of this multi-faceted decision-making problem We conclude with a discussion on the pivotal role of increased testing, reliable and transparent data, proper uncertainty quantification, accurate interpretation of forecasting models, reproducible data science methods and tools that can enable data-driven policymaking during a pandemic Our software products are available at covind19 org

12.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(3): 187-191, 2020 Mar 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590726

ABSTRACT

Objective: From December 2019, the new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, Hubei, and spread rapidly to the nationwide. On January 20, 2020, the National Health Committee classified COVID-19 pneumonia as one of B class infectious diseases and treated it as class A infectious disease. During the epidemic period, the routine diagnosis and treatment of tumor patients was affected with varying degrees. In this special period, we performed the superiority of the multi-disciplinary team of diagnosis and treatment, achieved accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hepatobiliary malignant tumors, provided support for these patients with limited medical resources, and helped them to survive during the epidemic period.On the basis of fully understanding the new coronavirus pneumonia, the treatment strategy should be changed timely during the epidemic, and more appropriate treatment methods should be adopted to minimize the adverse effect of the epidemic on tumor treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Biliary Tract Neoplasms/diagnosis , China , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5783-5787, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-542679

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China and the rest of the world. COVID-19 is currently a global pandemic. There are cytokine storms in severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin-6 plays an important role in cytokine storm. Tocilizumab is a blocker of interleukin-6 receptor, which is likely to become an effective drug for patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we reported a case in which tocilizumab was effective for a critical COVID-19 patient.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(6): 509-515, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506042

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical manifestations of the clinical characteristics of 141 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the imaging evolution characteristics of High Resolution CT (HRCT) in the chest. Methods: From January 20, 2020 to February 8, 141 COVID-19 patients in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 77 males and 64 females, with a median age of 49 (9,87) , were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features, laboratory examination indexes and HRCT evolution findings of 141 COVID-19 patients were analyzed. Results: Laboratory examinations of 141 COVID-19 patients showed a decrease in white blood cell count and lymphocyte ratio. Among the 141 patients with COVID-19, fever (>37.5 â„ƒ) was the most common clinical manifestation in 139 cases (98.58%) , and occasionally non-respiratory symptoms such as diarrhea in 4 cases (2.84%) . 141 patients with COVID-19 had abnormal HRCT. 52 (36.88%) chest HRCT images showed ground-glass opacity (GGO) , mainly under pleural; 23 (16.31%) GGO with focal consolidation; 27 (19.15%) small flaky shadows; 20 cases (14.18%) large flaky consolidation shadows; 48 cases (34.04%) bronchovascular bundle thickening and vascular penetrating signs; 5 cases (3.55%) had air bronchial signs; 7 cases (4.96%) of small nodule shadows; 5 cases (3.55%) of fibrosis, grid shadows or strand shadows.135 cases (95.74%) were positive for the first time nucleic acid test, 6 cases (4.26%) were negative, and 71 cases (50.35%) of common type, 47 cases (33.33%) of severe type and 23 cases (16.31%) of critical type were found during the same period. The average time from onset of each type to the first CT examination was: (2.51±1.32) , (5.02±2.01) , and (5.91±1.76) days; 19 (19/47, 40.43%) of which were severe for the first time CT classification worsened at the second examination and lessened at the third examination. 141 cases (100%) were positive for the second nucleic acid test, and the HRCT results for the same period were 44 cases (31.21%) of common type, 53 cases (37.59%) of severe type, and 44 cases (31.21%) of critical type; the average interval time was (3.32±1.61) , (3.93±1.84) , (4.15±1.57) days;the third nucleic acid test were positive among 113 cases and 28 cases were negative, HRCT results of the same period were 79 cases (56.03%) of common type, 46 cases (32.62%) of severe type, and 16 cases (11.35%) of critical type;the average interval from the first CT examination were: (5.59±1.83) , (7.32±1.37) , (7.55±1.78) days. The differences in CT typing at different time were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The clinical features of COVID-19 and HRCT images are diverse, extensive GGO and infiltrates in both lungs are typical. Viral nucleic acid tests usually occur earlier or at the same time as the CT examination positive, and there are false negatives in nucleic acid tests. In some epidemiological backgrounds, CT imaging manifestations and evolutionary characteristics are of great significance for early warning of lung injury, assessment of disease severity, and assistance in clinical typing and post-treatment follow-up.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618915

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of paediatric patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS: Paediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between January 15 and March 15, 2020, from seven hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, were collected retrospectively and analysed. RESULTS: Thirty-two children with COVID-19, ranging in age from 3 months to 18 years, were enrolled. Family aggregation occurred in 87.5% of infant and preschool-aged children (7/8), and also school-aged children (14/16), but in only 12.5% (1/8) of adolescents (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). Most of these patients had mild symptoms: mainly fever (20/32) followed by cough (10/32) and fatigue (4/32). The average durations of viral RNA in respiratory samples and gastrointestinal samples were 15.8 d and 28.9 d, respectively. Detox duration in faeces decreased with age: 39.8 d, 27.5 d and 20.4 d in infants and preschool children, school children, and adolescents respectively (p0-6, -18 <0.01, p0-6, -14 <0.05). Pneumonia was found in 14 children, but there was no statistical significance in the incidence of pneumonia between different age groups. Thirty patients were treated with antiviral drugs, and all patients were stable and gradually improved after admission. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with COVID-19 had a mild process and a good prognosis. More attention should be paid to investigation of household contact history in the diagnosis of COVID-19 in young children. Viral RNA lasts longer in the gastrointestinal system than in the respiratory tract, especially in younger children.

17.
QJM ; 113(9): 657-665, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic but the follow-up data of discharged patients was barely described. AIM: To investigate clinical outcomes, distribution of quarantine locations and the infection status of the contacts of COVID-19 patients after discharge. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: Demographics, baseline characteristics of 131 COVID-19 patients discharged from 3 February 2020 to 21 February 2020 in Wuhan, China were collected and analyzed by reviewing the medical records retrospectively. Post-hospitalization data related to clinical outcomes, quarantine locations and close contact history were obtained by following up the patients every week up to 4 weeks. RESULTS: Fifty-three (40.05%) patients on discharge had cough (29.01%), fatigue (7.63%), expectoration (6.11%), chest tightness (6.11%), dyspnea (3.82%), chest pain (3.05%) and palpitation (1.53%). These symptoms constantly declined in 4 weeks post-discharge. Transient fever recurred in 11 (8.4%) patients. Among the discharged patients, 78 (59.5%) underwent chest CT and 2 (1.53%) showed deterioration. A total of 94 (71.8%) patients received SARS-CoV-2 retest and 8 (6.10%) reported positive. Seven (2.29%) patients were readmitted because of fever or positive SARS-CoV-2 retest. After discharge, 121 (92.37%) and 4 (3.05%) patients were self-quarantined at home or community spots, respectively, after a close contact with 167 persons in total who were free of COVID-19 at the endpoint of study. CONCLUSION: The majority of COVID-19 patients after discharge were in the course of recovery. Readmission was required in rare cases due to suspected recurrence of COVID-19. Although no contacted infection observed, appropriate self-quarantine and regular re-examination are necessary, particularly for those who have recurred symptoms.

18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(0): E059, 2020 May 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-222728

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 outbreak is still under global pandemic. China is facing the risks of importation and local rebound of COVID-19. Under the circumstances, preparations for medical resources are in urgently needed. Methods: Based on current understanding of the disease, we set up five scenarios and use the infectious disease transmission dynamic and pandemic theoretical static models to evaluate the demand for medical resources. Results: Different epidemic strength and strategies of disease control and prevention resulted in different levels of medical resource request, and active control strategy and effective measures could significantly decrease the requirement. During the epidemic rising phase, the cost of prevention and control measures and the requirement of professional response capacities would increase with potential high risk of medical resource demand sharply increasing. Conclusion: Regions with different economic level, population scale, and different prevention and control capabilities should all initiate scientific assessment of medical resource requirement under emergency response and prepare for possible future rebound and epidemic.

19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 981-985, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-143923

ABSTRACT

Based on systematic review of the role of clinical treatment, disease control and scientific research, and combining with the problems exposed by the COVID-19 epidemic, suggestions were proposed to reform and improve the prevention and treatment system for major epidemics diseases in China. In clinical treatment, it is necessary to enhance clinical staff's awareness of law-based reporting, capabilities of syndromic surveillance, the use of infectious diseases reporting systems, and to improve national or local monitoring platforms for emerging infectious diseases detection. In terms of disease control, it is important to provide authorities to disease control departments through laws and regulations, improve the quantity and quality of related human resources, and strengthen the applied research and technical readiness targeted infections disease prevention, control and emergency preparedness. As for scientific research in major epidemic response, it is essential to strengthen research projects guided by national requests, build research institutions that can "make a final decision" , establish national and regional key laboratories, and strengthen strategic technical reserve for emergency disease control and treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
20.
Vaccine ; 38(28): 4464-4475, 2020 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133338

ABSTRACT

The 2013-2016 West Africa EBOV epidemic was the biggest EBOV outbreak to date. An analysis of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity in 30 survivors showed that 26 of those individuals had a CD8+ response to at least one EBOV protein. The dominant response (25/26 subjects) was specific to the EBOV nucleocapsid protein (NP). It has been suggested that epitopes on the EBOV NP could form an important part of an effective T-cell vaccine for Ebola Zaire. We show that a 9-amino-acid peptide NP44-52 (YQVNNLEEI) located in a conserved region of EBOV NP provides protection against morbidity and mortality after mouse adapted EBOV challenge. A single vaccination in a C57BL/6 mouse using an adjuvanted microsphere peptide vaccine formulation containing NP44-52 is enough to confer immunity in mice. Our work suggests that a peptide vaccine based on CD8+ T-cell immunity in EBOV survivors is conceptually sound and feasible. Nucleocapsid proteins within SARS-CoV-2 contain multiple Class I epitopes with predicted HLA restrictions consistent with broad population coverage. A similar approach to a CTL vaccine design may be possible for that virus.


Subject(s)
Drug Design , Ebola Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Ebola Vaccines/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/immunology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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