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1.
Toxics ; 11(2):87, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200840

ABSTRACT

Wearing masks has become the norm during the Coronavirus disease pandemic. Masks can reportedly interface with air pollutants and release microplastics and plastic additives such as phthalates. In this study, an experimental device was set up to simulate the impact of five kinds of masks (activated-carbon, N95, surgical, cotton, and fashion masks) on the risk of humans inhaling microplastics and phthalates during wearing. The residual concentrations of seven major phthalates ranged from 296 to 72,049 ng/g (median: 1242 ng/g), with the lowest and the highest concentrations detected in surgical (median: 367 ng/g) and fashion masks (median: 37,386 ng/g), respectively. During the whole inhalation simulation process, fragmented and 20-100 μm microplastics accounted for the largest, with a rapid release during the first six hours. After one day's wearing, that of 6 h, while wearing different masks, 25-135 and 65-298 microplastics were inhaled indoors and outdoors, respectively. The total estimated daily intake of phthalates with indoor and outdoor conditions by inhalation and skin exposure ranged from 1.2 to 13 and 0.43 to 14 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Overall, surgical masks yield a protective effect, while cotton and fashion masks increase human exposure to microplastics and phthalates both indoors and outdoors compared to no mask wearing. This study observed possible risks from common facemasks and provided suggestions to consumers for selecting suitable masks to reduce exposure risks from microplastics and phthalate acid.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2200369, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173293

ABSTRACT

SCOPE: This study investigates the potential effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on intestinal injury in a porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV)-infected porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two piglets are randomly assigned to one of four groups: the control, PEDV, NAC, and NAC+PEDV. Piglets in the NAC+PEDV group are orally administrated with NAC (100 mg (kg·BW)-1  day-1 ) for 4 consecutive days after 2 days of PEDV infection. The results show that NAC administration decreases the diarrhea rate and improves intestinal morphology. The concentration of diamine oxidase and intestinal fatty-acid binding protein, as well as IL-1ß, IL-8, and TNF-α in the plasma, is decreased by NAC. Intriguingly, NAC administration significantly increases the viral load in the jejunum and ileum and down-regulates the expression of interferon-related genes. Microarray and proteomic analyses show that the differentially expressed genes/proteins between NAC+PEDV and PEDV groups are highly enriched in substance transport. Furthermore, aquaporin 8/10 expression is significantly increased by NAC upon PEDV infection. CONCLUSION: NAC administration alleviates PEDV-induced intestinal injury by inhibiting inflammatory responses and improving substance transport, but promotes viral replication by inhibiting interferon signaling. These results suggest NAC exhibits multifaceted effects upon PEDV infection, and thus caution is required when using NAC as a dietary supplement to prevent viral infection.

3.
Building and Environment ; 229:109973, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165124

ABSTRACT

To quantify the risk of the transmission of respiratory infections in indoor environments, we systematically assessed exposure to talking- and breathing-generated respiratory droplets in a generic indoor environment using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The flow field in the indoor environment was obtained with SST k-ω model and Lagrangian method was used to predict droplet trajectories, where droplet evaporation was considered. Droplets can be categorized into small droplets (initial size ≤30 μm or ≤10 μm as droplet nuclei), medium droplets (30–80 μm) and large droplets (>100 μm) according to the exposure characteristics. Droplets up to 100 μm, particular the small ones, can contribute to both short-range and long-range airborne routes. For the face-to-face talking scenario, the intake fraction and deposition fractions of droplets on the face and facial mucosa of the susceptible were up to 4.96%, 2.14%, and 0.12%, respectively, indicating inhalation is the dominant route. The exposure risk from a talking infector decreases monotonically with the interpersonal distance, while that of nasal-breathing generated droplets maintains a relatively stable level within 1.0 m. Keeping an angle of 15° or above with the expiratory flow is efficient to reduce intake fractions to <0.37% for small droplets. Adjusting the orientation from face-to-face to face-to-back can reduce exposure to small droplets by approximately 88.0% during talking and 66.2% during breathing. A higher ventilation rate can reduce the risk of exposure to small droplets but may increase the risk of transmission via medium droplets by enhancing their evaporation rate. This study would serve as a fundamental research for epidemiologist, healthcare workers and the public in the purpose of infection control.

4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(24):16892, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2163393

ABSTRACT

The development of world trade and fresh-keeping technology has led to the rapid development of international cold chain logistics. However, the novel coronavirus epidemic continues to spread around the world at the present stage, which challenges disease transmission control and safety supervision of international cold chain logistics. Constructing an Import Cold Chain Logistics Safety Supervision System (ICCL-SSS) is helpful for detecting and controlling disease import risk. This paper constructs an evaluation index system of ICCL safety that comprehensively considers the potential risk factors of three ICCL processes: the logistics process in port, the customs clearance process, and the logistics process from port to door. The risk level of ICCL-SSS is evaluated by combining the Extension Decision-making Model and the Entropy Weight Method. The case study of Shanghai, China, the world's largest city of ICCL, shows that the overall risk level of ICCL-SSS in Shanghai is at a moderate level. However, the processes of loading and unloading, inspection and quarantine, disinfection and sterilization, and cargo storage are at high risk specifically. The construction and risk assessment of ICCL-SSS can provide theoretical support and practical guidance for improving the safety supervision ability of ICCL regulation in the post-epidemic era, and helps the local government to scientifically formulate ICCL safety administration policies and accelerate the development of world cold chain trade.

5.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 140963, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158567

ABSTRACT

Inefficient tumor-targeted delivery and uncontrolled drug release are the major obstacles in cancer chemotherapy. Herein, inspired by the targeting advantage of coronavirus from its size and coronal structure, a coronal biological metal–organic framework nanovehicle (named as corona-BioMOF) is constructed for improving its precise cancer targeting ability. The designed corona-BioMOF is constructed as the carriers-encapsulated carrier model by inner coated with abundant protein-nanocaged doxorubicin particles and external decorated with high-affinity apoferritin proteins to form the spiky surface for constructing the specific coronal structure. The corona-BioMOF shows a higher affinity and enhanced targeting ability towards receptor-positive cancer cells compared to that of MOF-drug composites without spiky surface. It also exhibits the hierarchical wrapping pattern-endowed controlled lysosome-specific drug release and remarkable tumor lethality in vivo. Moreover, water-induced surface defect-based protein handle mechanism is first proposed to shape the coronal-BioMOF. This work will provide better inspiration for nanovehicle construction and be broadly useful for clinical precision nanomedicine.

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1540-1555.e15, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130372

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 variant emerged in May 2022. BA.2.75 is a BA.2 descendant but is phylogenetically distinct from BA.5, the currently predominant BA.2 descendant. Here, we show that BA.2.75 has a greater effective reproduction number and different immunogenicity profile than BA.5. We determined the sensitivity of BA.2.75 to vaccinee and convalescent sera as well as a panel of clinically available antiviral drugs and antibodies. Antiviral drugs largely retained potency, but antibody sensitivity varied depending on several key BA.2.75-specific substitutions. The BA.2.75 spike exhibited a profoundly higher affinity for its human receptor, ACE2. Additionally, the fusogenicity, growth efficiency in human alveolar epithelial cells, and intrinsic pathogenicity in hamsters of BA.2.75 were greater than those of BA.2. Our multilevel investigations suggest that BA.2.75 acquired virological properties independent of BA.5, and the potential risk of BA.2.75 to global health is greater than that of BA.5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Stress Health ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128307

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, long-term overlooked motives concerning a sense of safety have become a primary concern. People's sense of safety largely depends on the information they receive. Indeed, a tsunami of information about the virus has been disseminated by all forms of media to people's electronic devices, thus permeating their lives. This study proposed that the over-abundance of information, known as information overload, could endanger individuals' sense of safety by increasing their rumination about COVID-19. However, it could also enhance their sense of safety by increasing their positive attitudes toward COVID-19 precautions. Furthermore, we proposed that individuals' hypervigilance could strengthen the relationship between information overload and rumination about COVID-19 and attitudes toward COVID-19 precautions. We tested these hypotheses using a cross-sectional survey study (N = 403) in February 2021 and a diary study (N = 98) in July 2021 in China. The results of both studies support the dual mediating paths of the relationship between information overload and sense of safety. We also found that hypervigilance moderated the relationship between information overload and rumination about COVID-19. Overall, our study offers insights into how social media may influence people's sense of safety and how individual differences in hypervigilance play a role in the process.

9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6952, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119472

ABSTRACT

Data on safety and immunity elicited by a third booster dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in children and adolescents are scarce. Here we conducted a study based on a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial (NCT04551547) to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a third dose of CoronaVac. In this study, 384 participants in the vaccine group were assigned to two cohorts. One received the third dose at a 10-months interval (cohort 1) and the other one at a 12-months interval (cohort 2). The primary endpoint is safety and immunogenicity following a third dose of CoronaVac. The secondary endpoint is antibody persistence following the primary two-dose schedule. Severities of local and systemic adverse reactions reported within 28 days after dose 3 were mild and moderate in both cohorts. A third dose of CoronaVac increased GMTs to 681.0 (95%CI: 545.2-850.7) in cohort 1 and 745.2 (95%CI: 577.0-962.3) in cohort 2. Seropositivity rates against the prototype were 100% on day 28 after dose 3. Seropositivity rates against the Omicron variant were 90.6% (cohort 1) and 91.5% (cohort 2). A homologous booster dose of CoronaVac is safe and induces a significant neutralising antibody levels increase in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Child , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Double-Blind Method , Antibodies, Viral
10.
Nano Lett ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117431

ABSTRACT

Clinical serology assays for detecting the antibodies of the virus are time-consuming, are less sensitive/selective, or rely on sophisticated detection instruments. Here, we develop a sandwiched plasmonic biosensor (SPB) for supersensitive thickness-sensing via utilizing the distance-dependent electromagnetic coupling in sandwiched plasmonic nanostructures. SPBs quantitatively amplify the thickness changes on the nanoscale range (sensitivity: ∼2% nm-1) into macroscopically visible signals, thereby enabling the rapid, label-free, and naked-eye detection of targeted biomolecular species (via the thickness change caused by immunobinding events). As a proof of concept, this assay affords a broad dynamic range (7 orders of magnitude) and a low LOD (∼0.3 pM), allowing for the extremely accurate SARS-CoV-2 antibody quantification (sensitivity/specificity: 100%/∼99%, with a portable optical fiber device). This strategy is suitable for high-throughput multiplexed detection and smartphone-based sensing at the point-of-care, which can be expanded for various sensing applications beyond the fields of viral infections and vaccination.

11.
J Med Chem ; 65(22): 15227-15237, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117218

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-1/2 (SARS-CoV-1/2) macrodomain 3 (Mac3) is critical for replication and transcription of the viral genome and is therefore a potential therapeutic target. Here, we solved the crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 Mac3, which reveals a small-molecule binding pocket. Two low-molecular-weight drugs, oxaprozin and meclomen, induced different patterns of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift perturbations (CSPs). Meclomen binds to site I of SARS-CoV-2 Mac3 with binding pose determined by NMR CSP and transferred paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, while oxaprozin binds to site II as revealed by the crystal structure. Interestingly, oxaprozin and meclomen both perturb residues in site I of SARS-CoV Mac3. Fluorescence polarization experiments further demonstrated that oxaprozin and meclomen inhibited the binding of DNA-G4s to SARS-CoV-2 Mac3. Our work identified two adjacent ligand-binding sites of SARS-CoV-2 Mac3 that shall facilitate structure-guided fragment linking of these compounds for more potent inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Meclofenamic Acid , Oxaprozin , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Binding Sites
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1527-1539.e5, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104544

ABSTRACT

Recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant, BA.2.75, displayed a growth advantage over circulating BA.2.38, BA.2.76, and BA.5 in India. However, the underlying mechanisms for enhanced infectivity, especially compared with BA.5, remain unclear. Here, we show that BA.2.75 exhibits substantially higher affinity for host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) than BA.5 and other variants. Structural analyses of BA.2.75 spike shows its decreased thermostability and increased frequency of the receptor binding domain (RBD) in the "up" conformation under acidic conditions, suggesting enhanced low-pH-endosomal cell entry. Relative to BA.4/BA.5, BA.2.75 exhibits reduced evasion of humoral immunity from BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough-infection convalescent plasma but greater evasion of Delta breakthrough-infection convalescent plasma. BA.5 breakthrough-infection plasma also exhibits weaker neutralization against BA.2.75 than BA.5, mainly due to BA.2.75's distinct neutralizing antibody (NAb) escape pattern. Antibody therapeutics Evusheld and Bebtelovimab remain effective against BA.2.75. These results suggest BA.2.75 may prevail after BA.4/BA.5, and its increased receptor-binding capability could support further immune-evasive mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 973367, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099183

ABSTRACT

Whole genome sequencing provides rapid insight into key information about the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as virus typing and key mutation site, and this information is important for precise prevention, control and tracing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in conjunction with the epidemiological information of the case. Nanopore sequencing is widely used around the world for its short sample-to-result time, simple experimental operation and long sequencing reads. However, because nanopore sequencing is a relatively new sequencing technology, many researchers still have doubts about its accuracy. The combination of the newly launched nanopore sequencing Q20+ kit (LSK112) and flow cell R10.4 is a qualitative improvement over the accuracy of the previous kits. In this study, we firstly used LSK112 kit with flow cell R10.4 to sequence the SARS-CoV-2 whole genome, and summarized the sequencing results of the combination of LSK112 kit and flow cell R10.4 for the 1200bp amplicons of SARS-CoV-2. We found that the proportion of sequences with an accuracy of more than 99% reached 30.1%, and the average sequence accuracy reached 98.34%, while the results of the original combination of LSK109 kit and flow cell R9.4.1 were 0.61% and 96.52%, respectively. The mutation site analysis showed that it was completely consistent with the final consensus sequence of next generation sequencing (NGS). The results showed that the combination of LSK112 kit and flow cell R10.4 allowed rapid whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 without the need for verification of NGS.

15.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2092699

ABSTRACT

Whole genome sequencing provides rapid insight into key information about the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), such as virus typing and key mutation site, and this information is important for precise prevention, control and tracing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in conjunction with the epidemiological information of the case. Nanopore sequencing is widely used around the world for its short sample-to-result time, simple experimental operation and long sequencing reads. However, because nanopore sequencing is a relatively new sequencing technology, many researchers still have doubts about its accuracy. The combination of the newly launched nanopore sequencing Q20+ kit (LSK112) and flow cell R10.4 is a qualitative improvement over the accuracy of the previous kits. In this study, we firstly used LSK112 kit with flow cell R10.4 to sequence the SARS-CoV-2 whole genome, and summarized the sequencing results of the combination of LSK112 kit and flow cell R10.4 for the 1200bp amplicons of SARS-CoV-2. We found that the proportion of sequences with an accuracy of more than 99% reached 30.1%, and the average sequence accuracy reached 98.34%, while the results of the original combination of LSK109 kit and flow cell R9.4.1 were 0.61% and 96.52%, respectively. The mutation site analysis showed that it was completely consistent with the final consensus sequence of next generation sequencing (NGS). The results showed that the combination of LSK112 kit and flow cell R10.4 allowed rapid whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 without the need for verification of NGS.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090159

ABSTRACT

The burden of disease caused by cervical cancer ranked second among female tumors in China. The HPV vaccine has been proven to be a cost-effective measure to prevent cervical cancer, but the vaccination rate remained low to date among university students. This study aimed to understand the status quo of HPV vaccine hesitancy among university students across China during the COVID-19 pandemics and systematically analyze determinants of HPV vaccine hesitancy based on the WHO 3Cs model. Cross-sectional data were collected using an online survey of female university students in four cities across China in June 2022. Multinomial logistic regression was adopted to determine factors influencing vaccine hesitancy based on the 3Cs model with three dimensions, namely complacency, convenience, and confidence. Among 1438 female university students surveyed in this study, 89.7% did not hesitate to vaccinate against HPV, only 8.9% hesitated to some extent, and 1.4% refused to vaccinate. The actual vaccination rate for the HPV vaccine was 34.2%. Based on the 3Cs model, this study found that the trust on the efficacy of vaccines, risk perception of being infected by HPV, price, and distance/time were influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy. Knowledge of the HPV vaccine and sociodemographic characteristics, such as education levels, were also statistically relevant. Therefore, it is recommended that relevant scientific knowledge on cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine should be spread on campus, the vaccination appointment procedure should be simplified, and the affordability of vaccination should be increased through strategic purchasing or providing subsidies, so as to reduce HPV vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Universities , Vaccination Hesitancy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , China , Students
17.
Green Chemistry ; 24(21):8562-8571, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2087339

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the world through the anguish from a fast-spreading virus and by struggling with the increasing plastic waste. A catalytic cascade process where hydropyrolysis was coupled with downstream vapor-phase hydrotreatment was employed for the first time to upcycle real-world mixed plastic waste into drop-in fuels. This tandem vapor-phase hydrotreatment technology is feedstock-agnostic and therefore capable of upcycling different kinds of personal protective equipment (PPE) plastic waste into drop-in fuels over a non-noble bifunctional Ni/NiAl2O4 catalyst. A maximum 88.9 wt% single-pass yield of drop-in fuel-range hydrocarbons was obtained with a hydrotreatment temperature of 300 degrees C at 0.3 MPa H-2. Life cycle assessment showed that this catalytic cascade vapor-phase hydrotreatment approach had a high energy efficiency of 94%. The global warming potential of the obtained fuel could be reduced by 72% as a maximum in the low carbon future, compared with conventional fuel blends, indicating that it can be used as a promising chemical upcycling technology for achieving a sustainable plastic circular economy.

18.
Small Methods ; : e2200932, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085203

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies are shown to be effective therapeutics for providing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) protection. However, recurrent variants arise and facilitate significant escape from current antibody therapeutics. Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) represent a unique platform to increase antibody breadth and to reduce neutralization escape. Herein, a novel immunoglobulin G-variable domains of heavy-chain-only antibody (IgG-VHH) format bsAb derived from a potent human antibody R15-F7 and a humanized nanobody P14-F8-35 are rationally engineered. The resulting bsAb SYZJ001 efficiently neutralizes wild-type SARS-CoV-2 as well as the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta variants, with superior efficacy to its parental antibodies. Cryo-electron microscopy structural analysis reveals that R15-F7 and P14-F8-35 bind to nonoverlapping epitopes within the RBD and sterically hindered ACE2 receptor binding. Most importantly, SYZJ001 shows potent prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in three established mouse models. Collectively, the current results demonstrate that the novel bsAb format is feasible and effective, suggesting great potential as an inspiring antiviral strategy.

19.
Nano research ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2084312

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic enhanced fluorescence (PEF) technology is a powerful strategy to improve the sensitivity of immunofluorescence microarrays (IFMA), however, current approaches to constructing PEF platforms are either expensive/time-consuming or reliant on specialized instruments. Here, we develop a completely alternative approach relying on a two-step protocol that includes the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) at the water—oil interface and subsequent annealing-assisted regulation of gold nanogap. Our optimized thermal-annealing GNPs (TA-GNP) platform generates adequate hot spots, and thus produces high-density electromagnetic coupling, eventually enabling 240-fold fluorescence enhancement of probed dyes in the near-infrared region. For clinical detection of human samples, TA-GNP provides super-high sensitivity and low detection limits for both hepatitis B surface antigen and SARS-CoV-2 binding antibody, coupled with a much-improved detection dynamic range up to six orders of magnitude. With fast detection, high sensitivity, and low detection limit, TA-GNP could not only substantially improve the outcomes of IFMA-based precision medicine but also find applications in fields of proteomic research and clinical pathology. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material (UV—Vis absorption and transmission spectra of GNPs, SEM, microscopy and digital images of PEF platforms, and fluorescence images of IFMA on PEF platforms) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-5035-6.

20.
Cell host & microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073701

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 variant emerged in May 2022. BA.2.75 is a BA.2 descendant but is phylogenetically distinct from BA.5, the currently predominant BA.2 descendant. Here, we show that BA.2.75 has a greater effective reproduction number and different immunogenicity profile than BA.5. We determined the sensitivity of BA.2.75 to vaccinee and convalescent sera as well as a panel of clinically available antiviral drugs and antibodies. Antiviral drugs largely retained potency but antibody sensitivity varied depending on several key BA.2.75-specific substitutions. The BA.2.75 spike exhibited a profoundly higher affinity for its human receptor, ACE2. Additionally, the fusogenicity, growth efficiency in human alveolar epithelial cells, and intrinsic pathogenicity in hamsters of BA.2.75 were greater than those of BA.2. Our multilevel investigations suggest that BA.2.75 acquired virological properties independent of BA.5, and the potential risk of BA.2.75 to global health is greater than that of BA.5. Graphical Saito and G2P-Japan Consortium et al. elucidate the virological properties of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.75 variant. BA.2.75 is more transmissible than BA.5, and exhibits different antigenicity than BA.2 and BA.5. The BA.2.75 spike exhibits higher affinity to ACE2 and higher fusogenicity, and BA.2.75 is more pathogenic than BA.2 in hamsters.

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