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1.
Journal of Global Health ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1801608

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptions to the functioning of societies and their health systems. Prior to the pandemic, health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) were particularly stretched and vulnerable. The International Society of Global Health (ISoGH) sought to systematically identify priorities for health research that would have the potential to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs. Methods The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) method was used to identify COVID-19-related research priorities. All ISoGH members were invited to participate. Seventy-nine experts in clinical, translational, and population research contributed 192 research questions for consideration. Fifty-two experts then scored those questions based on five pre-defined criteria that were selected for this exercise: 1) feasibility and answerability;2) potential for burden reduction;3) potential for a paradigm shift;4) potential for translation and implementation;and 5) impact on equity. Results Among the top 10 research priorities, research questions related to vaccination were prominent: health care system access barriers to equitable uptake of COVID-19 vaccination (ranked 1st), determinants of vaccine hesitancy (4th), development and evaluation of effective interventions to decrease vaccine hesitancy (5th), and vaccination impacts on vulnerable population/s (6th). Health care delivery questions also ranked highly, including: effective strategies to manage COVID-19 globally and in LMICs (2nd) and integrating health care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs (3rd). Additionally, the assessment of COVID-19 patients’ needs in rural areas of LMICs was ranked 7th, and studying the leading socioeconomic determinants and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs using multi-faceted approaches was ranked 8th. The remaining questions in the top 10 were: clarifying paediatric case-fatality rates (CFR) in LMICs and identifying effective strategies for community engagement against COVID-19 in different LMIC contexts. Interpretation Health policy and systems research to inform COVID-19 vaccine uptake and equitable access to care are urgently needed, especially for rural, vulnerable, and/or marginalised populations. This research should occur in parallel with studies that will identify approaches to minimise vaccine hesitancy and effectively integrate care for COVID-19 with other essential health services in LMICs. ISoGH calls on the funders of health research in LMICs to consider the urgency and priority of this research during the COVID-19 pandemic and support studies that could make a positive difference for the populations of LMICs.

2.
mLife ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1749865

ABSTRACT

Impact Statement We present a method of mapping data from publicly available genomics and publication resources to the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and implement a server to publish linked open data (LOD). As one of the largest and most comprehensive semantic databases about coronaviruses, the resulted gcCov database demonstrates the capability of using data in the LOD framework to promote correlations between genotypes and phenotypes. These correlations will be helpful for future research on fundamental viral mechanisms and drug and vaccine designs. These LOD with 62,168,127 semantic triplets and their visualizations are freely accessible through gcCov at https://nmdc.cn/gccov/.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329972

ABSTRACT

Background: The classic prescription Chaihu Shugan Powder (CHSGP) has been widely used in clinical Chinese medicine treatment and has clear clinical effects in the treatment of emotional diseases. Based on the increasing incidence of emotional diseases such as insomnia and depression in the population during the COVID-19 pandemic, we will explore the mechanism of CHSGP in the treatment of insomnia and depression with “Same Treatment for Different Diseases”. Methods: : Using a bioinformatics and network pharmacology platform, protein database and STRING database, we collected CHSGP chemical composition and related target data and constructed a "component-target" action network through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking technology was used to verify key active ingredients and core targets. Results: : A total of 119 active compounds of CHSGP were screened, such as quercetin, kaempferol, and β-sitosterol, and 113 common related targets overlapped with insomnia and depression. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis mainly involved immune, inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, endocrine and other related targets and signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that small molecular compounds (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone and beta-sitosterol) had good binding effects with five target proteins (AKT1, IL1B, IL-6, FOS, GSK3B) to play a role in regulating immunity, the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling. Conclusions: : Under the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it revealed the complex mechanism of multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway of the classic CHSGP for insomnia and depression, laying a theoretical foundation for its clinical application of its "same treatment for different diseases".

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323642

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak from Wuhan, China has, as of February 13, 2020, infected nearly 60,000 people in China with the death toll passing 1300. The virus is also spreading worldwide rapidly, with 490 confirmed cases in 24 countries and 1 death at current stage. Numerous studies have recently been published in terms of genome structure, transmission, infection mechanism, and drug development of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this study, we performed a descriptive study by focusing on the first 63 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Xuzhou, a major city and a transportation hub with 10.44 million population (National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2019) on the east coast of China. Among the 63 patients with confirmed COVID-19, the median age is 45-year-old and 49.21% are male. 23 cases (36.51%) are imported. 23 cases (36.51%) were confirmed between from January 26 to 31 while 40 cases (63.49%) from February 1 to 10. The mean period from isolation to confirmation is 4.95 days. Among the ten administrative divisions of Xuzhou city, Suining county (n=17) and Pizhou City (n=15) have the most cases while Tongshan district has none. A representative familial cluster was analysed in detail in order to get a better understanding of the transmission routes of the virus. Clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 in 41 confirmed cases were analysed, which could provide a meaningful understanding during the initial screening of the disease. In sum, this study provides an epidemiological overview of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Xuzhou, the economic hub of Huaihai Economic Zone (HEZ) and an important transportation center in China. Considering the ongoing situation of this newly emerged infection both domestically and internationally, more efforts should be required to reduce the transmission of the virus so as to avoid further casualties, economic losses, and global pandemic.Authors Liang Wang, Jiawei Yan, and Zhanzhong Liu contributed equally to this study.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315161

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 mortality is very low in the regions with a low transmission rate and sufficient medical resources. However, strict prevention measures greatly altered people’s social activities, diet, and hygienic habits, which had potential impact on non-COVID-19 deaths. Therefore, this study is to evaluate the impact of short-term lifestyle change on non-COVID deaths in the region with a low COVID-19 transmission rate.Methods: We performed a retropective observational study with statiscal analysis via Student’s t-test (significance defined as P-value < 0.05). The number of registered deaths among 8.8 million permanent residents with specific causes from January 2018 to June 2020 were sourced from Xuzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Death rates were calculated and compared by weeks, months, and years with a focus on the period of COVID-19 pandemic from Jan 24 to March 27, 2020 in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.Findings: Within the COVID-19 timeframe, all-cause mortality (138.03/105 vs. 158.28/105 vs. 152.57/105, P < 0.001), respiratory disorders (13.99/105 vs. 24.48/105 vs. 21.22/105, P < 0.001), cerebrovascular diseases (36.35/105 vs. 38.69/105 vs. 38.61/105, P < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (35.70/105 vs. 42.06/105 vs. 39.55/105, P < 0.001) are consistently lower than those in the same period in 2018 and 2019. The traffic death dropped significantly, while mortalities of mental health disorders and out-of-hospital sudden death significantly increased during the pandemic time.Interpretation: Our study suggests the short-term lifestyle alteration can have significant impact on all-cause mortality. This could provide evidences for adjusting future healthcare policies to reduce specific-cause mortalities such as respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Trial Registration: This study was registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 04550312). Funding: Xuzhou Talent Fellowship Program 2019.Conflict of Interest: We declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The medical research ethics committee of the affiliated hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, approved the study (9th, September 2020, No. XYFY2020-KL142-01).

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315160

ABSTRACT

Background: The increase of all-cause mortality in the areas with high COVID-19 transmission rate due to COVID-19 deaths and the collateral damage to other healthcare problems is well-known. However, the COVID-19 mortality is low in the regions with a low transmission rate and sufficient medical resources. In such regions, strict prevention measures altered people’s lifestyle and hygienic habits and had an impact on non-COVID-19 deaths. Yet, this aspect needs to be elucidated further.Methods: The number of registered deaths among 8.8 million permanent residents with specific causes from January 2018 to June 2020 were estimated. Death rates were calculated and compared by weeks, months, seasons and years with a focus on the period of the COVID-19 pandemic from January 24 to March 27, 2020. The numerical values of all-cause death and the death rates of non-COVID diseases were compared in various time points.Findings: During the pandemic in Xuzhou region, a total of 79 COVID-19 infected patients were diagnosed and treated. Meanwhile, stringent public health measures were taken to contain the virus transmission. Surprisingly, mortalities of all-cause casualty, respiratory disorders, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease are consistently lower than those in the same periods in 2018 and 2019. Moreover, the first two weeks in the lunar new year presented the highest death rates from 2018–2020 and lowest in 2020 due to COVID-19 control. The traffic death dropped significantly, while mortality of mental health disorders and out-of-hospital sudden death significantly increased during the pandemic time.Interpretation: Control strategies in the region of low SARS-CoV-2 transmission rate during the COVID-19 outbreak alter the lifestyles of people and further exert an impact on non-COVID deaths, which could have a practical value in guiding clinical work and future management of chronic diseases.Funding Statement: Xuzhou Talent Fellowship Program 2019Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the affiliated hospital of Xuzhou Medical University.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328833

ABSTRACT

Background: The classic prescription Chaihu Shugan Powder (CHSGP) has been widely used in clinical Chinese medicine treatment and has clear clinical effects in the treatment of emotional diseases. Based on the increasing incidence of emotional diseases such as insomnia and depression in the population during the COVID-19 pandemic, we will explore the mechanism of CHSGP in the treatment of insomnia and depression with “Same Treatment for Different Diseases”. Methods: : Using a bioinformatics and network pharmacology platform, protein database and STRING database, we collected CHSGP chemical composition and related target data and constructed a "component-target" action network through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking technology was used to verify key active ingredients and core targets. Results: : A total of 119 active compounds of CHSGP were screened, such as quercetin, kaempferol, and β-sitosterol, and 113 common related targets overlapped with insomnia and depression. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis mainly involved immune, inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, endocrine and other related targets and signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that small molecular compounds (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone and beta-sitosterol) had good binding effects with five target proteins (AKT1, IL1B, IL-6, FOS, GSK3B) to play a role in regulating immunity, the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling. Conclusions: : Under the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it revealed the complex mechanism of multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway of the classic CHSGP for insomnia and depression, laying a theoretical foundation for its clinical application of its "same treatment for different diseases".

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308918

ABSTRACT

Most recently, an outbreak of severe pneumonia caused by the infection of 2019-nCoV, a novel coronavirus first identified in Wuhan, China, imposes serious threats to public health. Many important aspects about 2019-nCoV remain largely unknown, among which, the limitation of antiviral therapies represents one of the most critical problems. More recently, it was confirmed that human ACE2 is the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV into lower respiratory tract epithelial cells. Give this observation, it is thus expected that the virus could be inhibited if we decrease the expression of ACE2. Here by screening two databases, Connectivity Map (CMap) and our JeaMoon Map (JMap), we identified a number of candidate agents that decrease ACE2 expression. CMap analysis identified 5 compounds, among which, Azathioprine is a possible therapeutic strategy for anti-2019-nCoV. Moreover, JMap analysis revealed a number of comounds, biologics, and traditional Chinese medicine, among which, Andrographis, Urtica, Sambucus, Astragalus, valproic acid, butyrate, and epoxomicin represent the most significant and possible strategies for anti-2019-nCoV therapies. This study provides a number of clues and possible therapeutic strategies for 2019-nCoV prevention and treatment.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308917

ABSTRACT

Recently, it was confirmed that ACE2 is the receptor of 2019-nCoV, the pathogen causing the recent outbreak of severe pneumonia in China. It is confused that ACE2 is widely expressed across a variety of organs and is expressed moderately but not highly in lung, which, however, is the major infected organ. It remains unclear why it is the lung but not other tissues among which ACE2 highly expressed is mainly infected. We hypothesized that there could be some other genes playing key roles in the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells. Here we found that AGTR2 (angiotensin II receptor type 2), a G-protein coupled receptor, has interaction with ACE2 and is highly expressed in lung with a high tissue specificity. More importantly, simulation of 3D structure based protein-protein interaction reveals that AGTR2 shows a higher binding affinity with the Spike protein of 2019-nCov than ACE2 (energy score: -15.7 vs. -6.9 [kcal/mol]). Given these observations, we suggest that AGTR2 could be a putative novel gene for the the entry of 2019-nCoV into human cells but need further confirmation by biological experiments. Finally, a number of compounds, biologics and traditional Chinese medicine that could decrease the expression level of AGTR2 were predicted.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-326490

ABSTRACT

In this paper we propose a novel pricing-hedging framework for volatility derivatives which simultaneously takes into account rough volatility and volatility jumps. Our model directly targets the instantaneous variance of a risky asset and consists of a generalized fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process driven by a Lévy subordinator and an independent sinusoidal-composite Lévy process. The former component captures short-term dependence in the instantaneous volatility, while the latter is introduced expressly for rectifying the activity level of the average forward variance. Such a framework ensures that the characteristic function of average forward variance is obtainable in semi-closed form, without having to invoke any geometric-mean approximations. To analyze swaps and European-style options on average forward volatility, we introduce a general class of power-type derivatives on the average forward variance, which also provide flexible nonlinear leverage exposure. Pricing-hedging formulae are based on a modified numerical Fourier transform technique. A comparative empirical study is conducted on two independent recent data sets on VIX options, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, to demonstrate that the proposed framework is highly amenable to efficient model calibration under various choices of kernels.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325218

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can infect many domestic animals, including dogs. Herein, we show that dog angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (dACE2) can bind to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding region (RBD), and that both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 can infect dACE2-expressing cells. we solved the crystal structure of RBD in complex with dACE2 and found that the total numbers of contact residues, contact atoms, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the binding interface in this complex are slightly fewer than those in the complex of the RBD and human ACE2 (hACE2). This result is consistent with the fact that the binding affinity of RBD to dACE2 is lower than that to hACE2. We further show that a few important mutations in the RBD binding interface play a pivotal role in the binding affinity of RBD to both dACE2 and hACE2, and need intense monitoring and controlling.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667380

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses are engendered in human milk after BNT162b2 vaccination. However, the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) raises concerns about the specificity of and potential cross-protection mediated by milk antibody responses, which are crucial for passive immunity transferred from breastfeeding mothers to their infants. In this study, we collected milk samples at three different time points pre- and post-vaccination, and measured milk IgA antibody binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, and the four VOCs, namely Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta. We report a significant level of anti-RBD IgA in milk collected at 4-6 weeks after the second dose of vaccination compared to pre-vaccination. We observed around a 30% reduction in binding to most VOCs, including the major circulating Delta variant, compared to the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. As COVID-19 vaccines may take some time to be approved for infants, these individuals remain at risk for severe disease and rely mainly on transferred passive immunity. Our findings support the current recommendations for vaccinating lactating women with the aim of transferring mucosal immunity to breastfeeding infants.

13.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(2)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642316

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in late 2019, several variants of concern (VOC) have been reported to have increased transmissibility. In addition, despite the progress of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 worldwide, all vaccines currently in used are known to protect only partially from infection and onward transmission. We combined phylogenetic analysis with Bayesian inference under an epidemiological model to infer the reproduction number (Rt) and also trace person-to-person transmission. We examined the impact of phylogenetic uncertainty and sampling bias on the estimation. Our result indicated that lineage B had a significantly higher transmissibility than lineage A and contributed to the global pandemic to a large extent. In addition, although the transmissibility of VOCs is higher than other exponentially growing lineages, this difference is not very high. The probability of detecting onward transmission from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 VOCs who had received at least one dose of vaccine was approximate 1.06% (3/284), which was slightly lower but not statistically significantly different from a probability of 1.21% (10/828) for unvaccinated individuals. In addition to VOCs, exponentially growing lineages in each country should also be account for when tailoring prevention and control strategies. One dose of vaccination could not efficiently prevent the onward transmission of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs. Consequently, nonpharmaceutical interventions (such as wearing masks and social distancing) should still be implemented in each country during the vaccination period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Global Health , Humans , Phylogeny , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination
14.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2971-2987, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616927

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is one of the most common complications in COVID-19. Elastase has been recognized as an important target to prevent ALI/ARDS in the patient of COVID-19. Cyclotheonellazole A (CTL-A) is a natural macrocyclic peptide reported to be a potent elastase inhibitor. Herein, we completed the first total synthesis of CTL-A in 24 linear steps. The key reactions include three-component MAC reactions and two late-stage oxidations. We also provided seven CTL-A analogues and elucidated preliminary structure-activity relationships. The in vivo ALI mouse model further suggested that CTL-A alleviated acute lung injury with reductions in lung edema and pathological deterioration, which is better than sivelestat, one approved elastase inhibitor. The activity of CTL-A against elastase, along with its cellular safety and well-established synthetic route, warrants further investigation of CTL-A as a candidate against COVID-19 pathogeneses.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Leukocyte Elastase/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Bleomycin , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Leukocyte Elastase/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peptides, Cyclic/chemical synthesis , Peptides, Cyclic/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 645798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Close contacts have become a potential threat to the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of close contacts of confirmed or suspected cases of COVID-19 in the surrounding cities of Chengdu, China, so as to provide a basis for the management strategy of close contacts. Methods: Close contacts were determined through epidemiological investigation of indicated cases, and relevant information was entered in the "Close Contact Information Management System." Retrospective data of close contacts from January 22 to May 1, 2020 were collected and organized. Meanwhile, the contact mode, isolation mode, and medical outcome of close contacts were descriptively analyzed. Results: A total of 986 close contacts were effectively traced, with an average age of (36.69 ± 16.86) years old, who were mainly distributed in cities of eastern Chengdu. The frequency of contact was mainly occasional contact, 80.42% of them were relatives and public transportation personnel. Besides, the time of tracking close contacts and feedback was (10.64 ± 5.52) and (7.19 ± 6.11) days, respectively. A total of seven close contacts were converted to confirmed cases. Conclusions: Close contacts of COVID-19 have a risk of invisible infection. Early control of close contacts may be helpful to control the epidemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cities , Contact Tracing , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592400

ABSTRACT

Owing to the over usage of carbapenems, carbapenem resistance has become a vital threat worldwide, and, thus, the World Health Organization announced the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) as the critical priority for antibiotic development in 2017. In the current situation, combination therapy would be one solution against CRE. Azidothymidine (AZT), a thymidine analog, has demonstrated its synergistically antibacterial activities with other antibiotics. The unexpected antimicrobial activity of the immunomodulator ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-o,o')tellurate (AS101) has been reported against carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Here, we sought to investigate the synergistic activity between AS101 and AZT against 12 CRKP clinical isolates. According to the gene detection results, the blaOXA-1 (7/12, 58.3%), blaDHA (7/12, 58.3%), and blaKPC (7/12, 58.3%) genes were the most prevalent ESBL, AmpC, and carbapenemase genes, respectively. The checkerboard analysis demonstrated the remarkable synergism between AS101 and AZT, with the observable decrease in the MIC value for two agents and the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index ≤0.5 in all strains. Hence, the combination of AS101 and azidothymidine could be a potential treatment option against CRKP for drug development.

17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 170, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582005

ABSTRACT

A survey of hospitals on three continents was performed to assess their infection control preparedness and measures, and their infection rate in hospital health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. All surveyed hospitals used similar PPE but differences in preparedness, PPE shortages, and infection rates were reported.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295347

ABSTRACT

We detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific IgA against all major VOCs in milk out to 6 weeks after D2 of BNT162b2. These likely confer some protection to the breastfed infants, who are ineligible for vaccination and are at risk of severe COVID-19. However, we detected significantly reduced milk IgA binding to VOCs, including the globally dominant Delta variant, suggesting reduced protection for breastfeeding infants. Additionally, these antibodies were significantly reduced by as early as 4-6 weeks after D2.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295016

ABSTRACT

A hidden cost of the COVID-19 pandemic is the stigma associated with the disease for those infected and groups that are considered as more likely to be infected. This paper examines whether the provision of accurate and focused information about COVID-19 from a reliable source can reduce stigmatization. We carry out a randomized field experiment in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, in which we provide an information brief about COVID-19 by phone to a random subsample of participants to address stigma and misconceptions. We find that the information brief decreases stigmatization of COVID-19 patients and certain groups such as religious minorities, lower-caste groups, and frontline workers (healthcare, police), and reduces the belief that infection cases are more prevalent among certain marginalized social and economic groups (Muslims, low caste, rural-poor population). We provide suggestive evidence that improved knowledge about the prevention and transmission of COVID-19 and reduced stress about the disease are important channels for these effects.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 710217, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555700

ABSTRACT

Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger uncontrolled innate and adaptive immune responses, which are commonly associated with lymphopenia and increased neutrophil counts. However, whether the immune abnormalities observed in mild to severely infected patients persist into convalescence remains unclear. Herein, comparisons were drawn between the immune responses of COVID-19 infected and convalescent adults. Strikingly, survivors of severe COVID-19 had decreased proportions of NKT and Vδ2 T cells, and increased proportions of low-density neutrophils, IgA+/CD86+/CD123+ non-classical monocytes and hyperactivated HLADR+CD38+ CD8+ T cells, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A, long after virus clearance. Our study suggests potential immune correlates of "long COVID-19", and defines key cells and cytokines that delineate true and quasi-convalescent states.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
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