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1.
Taiwan Gong Gong Wei Sheng Za Zhi ; 42(1):32-41, 2023.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20234098

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Interventions for controlling COVID-19 can be classified into case-based (e.g., contact tracing and quarantining) and population-based (e.g., using masks and receiving vaccines) measures. The objective of pandemic control has now shifted from reducing the daily number of cases to reducing that of hospitalizations through vaccination. COVID-19 has started exhibiting flu-like characteristics. Therefore, in this study, we compared different measures in terms of their effectiveness in reducing the daily number of moderate to severe cases of COVID-19. Methods: The branching model developed by Hellewell (2020) was used for simulation. The epidemiological data of the Omicron variant and various hypothetical scenarios were analyzed. The outcome variable of our study was the daily number of hospitalizations under different measures and their combinations. Results: Population-based measures were more effective than case-based measures;however, their combination led to the best outcomes. If vaccination reduced the number of COVID-19-related hospitalizations, the focus was on increasing vaccine coverage to increase medical capacity rather than enhancing vaccine efficacy. Conclusions: While loosening case-based measures, the government must consider whether population-based measures can support this change. Furthermore, to reduce the daily number of moderate to severe cases of COVID-19, vaccine coverage, rather than vaccine efficacy, must be improved. (Taiwan J Public Health. 2023;42(1):32-41)

2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 23(7): 641-650, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241591

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many cases of acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) secondary to COVID-19 have been reported. ANE is characterized by a rapid onset, a fulminant course, and low morbidity and fatality rates. Therefore, clinicians need to be vigilant for such disorders, especially during the influenza virus and COVID-19 epidemics. AREAS COVERED: The authors summarize the most recent studies on the clinical spectrum and treatment essentials of ANE to provide references for prompt diagnosis and improved treatment of this rare but fatal disease. EXPERT OPINION: ANE is a type of necrotizing lesion of the brain parenchyma. There are two major types of reported cases. One is isolated and sporadic ANE, which is primarily caused by viral infections, particularly influenza and HHV-6 virus. The other type is familial recurrent ANE, which is caused by RANBP2 gene mutations. ANE patients have rapid progression and a very poor prognosis, with acute brain dysfunction occurring within days of viral infection and requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Clinicians still need to investigate and find solutions for the problems of early detection and treatment of ANE.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnosis , Brain/pathology , Mutation
3.
Vaccine ; 41(29): 4267-4273, 2023 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328342

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines have been approved for children and adolescents for protecting against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This longitudinal study aimed to compare adverse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], communication disorders, intellectual disability, and tic disorders) and healthy control children. METHODS: A total of 1335 children who received the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (762 children with ND and 573 healthy controls) were recruited. All subjects were followed-up for 180 days, and outcome events were defined as outpatient department (OPD) or emergency department (ER) visits during follow-up. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to identify the potential differences in outcomes between the propensity score-matched ND group (n = 311) and the control group (n = 311), and to explore the factors associated with outcomes among all children with ND (n = 762). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, children with ND exhibited a higher likelihood of subsequent OPD or ER visits and paediatric neurology OPD visits after the first dose of vaccination. However, we found that only a small proportion of the children visited the OPD or ER because of adverse vaccination-related effects. Among all children with ND, those with communication disorders showed a higher likelihood of any OPD or ER visit. Paediatric neurology OPD visits were associated with communication disorders, intellectual disability, and methylphenidate and aripiprazole prescriptions. ADHD and ASD were not associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: No specific ND diagnosis or medication use clearly increased the risk of adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Children with ND can be reassured that the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is a safe regimen to protect themselves.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Intellectual Disability , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/chemically induced , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 2023 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319971

ABSTRACT

The present study examined the relationships of caregiver factors (including caregivers' age, sex and educational year), child-family interactions (caregivers' difficulties in managing children's protective behaviors against COVID-19, learning and daily performance, children's conflict with elders and siblings, and parenting styles), and children's factors (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] symptoms) with psychological distress of the caregivers of children with ADHD in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study recruited 252 caregivers of children with ADHD to participate and complete a questionnaire collecting their psychological distress in the COVID-19 pandemic, demographics, difficulties in managing children's protective behaviors against COVID-19, learning and daily performance, and parenting styles as well as children's conflict with elders and siblings, and the ADHD and ODD symptoms. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to examine the factors related to psychological distress among caregivers. Factors across caregiver, child, and child-family interaction dimensions, including children's conflict levels with elders and siblings, inattention symptoms, and caregivers' difficulties in managing children's protective behaviors against COVID-19, learning and daily performance, female sex, and younger age were significantly associated with psychological distress among caregivers in various hierarchical regression models. Health professionals should take the relevant factors identified in this study when developing an intervention to relieve caregivers' psychological distress in the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(9): nwac122, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298768

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has an extremely broad host range that includes hippopotami, which are phylogenetically closely related to whales. The cellular ACE2 receptor is one of the key determinants of the host range. Here, we found that ACE2s from several marine mammals and hippopotami could efficiently bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and facilitate the transduction of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses into ACE2-expressing cells. We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy complex structures of the minke whale ACE2 and sea lion ACE2, respectively, bound to the RBDs, revealing that they have similar binding modes to human ACE2 when it comes to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD. Our results indicate that marine mammals could potentially be new victims or virus carriers of SARS-CoV-2, which deserves further careful investigation and study. It will provide an early warning for the prospective monitoring of marine mammals.

7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3): 100524, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286081

ABSTRACT

Recently, a novel dog-origin coronavirus has been found in humans. The low similarity between the receptor-binding domain from this novel virus and other human-infecting coronaviruses in genus Alphacoronavirus suggests it might use a novel receptor or mechanism to enter human cells and also might trigger a novel immune response.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronaviridae , Animals , Dogs , Phylogeny
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2204779, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240097

ABSTRACT

Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials have more potential than conventional metal-oxide semiconductors because of their tunable bandgaps, and sensitivities. The remarkable features of these amazing vdW heterostructures are leading to multi-functional logic devices, atomically thin photodetectors, and negative differential resistance (NDR) Esaki diodes. Here, an atomically thin vdW stacking composed of p-type black arsenic (b-As) and n-type tin disulfide (n-SnS2 ) to build a type-III (broken gap) heterojunction is introduced, leading to a negative differential resistance device. Charge transport through the NDR device is investigated under electrostatic gating to achieve a high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR), which improved from 2.8 to 4.6 when the temperature is lowered from 300 to 100 K. At various applied-biasing voltages, all conceivable tunneling mechanisms that regulate charge transport are elucidated. Furthermore, the real-time response of the NDR device is investigated at various streptavidin concentrations down to 1 pm, operating at a low biasing voltage. Such applications of NDR devices may lead to the development of cutting-edge electrical devices operating at low power that may be employed as biosensors to detect a variety of target DNA (e.g., ct-DNA) and protein (e.g., the spike protein associated with COVID-19).

9.
Lancet ; 401(10377): 664-672, 2023 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the national dynamic zero-COVID strategy in China, there were no persistent local transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in Beijing before December, 2022. However, imported cases have been frequently detected over the past 3 years. With soaring growth in the number of COVID-19 cases in China recently, there are concerns that there might be an emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. Routine surveillance of viral genomes has been carried out in Beijing over the last 3 years. Spatiotemporal analyses of recent viral genome sequences compared with that of global pooled and local data are crucial for the global response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We routinely collected respiratory samples covering both imported and local cases in Beijing for the last 3 years (of which the present study pertains to samples collected between January and December, 2022), and then randomly selected samples for analysis. Next-generation sequencing was used to generate the SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Phylogenetic and population dynamic analyses were performed using high-quality complete sequences in this study. FINDINGS: We obtained a total of 2994 complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in this study, among which 2881 were high quality and were used for further analysis. From Nov 14 to Dec 20, we sequenced 413 new samples, including 350 local cases and 63 imported cases. All of these genomes belong to the existing 123 Pango lineages, showing there are no persistently dominant variants or novel lineages. Nevertheless, BA.5.2 and BF.7 are currently dominant in Beijing, accounting for 90% of local cases since Nov 14 (315 of 350 local cases sequenced in this study). The effective population size for both BA.5.2 and BF.7 in Beijing increased after Nov 14, 2022. INTERPRETATION: The co-circulation of BF.7 and BA.5.2 has been present in the current outbreak since Nov 14, 2022 in Beijing, and there is no evidence that novel variants emerged. Although our data were only from Beijing, the results could be considered a snapshot of China, due to the frequent population exchange and the presence of circulating strains with high transmissibility. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Beijing , Phylogeny , Pandemics
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(7): 1835-1844, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201875

ABSTRACT

The human gut microbiota represents a complex ecosystem that is composed of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and archaea. It affects many physiological functions including metabolism, inflammation, and the immune response. The gut microbiota also plays a role in preventing infection. Chemotherapy disrupts an organism's microbiome, increasing the risk of microbial invasive infection; therefore, restoring the gut microbiota composition is one potential strategy to reduce this risk. The gut microbiome can develop colonization resistance, in which pathogenic bacteria and other competing microorganisms are destroyed through attacks on bacterial cell walls by bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, and other proteins produced by symbiotic bacteria. There is also a direct way. For example, Escherichia coli colonized in the human body competes with pathogenic Escherichia coli 0157 for proline, which shows that symbiotic bacteria compete with pathogens for resources and niches, thus improving the host's ability to resist pathogenic bacteria. Increased attention has been given to the impact of microecological changes in the digestive tract on tumor treatment. After 2019, the global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the development of novel tumor-targeting drugs, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and the increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance have posed serious challenges and threats to public health. Currently, it is becoming increasingly important to manage the adverse effects and complications after chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal reactions are a common clinical presentation in patients with solid and hematologic tumors after chemotherapy, which increases the treatment risks of patients and affects treatment efficacy and prognosis. Gastrointestinal symptoms after chemotherapy range from nausea, vomiting, and anorexia to severe oral and intestinal mucositis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation, which are often closely associated with the dose and toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. It is particularly important to profile the gastrointestinal microecological flora and monitor the impact of antibiotics in older patients, low immune function, neutropenia, and bone marrow suppression, especially in complex clinical situations involving special pathogenic microbial infections (such as clostridioides difficile, multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli, carbapenem-resistant bacteria, and norovirus).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Neoplasms , Aged , Humans , Bacteria , Consensus , Escherichia coli , Gastrointestinal Tract , Neoplasms/drug therapy , China
11.
Brief Bioinform ; 24(1)2023 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188252

ABSTRACT

Underlying medical conditions, such as cancer, kidney disease and heart failure, are associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19. Accurate classification of COVID-19 patients with underlying medical conditions is critical for personalized treatment decision and prognosis estimation. In this study, we propose an interpretable artificial intelligence model termed VDJMiner to mine the underlying medical conditions and predict the prognosis of COVID-19 patients according to their immune repertoires. In a cohort of more than 1400 COVID-19 patients, VDJMiner accurately identifies multiple underlying medical conditions, including cancers, chronic kidney disease, autoimmune disease, diabetes, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with an average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.961. Meanwhile, in this same cohort, VDJMiner achieves an AUC of 0.922 in predicting severe COVID-19. Moreover, VDJMiner achieves an accuracy of 0.857 in predicting the response of COVID-19 patients to tocilizumab treatment on the leave-one-out test. Additionally, VDJMiner interpretively mines and scores V(D)J gene segments of the T-cell receptors that are associated with the disease. The identified associations between single-cell V(D)J gene segments and COVID-19 are highly consistent with previous studies. The source code of VDJMiner is publicly accessible at https://github.com/TencentAILabHealthcare/VDJMiner. The web server of VDJMiner is available at https://gene.ai.tencent.com/VDJMiner/.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , ROC Curve , Software
12.
J Pers Med ; 13(1)2023 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166674

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Many co-infections of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged since the occurrence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This study aims to design an effective preventive multi-epitope vaccine against the co-infection of MTB and SARS-CoV-2. (2) Methods: The three selected proteins (spike protein, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and low molecular weight T-cell antigen TB8.4) were predicted using bioinformatics, and 16 epitopes with the highest ranks (10 helper T lymphocyte epitopes, 2 CD8+ T lymphocytes epitopes, and 4 B-cell epitopes) were selected and assembled into the candidate vaccine referred to as S7D5L4. The toxicity, sensitization, stability, solubility, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of the S7D5L4 vaccine were evaluated using bioinformatics tools. Subsequently, toll-like receptor 4 docking simulation and discontinuous B-cell epitope prediction were performed. Immune simulation and codon optimization were carried out using immunoinformatics and molecular biology tools. (3) Results: The S7D5L4 vaccine showed good physical properties, such as solubility, stability, non-sensitization, and non-toxicity. This vaccine had excellent antigenicity and immunogenicity and could successfully simulate immune responses in silico. Furthermore, the normal mode analysis of the S7D5L4 vaccine and toll-like receptor 4 docking simulation demonstrated that the vaccine had docking potential and a stable reaction. (4) Conclusions: The S7D5L4 vaccine designed to fight against the co-infection of MTB and SARS-CoV-2 may be safe and effective. The protective efficacy of this promising vaccine should be further verified using in vitro and in vivo experiments.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155419

ABSTRACT

The vaccination of all children may be one of the most important public health measures for preventing a wider spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude, intention, decision making, and psychological well-being among the caregivers of children who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Taiwan. The caregivers of children (98 preschool children, 191 school-age children, and 154 adolescents) who received COVID-19 vaccination were invited to fill in the following questionnaires: Adopting Self-Protective Behavior Scale, Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Parental Bonding Instrument. Compared to the caregivers of adolescents, the caregivers of preschool children exhibited more protective behaviors toward the COVID-19 pandemic. The caregivers of preschool children also displayed a higher emotional impact than those of adolescents and took a greater interest in the family's opinion about vaccination. Finally, we found that COVID-19 ideological invasion and protective parenting style were significantly related to the prevalence of mental illness among caregivers. The results of this study can be used as an important reference for vaccination health care and policy formulation for adolescents with regard to COVID-19.

14.
Expert Syst Appl ; 213: 119239, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104914

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 quickly swept across the world, causing the consequent infodemic represented by the rumors that have brought immeasurable losses to the world. It is imminent to achieve rumor detection as quickly and accurately as possible. However, the existing methods either focus on the accuracy of rumor detection or set a fixed threshold to attain early detection that unfortunately cannot adapt to various rumors. In this paper, we focus on textual rumors in online social networks and propose a novel rumor detection method. We treat the detection time, accuracy and stability as the three training objectives, and continuously adjust and optimize this objective instead of using a fixed value during the entire training process, thereby enhancing its adaptability and universality. To improve the efficiency, we design a sliding interval to intercept the required data rather than using the entire sequence data. To solve the problem of hyperparameter selection brought by integration of multiple optimization objectives, a convex optimization method is utilized to avoid the huge computational cost of enumerations. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with state-of-art counterparts in three different datasets, the recognition accuracy is increased by an average of 7%, and the stability is improved by an average of 50%.

15.
Phytomedicine ; 108: 154527, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world. As a member against the epidemic, Qingfei Paidu Decoction (QFPDD) has been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, its antiviral mechanism was still largely unclear. PURPOSE: An integrated strategy was used to explore the antiviral mechanisms of QFPDD in cold and damp environment, including pharmacokinetic (PK), network pharmacology, metabolomics and protein verification. METHODS: Firstly, the pharmacokinetic study of the prototype absorbed ingredients were analyzed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS. Secondly, the metabolomics analysis of the endogenous constituents was carried out. Based on the aforementioned results, an integrated network was constructed to identify the curative components, crucial endogenous differential metabolites and related pathways. Finally, the validation tests were implemented by molecular docking and western blotting (WB). RESULTS: According to the pharmacokinetic behaviors analysis of 31 components in vivo, the flavonoids presented more longer residence time and higher exposure compared with the other compounds. The efficacy and antiviral mechanism of QFPDD were verified by the poly-pharmacology, metabolomics, molecular docking and WB. For the occurrence of metabolic disorder, the change of amino acid transporters should not be neglected. Afterward, 8 curative compounds, 6 key genes and corresponding metabolic pathways were filtered by compound-reaction-enzyme-gene network. The molecular docking verified that the active ingredients bound to the relevant targets well. CONCLUSION: In the present study, an in vivo comprehensive pharmacokinetic behaviors of QFPDD was analyzed for the first time. The results illustrated that QFPDD could exhibit immune regulation, anti-infection, anti-inflammation and metabolic disorder to perform a corresponding therapeutic effect. Moreover, our findings highlighted the roles of amino acid transporters in the coronavirus infection situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Technology
16.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045620

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can be severe in pregnant women, and have adverse consequences for the subsequent infant. We profiled the post-infectious immune responses in maternal and child blood as well as breast milk in terms of antibody and cytokine expression and performed histopathological studies on placentae obtained from mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19. Seventeen mother-child dyads (8 cases of antenatal COVID-19 and 9 healthy unrelated controls;34 individuals in total) were recruited to the Gestational Immunity For Transfer (GIFT) study. Maternal and infant blood, and breast milk samples were collected over the first year of life. All samples were analyzed for IgG and IgA against whole SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), and previously reported immunodominant epitopes, as well as cytokine levels. The placentae were examined microscopically. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under the identifier NCT04802278. We found high levels of virus-specific IgG in convalescent mothers and similarly elevated titers in newborn children. Thus, antenatal SARS-CoV-2 infection led to high plasma titers of virus-specific antibodies in infants postnatally. However, this waned within 3–6 months of life. Virus neutralization by plasma was not uniformly achieved, and the presence of antibodies targeting known immunodominant epitopes did not assure neutralization. Virus-specific IgA levels were variable among convalescent individuals’ sera and breast milk. Antibody transfer ratios and the decay of transplacentally transferred virus-specific antibodies in neonatal circulation resembled that for other pathogens. Convalescent mothers showed signs of chronic inflammation marked by persistently elevated IL17RA levels in their blood. Four placentae presented signs of acute inflammation, particularly in the subchorionic region, marked by neutrophil infiltration even though > 50 days had elapsed between virus clearance and delivery. Administration of a single dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to mothers convalescent from antenatal COVID-19 increased virus-specific IgG and IgA titers in breast milk, highlighting the importance of receiving the vaccine even after natural infection with the added benefit of enhanced passive immunity.

17.
Front Med ; 2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041318

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been commonly deployed to prevent and control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting in a worldwide decline in influenza prevalence. However, the influenza risk in China warrants cautious assessment. We conducted a cross-sectional, seroepidemiological study in Shandong Province, Northern China in mid-2021. Hemagglutination inhibition was performed to test antibodies against four influenza vaccine strains. A combination of descriptive and meta-analyses was adopted to compare the seroprevalence of influenza antibodies before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall seroprevalence values against A/H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata were 17.8% (95% CI 16.2%-19.5%), 23.5% (95% CI 21.7%-25.4%), 7.6% (95% CI 6.6%-8.7%), and 15.0 (95% CI 13.5%-16.5%), respectively, in the study period. The overall vaccination rate was extremely low (2.6%). Our results revealed that antibody titers in vaccinated participants were significantly higher than those in unvaccinated individuals (P < 0.001). Notably, the meta-analysis showed that antibodies against A/H1N1pdm09 and A/H3N2 were significantly low in adults after the COVID-19 pandemic (P < 0.01). Increasing vaccination rates and maintaining NPIs are recommended to prevent an elevated influenza risk in China.

18.
Biosaf Health ; 4(4): 228-233, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926248

ABSTRACT

A series of stringent non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions were implemented to contain the pandemic but the pandemic continues. Moreover, vaccination breakthrough infection and reinfection in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases have been reported. Further, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants emerged with mutations in spike (S) gene, the target of most current vaccines. Importantly, the mutations exhibit a trend of immune escape from the vaccination. Herein the scientific question that if the vaccination drives genetic or antigenic drifts of SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. We performed correlation analyses to uncover the impacts of wide vaccination on epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19. In addition, we investigated the evolutionary dynamics and genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 under immune pressure by utilizing the Bayesian phylodynamic inferences and the lineage entropy calculation respectively. We found that vaccination coverage was negatively related to the infections, severe cases, and deaths of COVID-19 respectively. With the increasing vaccination coverage, the lineage diversity of SARS-CoV-2 dampened, but the rapid mutation rates of the S gene were identified, and the vaccination could be one of the explanations for driving mutations in S gene. Moreover, new epidemics resurged in several countries with high vaccination coverage, questioning their current pandemic control strategies. Hence, integrated vaccination and non-pharmacological interventions are critical to control the pandemic. Furthermore, novel vaccine preparation should enhance its capabilities to curb both disease severity and infection possibility.

19.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 2932837, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923339

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the correlation between interleukin-27 and CXCL10 and other cytokines in pulmonary tuberculosis and to further explore the related miRNAs through bioinformatics. Methods: Collect the lesion tissue and peripheral blood of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the peripheral blood of healthy controls. Immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR were used to observe the expression of interleukin-27, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Then, predict the key miRNA, qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression of miRNA in the peripheral blood and evaluated the correlation between them. Results: Both immunohistochemical staining and qRT-PCR indicated that the expressions of IL-27, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were significantly increased in tuberculosis patients, and IL-27 was significantly correlated with CXCL10 (r = 0.68). Key molecules such as has-let-7b-5p, has-miR-30a-3p, and has-miR-320b were screened out. Among them, has-let-7b-5p was significantly downregulated, and has-miR-30a-3p was significantly upregulated; they were related to interleukin-27 and CXCL10. Conclusion: Our data shows that interleukin-27 and CXCL10 are significantly related in pulmonary tuberculosis, and has-let-7b-5p and has-miR-30a-3p are also related to interleukin-27 and CXCL10. It laid the foundation for subsequently exploiting the potential biomarkers in tuberculosis disease.


Subject(s)
Interleukin-27 , MicroRNAs , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Biomarkers , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Computational Biology , Humans , Interleukin-27/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/genetics
20.
Cell ; 185(16): 2952-2960.e10, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894853

ABSTRACT

The currently circulating Omicron sub-variants are the SARS-CoV-2 strains with the highest number of known mutations. Herein, we found that human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) binding affinity to the receptor-binding domains (RBDs) of the four early Omicron sub-variants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3) follows the order BA.1.1 > BA.2 > BA.3 ≈ BA.1. The complex structures of hACE2 with RBDs of BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 reveal that the higher hACE2 binding affinity of BA.2 than BA.1 is related to the absence of the G496S mutation in BA.2. The R346K mutation in BA.1.1 majorly affects the interaction network in the BA.1.1 RBD/hACE2 interface through long-range alterations and contributes to the higher hACE2 affinity of the BA.1.1 RBD than the BA.1 RBD. These results reveal the structural basis for the distinct hACE2 binding patterns among BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 RBDs.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Humans , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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