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1.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; : 1-22, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244819

ABSTRACT

An innovative ADE-TFT interpretable tourism demand forecasting model was proposed to address the issue of the insufficient interpretability of existing tourism demand forecasting. This model effectively optimizes the parameters of the Temporal Fusion Transformer (TFT) using an adaptive differential evolution algorithm (ADE). TFT is a brand-new attention-based deep learning model that excels in prediction research by fusing high-performance prediction with time-dynamic interpretable analysis. The TFT model can produce explicable predictions of tourism demand, including attention analysis of time steps and the ranking of input factors' relevance. While doing so, this study adds something unique to the literature on tourism by using historical tourism volume, monthly new confirmed cases of travel destinations, and big data from travel forums and search engines to increase the precision of forecasting tourist volume during the COVID-19 pandemic. The mood of travelers and the many subjects they spoke about throughout off-season and peak travel periods were examined using a convolutional neural network model. In addition, a novel technique for choosing keywords from Google Trends was suggested. In other words, the Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic model was used to categorize the major travel-related subjects of forum postings, after which the most relevant search terms for each topic were determined. According to the findings, it is possible to estimate tourism demand during the COVID-19 pandemic by combining quantitative and emotion-based characteristics.

2.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8786, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243992

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus broke out in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, and, as the center of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, the economy and production throughout Hubei Province suffered huge temporary impacts. Based on the input–output and industrial pollution emissions data of 33 industrial industries in Hubei from 2010 to 2019, this article uses the non-parametric frontier analysis method to calculate the potential production losses and compliance costs caused by environmental regulations in Hubei's industrial sector by year and industry. Research has found that the environmental technology efficiency of the industrial sector in Hubei is showing a trend of increasing year-on-year, but the overall efficiency level is still not high, and there is great room for improvement. The calculation results with and without environmental regulatory constraints indicate that, generally, production losses and compliance costs may be encountered in the industrial sector in Hubei, and there are significant differences by industry. The potential production losses and compliance costs in pollution-intensive industries are higher than those in clean production industries. On this basis, we propose relevant policy recommendations to improve the technological efficiency of Hubei's industrial environment, in order to promote the high-quality development of Hubei's industry in the post-epidemic era.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 31(6): 902-916, 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243579

ABSTRACT

Although the development and clinical application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated unprecedented vaccine success in a short time frame, it also revealed a limitation of current vaccines in their inability to provide broad-spectrum or universal protection against emerging variants. Broad-spectrum vaccines, therefore, remain a dream and challenge for vaccinology. This review will focus on current and future efforts in developing universal vaccines targeting different viruses at the genus and/or family levels, with a special focus on henipaviruses, influenza viruses, and coronaviruses. It is evident that strategies for developing broad-spectrum vaccines will be virus-genus or family specific, and it is almost impossible to adopt a universal approach for different viruses. On the other hand, efforts in developing broad-spectrum neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been more successful and it is worth considering broad-spectrum antibody-mediated immunization, or "universal antibody vaccine," as an alternative approach for early intervention for future disease X outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 257: 115487, 2023 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327362

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 continues to pose a great threat to public health while various vaccines are available worldwide. Main protease (Mpro) has been validated as an effective anti-COVID-19 drug target. Using medicinal chemistry and rational drug design strategies, we identified a quinazolin-4-one series of nonpeptidic, noncovalent SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors based on baicalein, 5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one. In particular, compound C7 exhibits superior inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro relative to baicalein (IC50 = 0.085 ± 0.006 and 0.966 ± 0.065 µM, respectively), as well as improved physicochemical and drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) properties. In addition, C7 inhibits viral replication in SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero E6 cells more effectively than baicalein (EC50 = 1.10 ± 0.12 and 5.15 ± 1.64 µM, respectively) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 50 µM). An X-ray co-crystal structure reveals a non-covalent mechanism of action, and a noncanonical binding mode not observed by baicalein. These results suggest that C7 represents a promising lead for development of more effective SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors and anti-COVID-19 drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Peptide Hydrolases
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Waning antibody levels post-vaccination and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) capable of evading protective immunity has raised the need for booster vaccinations. However, which combination of COVID-19 vaccines offers the strongest immune response against Omicron variant is unknown. METHODS: This randomized, subject-blinded, controlled trial assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different COVID-19 vaccine booster combinations. 100 BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals were enrolled and randomized 1: 1 to either homologous (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + BNT162b2; 'BBB') or heterologous mRNA booster vaccine (BNT162b2 + BNT162b2 + mRNA-1273; 'BBM'). Primary endpoint was the level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and VOCs at Day 28. RESULTS: 51 participants were allocated to BBB and 49 to BBM; 50 and 48 respectively were analyzed for safety and immunogenicity outcomes. At Day 28 post-boost, mean SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody titers were lower with BBB (22,382  IU/mL 95% CI, 18,210 to 27,517) vs BBM (29,751  IU/mL 95% CI, 25,281 to 35,011, p = 0.034) as was the median level of neutralizing antibodies: BBB 99.0% (IQR 97.9 to 99.3%) vs BBM 99.3% (IQR 98.8 to 99.5%, p = 0.021). On sub-group analysis, significant differences in mean spike antibody titer and live Omicron neutralization titer was only observed in older adults. Median surrogate neutralizing antibody level against all VOCs was also significantly higher with BBM in older adults, and against Omicron was BBB 72.8% (IQR 54.0 to 84.7%) vs BBM 84.3% (IQR 78.1 to 88.7%, p = 0.0073). Both vaccines were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Heterologous mRNA-1273 booster vaccination induced a stronger neutralizing response against the Omicron variant in older individuals compared with homologous BNT123b2.

6.
Arch Virol ; 168(6): 161, 2023 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316516

ABSTRACT

Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4) is a recently discovered circovirus that was first reported in 2019 in several pigs in Hunan province of China and has also been identified in pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). To further investigate the coinfection and genetic diversity of these two viruses, 65 clinical samples (including feces and intestinal tissues) were collected from diseased piglets on 19 large-scale pig farms in Henan province of China, and a duplex SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for detecting PEDV and PCV4 simultaneously. The results showed that the limit of detection was 55.2 copies/µL and 44.1 copies/µL for PEDV and PCV4, respectively. The detection rate for PEDV and PCV4 was 40% (26/65) and 38% (25/65), respectively, and the coinfection rate for the two viruses was 34% (22/65). Subsequently, the full-length spike (S) gene of eight PEDV strains and a portion of the genome containing the capsid (Cap) gene of three PCV4 strains were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the PEDV strains from the present study clustered in the G2a subgroup and were closely related to most of the PEDV reference strains from China from 2011 to 2021, but they differed genetically from a vaccine strain (CV777), a Korean strain (virulent DR1), and two Chinese strains (SD-M and LZC). It is noteworthy that two PEDV strains (HEXX-24 and HNXX-24XIA) were identified in one sample, and the HNXX-24XIA strain had a large deletion at amino acids 31-229 of the S protein. Moreover, a recombination event was observed in strain HEXX-24. Phylogenetic analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the PCV4 Cap protein revealed that PCV4 strains were divided into three genotypes: PCV4a1, PCV4a2, and PCV4b. Three strains in the present study belonged to PCV4a1, and they had a high degree of sequence similarity (>98% identity) to other PCV4 reference strains. This study not only provides technical support for field investigation of PEDV and PCV4 coinfection but also provides data for their prevention and control.


Subject(s)
Circovirus , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Phylogeny , Circovirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
7.
Cell ; 186(10): 2144-2159.e22, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312256

ABSTRACT

Bats are special in their ability to live long and host many emerging viruses. Our previous studies showed that bats have altered inflammasomes, which are central players in aging and infection. However, the role of inflammasome signaling in combating inflammatory diseases remains poorly understood. Here, we report bat ASC2 as a potent negative regulator of inflammasomes. Bat ASC2 is highly expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels and is highly potent in inhibiting human and mouse inflammasomes. Transgenic expression of bat ASC2 in mice reduced the severity of peritonitis induced by gout crystals and ASC particles. Bat ASC2 also dampened inflammation induced by multiple viruses and reduced mortality of influenza A virus infection. Importantly, it also suppressed SARS-CoV-2-immune-complex-induced inflammasome activation. Four key residues were identified for the gain of function of bat ASC2. Our results demonstrate that bat ASC2 is an important negative regulator of inflammasomes with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Chiroptera , Inflammasomes , Ribonucleoproteins , Virus Diseases , Animals , Humans , Mice , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Chiroptera/immunology , COVID-19 , Inflammasomes/immunology , Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Physiological Phenomena
9.
EBioMedicine ; 92: 104574, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic has fuelled the generation of vaccines at an unprecedented pace and scale. However, many challenges remain, including: the emergence of vaccine-resistant mutant viruses, vaccine stability during storage and transport, waning vaccine-induced immunity, and concerns about infrequent adverse events associated with existing vaccines. METHODS: We report on a protein subunit vaccine comprising the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, dimerised with an immunoglobulin IgG1 Fc domain. These were tested in conjunction with three different adjuvants: a TLR2 agonist R4-Pam2Cys, an NKT cell agonist glycolipid α-Galactosylceramide, or MF59® squalene oil-in-water adjuvant, using mice, rats and hamsters. We also developed an RBD-human IgG1 Fc vaccine with an RBD sequence of the immuno-evasive beta variant (N501Y, E484K, K417N). These vaccines were also tested as a heterologous third dose booster in mice, following priming with whole spike vaccine. FINDINGS: Each formulation of the RBD-Fc vaccines drove strong neutralising antibody (nAb) responses and provided durable and highly protective immunity against lower and upper airway infection in mouse models of COVID-19. The 'beta variant' RBD vaccine, combined with MF59® adjuvant, induced strong protection in mice against the beta strain as well as the ancestral strain. Furthermore, when used as a heterologous third dose booster, the RBD-Fc vaccines combined with MF59® increased titres of nAb against other variants including alpha, delta, delta+, gamma, lambda, mu, and omicron BA.1, BA.2 and BA.5. INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrated that an RBD-Fc protein subunit/MF59® adjuvanted vaccine can induce high levels of broadly reactive nAbs, including when used as a booster following prior immunisation of mice with whole ancestral-strain spike vaccines. This vaccine platform offers a potential approach to augment some of the currently approved vaccines in the face of emerging variants of concern, and it has now entered a phase I clinical trial. FUNDING: This work was supported by grants from the Medical Research Future Fund (MRFF) (2005846), The Jack Ma Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; 1113293) and Singapore National Medical Research Council (MOH-COVID19RF-003). Individual researchers were supported by an NHMRC Senior Principal Research Fellowship (1117766), NHMRC Investigator Awards (2008913 and 1173871), Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Research Award (ARC DECRA; DE210100705) and philanthropic awards from IFM investors and the A2 Milk Company.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier Proteins , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Rats , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Protein Subunits , COVID-19/prevention & control , Australia , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral
10.
J Infect Dis ; 227(11): 1255-1265, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutralising antibodies (nAbs) play a critical role in the protection against severe COVID-19. In the era of vaccine boosters and repeated SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks, identifying individuals at risk represents a public health priority. METHODS: Relying on the Monaco COVID Public Health Programme, we evaluated nAbs from July 2021-June 2022 in 8,080 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated and/or infected children and adults, at their inclusion visit. We stratified by infection status and investigated variables associated with nAbs using a generalised additive model. RESULTS: Infected and vaccinated participants had high and consistent nAbs (>800 IU/mL), which remained stable over time since injection, regardless of the number of vaccine doses, body mass index, sex, or age. By contrast, uninfected participants showed larger variability (two doses [V2] median 157.6; interquartile range [IQR] 43.3-439.1 IU/mL) versus three doses [V3] median 882.5; [829.5-914.8] IU/mL). NAbs decreased by 20% per month after V2 (adjusted ratio 0.80; 95%CI [0.79-0.82]), but remained stable after V3 (adjusted ratio 0.98; 95%CI [0.92-1.05]). CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid immunity provided stable, high and consistent nAbs over time. The benefit of boosters was marked to restore decaying nAbs in uninfected participants. NAbs could identify individuals at risk of severe COVID-19 and provide more targeted vaccine boosters' campaigns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
PNAS Nexus ; 1(2): pgac038, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294461

ABSTRACT

Targeting surveillance resources toward individuals at high risk of early infection can accelerate the detection of emerging outbreaks. However, it is unclear which individuals are at high risk without detailed data on interpersonal and physical contacts. We propose a data-driven COVID-19 surveillance strategy using Electronic Health Record (EHR) data that identifies the most vulnerable individuals who acquired the earliest infections during historical influenza seasons. Our simulations for all three networks demonstrate that the EHR-based strategy performs as well as the most-connected strategy. Compared to the random acquaintance surveillance, our EHR-based strategy detects the early warning signal and peak timing much earlier. On average, the EHR-based strategy has 9.8 days of early warning and 13.5 days of peak timings, respectively, before the whole population. For the urban network, the expected values of our method are better than the random acquaintance strategy (24% for early warning and 14% in-advance for peak time). For a scale-free network, the average performance of the EHR-based method is 75% of the early warning and 109% in-advance when compared with the random acquaintance strategy. If the contact structure is persistent enough, it will be reflected by their history of infection. Our proposed approach suggests that seasonal influenza infection records could be used to monitor new outbreaks of emerging epidemics, including COVID-19. This is a method that exploits the effect of contact structure without considering it explicitly.

12.
J Travel Med ; 2023 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291795

ABSTRACT

China adjusted the zero-COVID strategy in late 2022, triggering an unprecedented Omicron wave. We estimated the time-varying reproduction numbers of 32 provincial-level administrative divisions from December 2022 to January 2023. We found that the pooled estimate of initial reproduction numbers is 4.74 (95% CI: 4.41, 5.07).

13.
J Math Biol ; 86(5): 81, 2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305956

ABSTRACT

We incorporate the disease state and testing state into the formulation of a COVID-19 epidemic model. For this model, the basic reproduction number is identified and its dependence on model parameters related to the testing process and isolation efficacy is discussed. The relations between the basic reproduction number, the final epidemic and peak sizes, and the model parameters are further explored numerically. We find that fast test reporting does not always benefit the control of the COVID-19 epidemic if good quarantine while awaiting test results is implemented. Moreover, the final epidemic and peak sizes do not always increase along with the basic reproduction number. Under some circumstances, lowering the basic reproduction number increases the final epidemic and peak sizes. Our findings suggest that properly implementing isolation for individuals who are waiting for their testing results would lower the basic reproduction number as well as the final epidemic and peak sizes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , Quarantine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number
14.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 34(8):774-779, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2264670

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the pathogenic spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in adult inpatients in Yangpu District, Shanghai, China, in order to explore strategies for the prevention and treatment of respiratory infectious diseases. Methods: Individual cases were from adult inpatients with SARI in Yangpu District, Shanghai, China from January 2019 to July 2021. Their respiratory samples were collected for etiological pathogen testing. Results: A total of 681 SARI cases were enrolled for sampling and lab testing. Among them, 79.00% were aged 60 years and older, and 75.48% had confirmed chronic disease history. A total of 163 infection inpatients (23.94%) were positive for at least one pathogen. The pathogens identified most frequently were influenza A virus (6.75%), followed by rhinovirus/enterovirus (3.23%), parainfluenza virus (PIV) (2.79%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (2.35%), coronavirus (CoV) (2.06%). The positive rates of adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), respiratory syncytial virus and bocavirus were all less than 2%. Bacterial strains were identified in eleven SARI cases, including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 strains). Legionella pneumophila was detected in 9 cases (1.32%) and Bordetella pertussis in 5 cases (0.73%). Two pathogens were co-detected from 11 cases, accounting for 1.62% of 163 positive cases. The most common co-detected pathogens were influenza A virus and other pathogens, accounting for 54.55% of the mixed infection. The positive rates of pathogens were not significantly different between less than 60 years old and over 60 years old groups except for Bordetella pertussis, adenovirus and Mycoplasma pneumonia(P < 0.05). Influenza virus had epidemic peak in winter and spring, but not in summer from 2019 to 2021. Conclusion: Various respiratory pathogens are detected from adult SARI cases. It is mainly influenza virus, with co-detected pathogens and rare pathogens. This study provides helpful information for targeted prevention and control measures including vaccination.

15.
e-Prime - Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy ; 4:100129-100129, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2287974

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages in disposable respirators. Increasing the recycling rate of masks is a direct, low-cost strategy to mitigate COVID-19 transmission. Photoactive decontamination of used masks attracts great attention due to its fast response, remarkable virus inactivation effect and full protection integrity. Here, we review state-of-the-art situation of photoactive decontamination. The basic mechanism of photoactive decontamination is firstly discussed in terms of ultraviolet, photothermal or photocatalytic properties. Among which, ultraviolet radiation damages DNA and RNA to inactivate viruses and microorganisms, and photothermal method damages them by destroying proteins, while photocatalysis kills them by destroying the structure. The practical applications of photoactive decontamination strategies are then fully reviewed, including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, and unconventional masks made of functional nanomaterials with photothermal or photocatalytic properties. Their performance requirements are elaborated together with the advantages of long-term recycle use. Finally, we put forward challenges and prospects for further development of photoactive decontamination technology. Graphical abstract This work discusses the photoactive decontamination methods for reuse of facemasks. Image, graphical abstract

16.
Front Psychol ; 12: 679600, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268349

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.577028.].

17.
Pakistan Journal of Botany ; 55(2):649-655, 2023.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2263379

ABSTRACT

Apricot kernels are one of the most regularly used traditional Chinese medicinal ingredients in Asia. The medical significance of apricot kernels is highlighted since Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) demonstrated its favourable impact when apricot kernels were used in the prevention and treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, apricot kernels are high in fat, protein, dietary fibre, and specific amygdalin, making them a new form of dried fruit in comparison to almond kernels, with a bigger market opportunity. This paper systematically reviewed the active components of apricot kernels and their application in medicine, especially for molecular mechanisms of anti-tumors of amygdalin, providing scientific theoretical foundations for modern medicine treatment with COVID-19-induced lung disease, and for the development of high value-added apricot kernels.

18.
Appl Intell (Dordr) ; : 1-24, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287009

ABSTRACT

Accurate prediction of oil consumption plays a dominant role in oil supply chain management. However, because of the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, oil consumption has exhibited an uncertain and volatile trend, which leads to a huge challenge to accurate predictions. The rapid development of the Internet provides countless online information (e.g., online news) that can benefit predict oil consumption. This study adopts a novel news-based oil consumption prediction methodology-convolutional neural network (CNN) to fetch online news information automatically, thereby illustrating the contribution of text features for oil consumption prediction. This study also proposes a new approach called attention-based JADE-IndRNN that combines adaptive differential evolution (adaptive differential evolution with optional external archive, JADE) with an attention-based independent recurrent neural network (IndRNN) to forecast monthly oil consumption. Experimental results further indicate that the proposed news-based oil consumption prediction methodology improves on the traditional techniques without online oil news significantly, as the news might contain some explanations of the relevant confinement or reopen policies during the COVID-19 period.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2213313119, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257664

ABSTRACT

Hong Kong has implemented stringent public health and social measures (PHSMs) to curb each of the four COVID-19 epidemic waves since January 2020. The third wave between July and September 2020 was brought under control within 2 m, while the fourth wave starting from the end of October 2020 has taken longer to bring under control and lasted at least 5 mo. Here, we report the pandemic fatigue as one of the potential reasons for the reduced impact of PHSMs on transmission in the fourth wave. We contacted either 500 or 1,000 local residents through weekly random-digit dialing of landlines and mobile telephones from May 2020 to February 2021. We analyze the epidemiological impact of pandemic fatigue by using the large and detailed cross-sectional telephone surveys to quantify risk perception and self-reported protective behaviors and mathematical models to incorporate population protective behaviors. Our retrospective prediction suggests that an increase of 100 daily new reported cases would lead to 6.60% (95% CI: 4.03, 9.17) more people worrying about being infected, increase 3.77% (95% CI: 2.46, 5.09) more people to avoid social gatherings, and reduce the weekly mean reproduction number by 0.32 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.44). Accordingly, the fourth wave would have been 14% (95% CI%: -53%, 81%) smaller if not for pandemic fatigue. This indicates the important role of mitigating pandemic fatigue in maintaining population protective behaviors for controlling COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/prevention & control
20.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275760

ABSTRACT

The importance of genomic surveillance on emerging diseases continues to be highlighted with the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we present an analysis of a new bat-borne mumps virus (MuV) in a captive colony of lesser dawn bats (Eonycteris spelaea). This report describes an investigation of MuV-specific data originally collected as part of a longitudinal virome study of apparently healthy, captive lesser dawn bats in Southeast Asia (BioProject ID PRJNA561193) which was the first report of a MuV-like virus, named dawn bat paramyxovirus (DbPV), in bats outside of Africa. More in-depth analysis of these original RNA sequences in the current report reveals that the new DbPV genome shares only 86% amino acid identity with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of its closest relative, the African bat-borne mumps virus (AbMuV). While there is no obvious immediate cause for concern, it is important to continue investigating and monitoring bat-borne MuVs to determine the risk of human infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Mumps virus/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae/genetics
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