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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771200

ABSTRACT

With the continuous expansion of urban construction land, the green belts aiming for ecological protection have ensured a sustainable and effective function of regional ecosystem services. At the same time, these ecological green belts are expected to develop their compound service potentials with the development of cities. In order to meet the increasing demand of urban residents for the recreational utilization of urban green space, the primary function of the ecological green belts has transformed from being purely ecological to a combination of being ecological and recreational. Based on social media data, which has the characteristics of a large amount of accessible geographic information, this study used multiple regression models to analyze the recreational utilization intensity of ecological protection green belts with a case study in the green belt of Shanghai, China. The research results showed that the internal elements (total external area, water area, etc.) of the Shanghai green belt have positive correlations with its recreational utilization. The impact of external factors was inconclusive on the recreational utilization of the outer forest belt (the number of subway stations in accessibility factors was negatively correlated; the number of cultural facilities and the number of restaurants in the surrounding service facilities were positively related). Combined with the "Shanghai City Master Plan (2017-2035)", this study suggests potential zones for the recreational transformation of the Shanghai green belt, provides a theoretical and practical basis for improving the recreational utilization of an urban ecological protection green belt and contributes to the sustainable development of ecological protection green belts in high-density cities.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Urban Renewal , China , Cities , Humans , Parks, Recreational
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331563

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its corresponding preventive and control measures have increased the mental burden on the public. Social media serve as important platforms to timely track public mental status. In this study, we conducted social-media-based analyses on temporal, geographical and occupational distributions of public mental health status during the pandemic, and how the public reacted to the lock-down policy from the perspective of mental health. We extracted 2,973,319 mental health-related tweets of 1,778,140 users from February 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021. We found that, compared to the general public, healthcare workers had higher concerns on three types of mental health problems (depression, insomnia, addiction) (P<0.001) and focused more on clinical topics while the public worried more about daily life issues. The lockdown policy in New York was correlated with a proportional decrease of mental health-related tweets, while Florida had an opposite correlation (both P<0.05). Our findings indicated that the mental burden brought by the pandemic varied across occupations and locations and changed over time.

3.
Midwifery ; 109: 103316, 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the lived experiences of informal caregivers for pregnant women seeking scheduled antenatal care during the early stage of China's COVID-19 lockdown and potential measures to address the challenges. DESIGN: This is a phenomenological qualitative study. SETTING: The study was carried out in a leading teaching hospital in Southwest China. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 15 informal caregivers for healthy pregnant women on routine antenatal visits about six months after China launched the city-wide lockdown and other control measures for COVID-19, including 10 males and 5 females with diverse demographic backgrounds. MEASURES AND FINDINGS: The research team developed a demographic form and an interview outline with key questions, conducted semi-structured interviews with the informal caregivers, and analyzed the data using the Colazzie's method. Five themes of lived experiences were revealed, i.e., increased caregiving burdens, disruption of routines in family life, lack of accurate information and knowledge, active role adjustment, and positive attitudes and coping in a difficult time. Some caregivers reacted positively to the lockdown experience and saw it as an opportunity to rethink their lives and improve family relations. KEY CONCLUSIONS: The informal caregivers experienced increased physical and psychological burdens. Strategies such as adoption of a less frequent prenatal visit schedule, use of tele-medicine technologies, and provision of accurate information and knowledge may help to ease the increased informal caregiving burdens. Psychological counseling, community services and disaster response policies specially targeting pregnant women and their informal caregivers may also be valuable resources. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Attention should be drawn to the group of informal caregivers for pregnant women during a COVID-19 lockdown, including professional assistance delivered by nursing and other related professionals. Measures are called for to minimize exposure opportunities such as adoption of a new prenatal care schedule and tele-medicine technologies. Patient education with reliable information should be provided, preferably by nursing staff and physicians. Social support efforts including professional mental counseling may added and work with other resources such as community services and policy makers.

4.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311718

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 epidemic has had an extreme impact on society. This study aimed to discuss this epidemic in the U.S. and explore the association between COVID-19 daily incidence rate and influencing factors including people’s implementation of states’ quarantine policy and environmental factors including temperature, humidity and so on. Methods: . Data of 50 states in U.S. were used as the research subjects. A panel data model was established based on the daily incidence rate and influencing factors from 15 March to 30 September, 2020. The period was analyzed both unsegmented and segmented. The k-means clustering method was used to cluster the states, and panel linear regression method was used for correlation analysis. Results: . The characteristics of the daily incidence rate and factors of the three categories were different after clustering. The daily residents at home, proportion of travel people, humidity and incidence rate were negatively correlated, while the daily temperature and incidence rate were positively correlated after unsegmented multivariate analysis. While after segmented analysis, the air pressure and the temperature showed a trend that was negatively correlated with the daily incidence rate respectively in the first and the fifth segment, other indicators showed the analogous results. At the same time, this study also completed the regression analysis after classification of the three groups. Compared with results without classification, there was a decrease of the number of significant independent variables. Conclusions: . The spread of COVID-19 in 50 states in U.S. was related to quarantine measures, temperature and humidity. The progress of the epidemic would be relatively slow if people chose to stay at home. Besides, the increase in temperature (<84.2℉) could be conducive to the spread of the epidemic, while the increase in relative humidity (40~70%) might inhibit the spread of the virus to a certain degree.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325300

ABSTRACT

Balancing common disease treatment and epidemic control is a key objective of medical supplies procurement in hospitals during a pandemic such as COVID-19. This problem can be formulated as a bi-objective optimization problem for simultaneously optimizing the effects of common disease treatment and epidemic control. However, due to the large number of supplies, difficulties in evaluating the effects, and the strict budget constraint, it is difficult for existing evolutionary multiobjective algorithms to efficiently approximate the Pareto front of the problem. In this paper, we present an approach that first transforms the original high-dimensional, constrained multiobjective optimization problem to a low-dimensional, unconstrained multiobjective optimization problem, and then evaluates each solution to the transformed problem by solving a set of simple single-objective optimization subproblems, such that the problem can be efficiently solved by existing evolutionary multiobjective algorithms. We applied the transform-and-divide evolutionary optimization approach to six hospitals in Zhejiang Province, China, during the peak of COVID-19. Results showed that the proposed approach exhibits significantly better performance than that of directly solving the original problem. Our study has also shown that transform-and-divide evolutionary optimization based on problem-specific knowledge can be an efficient solution approach to many other complex problems and, therefore, enlarge the application field of evolutionary algorithms.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324456

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 epidemic affected the career choice of healthcare professionals and students. To explore career choice regret of healthcare professionals and students during COVID-19 outbreak and its affected factors. Methods: Convenience sample of nurses, doctors, and medical students were recruited from hospitals and universities nationwide. The data collected including demographic information, professional value before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and career choice regret level by an online questionnaire. Multinominal logistic regression was employed to explore the factors associated with career choice regret. Results: In total, 9322 participants of convenience sampling were enrolled in, including 5786 nurses, 1664 doctors, and 1872 medical students. 6.7% participants had career choice regret. Multinominal logistic regression analysis showed, compared to participants with no regret, that as levels of resilience increased, the odds of experiencing career choice regret decreased (OR=0.951,P<0.001), while participants with lower professional value evaluation after the COVID-19 outbreak had higher probability to experience career choice regret(OR=1.552,P<0.001). Medical students were more likely to regret than nurses (OR=1.654,P=0.002), participants whose career/major choice was according to their personal ideal had higher risk of experience career choice regret (OR=1.592,P<0.001), while participants who were very afraid of the coronavirus had higher risk to experience career choice regret then participants with no fear at all(OR=1.997,P=0.004).As for the medical students, results indicated that medical students major in nursing and undergraduates had higher risk to experience career choice regret compared to medical students major in clinical medicine and postgraduate (Master or PhD), with an odds ratios of 2.645 and 6.851 respectively. Conclusions: A minority of healthcare professionals and medical students regretted their career choices during the COVID-19 outbreak. Enhance personal psychological resilience and professional value would helpful to reduce career choice regret among healthcare professionals and students during pandemic.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322509

ABSTRACT

Background: Avoid touching our eyes, nose, and mouth (T-zone) is one of recommended strategies to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other infectious diseases. However, face-touching is a frequent behaviour, and it is often done automatically without self-awareness. Raising self-awareness of habituated face-touching behaviour may help individuals to avoid face-touching by contaminated hands. Our aim was to evaluate whether mindfulness-based brief behaviour-change intervention (MBI) named “STOP (Stop, Take a Breath, Observe, Proceed) touching your face” can reduce face-touching behavior. Methods: In this online-based, two group, wait-list, randomized controlled trial, participants aged 18 years or more from general population in China were recruited via Chinese social media platforms. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive “STOP touching your face” intervention or control intervention. Those researchers who assessing outcomes were masked to group allocation. A 60-minute self-monitoring of face-touching behaviour was required to report in the pre- and post-intervention. Reduction of percentage of T-Zone touching was set as primary outcome, with reduction of face-touching frequency being a key secondary outcome. These outcomes were analysed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) basis with a complete case analysis (CCA). Safety was monitored in all randomly assigned participants. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Trial registration number: NCT04330352), and is completed. Findings: Between April 2, 2020 to July 2, 2020, 10194 participants were invited to the trial. Of these, we recruited and randomly assigned 1090 (10.7%) participants to the “STOP touching your face” intervention group (n=545) or to the wait-list control intervention (comparator) group (n=545) after reporting the first 60-minute self-monitoring of face-touching behaviour (pre-intervention). Among them, 71.6% (n=390) participants from the intervention group and 63.9% (n=348) from the control group reported the second 60-minute self-monitoring of face-touching behaviour (post-intervention). ITT analysis revealed that percentage of T-Zone touching was significantly reduced by 8.1% in the intervention group (from 81.1% to 73.0%, RR=0.901, OR=0.631, RD=-0.081, p=0.002), and insignificantly reduced by 0.6% in the control intervention (from 80.0% to 79.4%, p=0.821). Group comparison showed that fewer participants had T-Zone touching in the intervention group than that in the control group (73.0% vs 79.4%, RR=0.919, OR=0.700, RD=-0.064, p=0.015) after intervention, and that there was more reduction of T-Zone touching frequency in the intervention group than that in the control group (mean ± SD: 1.7 ± 5.13 vs 0.7 ± 3.98, Mean difference (95% CI): 1.03 (0.48 to 1.58), p<0.001, Cohen's d=-0.218). The above results were further confirmed by CCA. Compared with older individuals (≥30 years old), young adults (18–29 years old) have twice risk of having T-Zone touching behaviour (OR=2.029, 95% CI=1.145 to 3.597, p=0.015), and younger participants reduced face-touching frequency more than their older counterparts (mean ± SD: 9.9 ± 14.24 vs 3.6 ± 11.25, Mean difference (95% CI)=6.270 (3.615 to 8.924), p<0.001, Cohen's d=-0.47). Interpretation This trial is the first to evaluate the efficacy of “STOP touching your face” intervention to reduce face-touching behaviour during the outbreak of COVID-19. The findings of significantly reduced T-Zone touching behaviour in the intervention group supports the widely dissemination of this brief and simple mindfulness-based behaviour-change intervention to low the risk for the COVID-19 and other hand-to face-touching infectious diseases.Trial registration number: NCT04330352Trial Registration. Funding: Zhejiang University, number (2020XGZX046). Declaration of Interest: We declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The trial was approved by The Ethics Committee of Sir Run Run Sha hospital, an affiliate of Zhejiang University, Medical College (NO. 20200401-32).

9.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(2): 541-551, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675134

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The applicability of sleep-related scales to frontline medical staff for the COVID-19 pandemic has not been fully proved, so sleep survey results lack credibility and accuracy, creating difficulties for the guidance and treatment of frontline medical staff with sleep disorders, which is not conducive to the prevention and control of COVID-19. This study sought to analyze the reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among frontline medical staff fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A network questionnaire survey was used to investigate the PSQI among frontline medical staff who fought COVID-19 in Wuhan, China from March 19 to April 15, 2020. Combined with classical test theory and item response theory, the content validity, internal consistency, construct validity, and other aspects of the PSQI were evaluated. RESULTS: According to classical test theory, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity of the PSQI were good. But the internal consistency was better after the deletion of the "daytime dysfunction" subscale. With regard to item response theory, difficulty, the differential item function, and the Wright map performed well. CONCLUSIONS: The original PSQI showed acceptable applicability in frontline COVID-19 medical staff, and its characteristics moderately improved after the "daytime dysfunction" subscale was removed. CITATION: Wang L, Wu Y-X, Lin Y-Q, et al. Reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index among frontline COVID-19 health care workers using classical test theory and item response theory. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(2):541-551.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 144: 163-172, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the current status of COVID-19 vaccine guidelines. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched databases, Google and guideline platforms to retrieve COVID-19 vaccine guidelines published between January 1, 2020 and July 8, 2021. We worked in pairs to identify the eligible guidelines and extract data of whether the methodology, funding, and conflict of interests were assessed/reported, and so on. Results were presented descriptively. RESULTS: A total of 106 COVID-19 vaccine guidelines were included. In the first half of 2021, on average 15 guidelines were published every month. Fifty (47.2%) guidelines addressed the vaccination of people with specific medical conditions, and 18 (17.0%) guidelines focused on adverse effects after vaccination. Only 28 (26.4%) guidelines reported the methodology they used. Four (3.8%) of guidelines assessed both the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations; 42 (39.6%) and 65 (61.3%) guidelines reported their funding sources and conflict of interest, respectively. Most guidelines were published in English (n = 92, 86.8%). CONCLUSION: A high number of guidelines on COVID-19 vaccines have been published in the recent months, but most of them lack clear and transparent reporting of methodology, funding, and conflicts of interest. Rigorous methodological and reporting quality evaluation of these guidelines is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Databases, Factual , Humans
11.
Food Environ Virol ; 14(1): 101-104, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653805

ABSTRACT

To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in cold-chain transportation in China, we developed specific cryogenic disinfectants. Carrier tests were performed against SARS-CoV-2 at - 20 °C for the four cryogenic disinfectants developed and qRT-PCR was used to test the virus RNA. Peracetic acid, chlorine disinfectants (two different concentrations), and quaternary ammonium disinfectant with their antifreeze can all inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in 5 min at - 20 °C. However, after 2-3 h of exposure, only chlorine disinfectant could destroy SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The viruses treated with peracetic acid and quaternary disinfectants showed positive Ct values even after 3 h detected with qRT-PCR. The conclusion was that the cold-chain disinfectants we tested could inactivate SARS-CoV-2 quickly and effectively, but only chlorine disinfectants could destroy nucleic acids in 3 h. Our study also illustrated that using qRT-PCR detection of viral nucleic acids to assess disinfection was inappropriate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 59, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic. While great success in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategies in Beijing, China. METHODS: This retrospective study included all imported cases transferred to Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020 who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: In total, 2545 cases were included, among which 71 (2.8%) were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The majority 63 (88.7%) were from Europe. The most common initial symptoms were cough and fever, which accounted for 49.3% and 42.3%, respectively. Only four cases (5.6%) had lymphocytopenia, and thirteen cases (18.3%) demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). All cases had normal serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT). At initial presentation, among the 71 confirmed cases, 59 (83.1%) had a positive RT-PCR assay, and 35 (49.3%) had a positive chest CT. Twelve (16.9%) had a negative RT-PCR assay but a positive chest CT. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of RT-PCR and chest CT is an effective strategy for the screening of imported COVID-19 cases. Our findings provide important information and clinical evidence about the infection control of imported COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(6): 73-82, 2021 Dec.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & PROBLEMS: Parent-infant attachment is affected by parent-infant interaction. The limitations on related visitations during the COVID-19 pandemic suspended the opportunity to engage in kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact) activities. These changes impacted parent-infant attachment in the neonatal intensive care unit. After investigation, the score of premature infant-parent attachment was found to be only 64.6 points during the period in which visitation limitations were in effect. PURPOSE: To enhance maternal-premature infant attachment during the pandemic period by 10% (from an average score of 64.6 to 71.1). RESOLUTION: This project involved nurses playing audio files provided by mothers to their premature infants, and recording a video and taking pictures of the infants during this process. This project used a cloud platform as bidirectional pipelines. Furthermore, emotional support and caring information were provided to the mothers via expressive arts therapy and phone interviews. RESULTS: After the intervention, the premature infant-parent attachment score rose to 74.4 from the pre-intervention score of 64.6. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemic control periods, traditional modes of care aimed at building infant-parent attachment are not applicable. The intervention project used was found to be an effective alternative approach to increasing maternal-premature infant attachment. Breaking the restrictions of time and place, this project applies family-centered care, and may provide a reference for developing software, hardware, and communication equipment for other care units related to newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Mothers , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
PeerJ ; 9: e12520, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559471

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The main focus of this study was to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on the mental health condition and sleep quality of college students in Macao. In addition, the students' behaviours during the pandemic, such as drinking alcohol, taking sleeping pills, and seeking psychological counselling were analyzed. Method: A cross-sectional survey of mental health and sleep quality status, as well as the possible behavioral risk factors, was conducted among the college students of Macao in August, 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online self-report questionnaire survey method was applied to assess the general demographics and related lifestyle behaviors of students. The general mental health condition and sleep quality were evaluated through the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires, respectively. The main statistical methods included the Chi-square test, Bonferroni correction, and Pearson correlation. Data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 24.0. Results: A total of 980 students were investigated in the study, of which 977 completed the survey. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, overall college students in Macao were psychologically well adjusted and reported good quality of sleep. However, female students were in poorer psychological condition than males (P < 0.05). Moreover, the students over 20 years of age had poorer sleep quality than students aged less than or equal to 20 (P < 0.05). The significant differences were found among the students in different study majors for the mental health status and sleep quality (both P < 0.05), which were associated with certain behaviors, such as drinking alcohol, taking sleeping pills, and seeking for help in psychological counselling during the COVID-19 pandemic period. Conclusions: Poor mental health status could be either the consequence or cause of sleep disturbance, which might further affected physical health. Therefore, regular assessment of mental health condition and sleep quality of college students is particularly necessary during public health emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and appropriate intervention should be provided to the students.

16.
EBioMedicine ; 74: 103712, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite clinical success with anti-spike vaccines, the effectiveness of neutralizing antibodies and vaccines has been compromised by rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants. Viruses can hijack the glycosylation machinery of host cells to shield themselves from the host's immune response and attenuate antibody efficiency. However, it remains unclear if targeting glycosylation on viral spike protein can impair infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. METHODS: We adopted flow cytometry, ELISA, and BioLayer interferometry approaches to assess binding of glycosylated or deglycosylated spike with ACE2. Viral entry was determined by luciferase, immunoblotting, and immunofluorescence assays. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) revealed a significant relationship between STT3A and COVID-19 severity. NF-κB/STT3A-regulated N-glycosylation was investigated by gene knockdown, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and promoter assay. We developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that couples non-neutralization anti-spike antibody with NGI-1 (4G10-ADC) to specifically target SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. FINDINGS: The receptor binding domain and three distinct SARS-CoV-2 surface N-glycosylation sites among 57,311 spike proteins retrieved from the NCBI-Virus-database are highly evolutionarily conserved (99.67%) and are involved in ACE2 interaction. STT3A is a key glycosyltransferase catalyzing spike glycosylation and is positively correlated with COVID-19 severity. We found that inhibiting STT3A using N-linked glycosylation inhibitor-1 (NGI-1) impaired SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and that of its variants [Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351)]. Most importantly, 4G10-ADC enters SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and NGI-1 is subsequently released to deglycosylate spike protein, thereby reinforcing the neutralizing abilities of antibodies, vaccines, or convalescent sera and reducing SARS-CoV-2 variant infectivity. INTERPRETATION: Our results indicate that targeting evolutionarily-conserved STT3A-mediated glycosylation via an ADC can exert profound impacts on SARS-CoV-2 variant infectivity. Thus, we have identified a novel deglycosylation method suitable for eradicating SARS-CoV-2 variant infection in vitro. FUNDING: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section.


Subject(s)
Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycosylation/drug effects , Hexosyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Hexosyltransferases/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512299

ABSTRACT

R&D investment is the source of technological innovation of pharmaceutical enterprises, but it will be restricted by the funding level, especially in the context of major public health emergencies occurring more frequently, therefore exploring the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises has important theoretical and practical value. Based on the relevant data of Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises from 2012 to 2018, this paper studies the impact of monetary policy uncertainty on R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical enterprises, and investigates whether there is a threshold effect. First, our results demonstrate that the empirical test results of this article support the hypothesis of R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. Second, there is a negative correlation between monetary policy uncertainty and R&D investment smoothing behavior, and the shorter the period is, the higher the financing constraints of pharmaceutical enterprises are, and the more obvious the negative correlation is. Third, financing constraints have a single threshold effect on the R&D investment smoothing behavior of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises, with a threshold of -13.7693. Moreover, this conclusion can better promote the virtuous circle of the real economy of financial and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises. It is recommended that pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises establish and improve the enterprise R&D reserve system, reduce the risk of R&D investment, play the role of R&D smoothing, and realize the sustainable development of enterprise R&D.


Subject(s)
Investments , Pharmaceutical Preparations , China , Empirical Research , Sustainable Development , Uncertainty
18.
World J Diabetes ; 12(10): 1789-1808, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is a common comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the effects of diabetes or anti-diabetic medication on the mortality of COVID-19 have not been well described. AIM: To investigate the outcome of different statuses (with or without comorbidity) and anti-diabetic medication use before admission of diabetic after COVID-19. METHODS: In this multicenter and retrospective study, we enrolled 1422 consecutive hospitalized patients from January 21, 2020, to March 25, 2020, at six hospitals in Hubei Province, China. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Epidemiological material, demographic information, clinical data, laboratory parameters, radiographic characteristics, treatment and outcome were extracted from electronic medical records using a standardized data collection form. Most of the laboratory data except fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were obtained in first hospitalization, and FPG was collected in the next day morning. Major clinical symptoms, vital signs at admission and comorbidities were collected. The treatment data included not only COVID-19 but also diabetes mellitus. The duration from the onset of symptoms to admission, illness severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and length of hospital stay were also recorded. All data were checked by a team of sophisticated physicians. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes were 10 years older than non-diabetic patients [(39 - 64) vs (56 - 70), P < 0.001] and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities such as hypertension (55.5% vs 21.4%, P < 0.001), coronary heart disease (CHD) (9.9% vs 3.5%, P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (3% vs 2.2%, P < 0.001), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (4.7% vs 1.5%, P = 0.007). Mortality (13.6% vs 7.2%, P = 0.003) was more prevalent among the diabetes group. Further analysis revealed that patients with diabetes who took acarbose had a lower mortality rate (2.2% vs 26.1, P < 0.01). Multivariable Cox regression showed that male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 2.59 (1.68 - 3.99), P < 0.001], hypertension [HR 1.75 (1.18 - 2.60), P = 0.006), CKD [HR 4.55 (2.52-8.20), P < 0.001], CVD [HR 2.35 (1.27 - 4.33), P = 0.006], and age were risk factors for the COVID-19 mortality. Higher HRs were noted in those aged ≥ 65 (HR 11.8 [4.6 - 30.2], P < 0.001) vs 50-64 years (HR 5.86 [2.27 - 15.12], P < 0.001). The survival curve revealed that, compared with the diabetes only group, the mortality was increased in the diabetes with comorbidities group (P = 0.009) but was not significantly different from the non-comorbidity group (P = 0.59). CONCLUSION: Patients with diabetes had worse outcomes when suffering from COVID-19; however, the outcome was not associated with diabetes itself but with comorbidities. Furthermore, acarbose could reduce the mortality in diabetic.

19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 534, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 epidemic affected the career choice of healthcare professionals and students. Career choice regret of healthcare professionals and students during COVID-19 outbreak and its affected factors are largely unexplored. METHODS: Convenience sample of nurses, doctors, and medical students were recruited from hospitals and universities nationwide. The data collected including demographic information, professional value before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and career choice regret level by an online questionnaire. Multinominal logistic regression was employed to explore the factors associated with career choice regret. RESULTS: In total, 9322 participants of convenience sampling were enrolled in, including 5786 nurses, 1664 doctors, and 1872 medical students. 6.7% participants had career choice regret. Multinominal logistic regression analysis showed, compared to participants with no regret, that as levels of psychological resilience increased, the odds of experiencing career choice regret decreased (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.96), while participants with lower professional value evaluation after the COVID-19 outbreak had higher probability to experience career choice regret (OR = 1.55,95% CI 1.50-1.61). Medical students were more likely to regret than nurses (OR = 1.65,95% CI 1.20-2.28), participants whose career/major choice was not their personal ideal had higher risk of experience career choice regret (OR = 1.59,95% CI 1.29-1.96), while participants who were very afraid of the coronavirus had higher risk to experience career choice regret then participants with no fear at all (OR = 2.00,95% CI 1.24-3.21). As for the medical students, results indicated that medical students major in nursing and undergraduates had higher risk to experience career choice regret compared to medical students major in clinical medicine and postgraduate (Master or PhD), with an odds ratios of 2.65(95% CI 1.56-4.49) and 6.85 (95% CI 2.48-18.91)respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A minority of healthcare professionals and medical students regretted their career choices during the COVID-19 outbreak. Enhance personal psychological resilience and professional value would helpful to reduce career choice regret among healthcare professionals and students during pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Career Choice , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Emotions , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(2): 541-551, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431061

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The applicability of sleep-related scales to frontline medical staff for the COVID-19 pandemic has not been fully proved, so sleep survey results lack credibility and accuracy, creating difficulties for the guidance and treatment of frontline medical staff with sleep disorders, which is not conducive to the prevention and control of COVID-19. This study sought to analyze the reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among frontline medical staff fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A network questionnaire survey was used to investigate the PSQI among frontline medical staff who fought COVID-19 in Wuhan, China from March 19 to April 15, 2020. Combined with classical test theory and item response theory, the content validity, internal consistency, construct validity, and other aspects of the PSQI were evaluated. RESULTS: According to classical test theory, content validity, criterion validity, and construct validity of the PSQI were good. But the internal consistency was better after the deletion of the "daytime dysfunction" subscale. With regard to item response theory, difficulty, the differential item function, and the Wright map performed well. CONCLUSIONS: The original PSQI showed acceptable applicability in frontline COVID-19 medical staff, and its characteristics moderately improved after the "daytime dysfunction" subscale was removed. CITATION: Wang L, Wu Y-X, Lin Y-Q, et al. Reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index among frontline COVID-19 health care workers using classical test theory and item response theory. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(2):541-551.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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