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1.
Buildings ; 12(4):440, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809721

ABSTRACT

Public–private partnership (PPP) projects have been widely applied in infrastructure construction. Leveraging private capital is the key to promoting the high-quality development of PPP projects. This study examines the combined effect of seven factors determining private enterprises that participate in PPP and collects materials from 102 PPP sewage treatment projects to examine the causal configuration path of private enterprises participating in PPP (PEP3P) from an overall perspective by using necessary condition analysis (NCA) and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The findings support the fact that any single antecedent condition is not a necessary condition for PEP3P and is instead the combined effect of different factors that commonly form the diversified causal configuration paths of PEP3P. There is an obvious asymmetry between the configuration paths of the high participation and low participation of private enterprises. The enterprise technology level (ETL) and doing business (DB) are important internal driving forces and give external traction for PEP3P, while the enterprise credit level (ECL) and project investment scale (PIS) are important factors that restrict private enterprises from participating in PPP. This research fills a theoretical gap for PEP3P and can be applied to developing strategies for attracting private enterprises to participate in PPP.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044384, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090929

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe evolution, epidemiology and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in subjects tested at or admitted to hospitals in North West London. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: London North West Healthcare NHS Trust (LNWH). PARTICIPANTS: Patients tested and/or admitted for COVID-19 at LNWH during March and April 2020 MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive and analytical epidemiology of demographic and clinical outcomes (intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation and mortality) of those who tested positive for COVID-19. RESULTS: The outbreak began in the first week of March 2020 and reached a peak by the end of March and first week of April. In the study period, 6183 tests were performed in on 4981 people. Of the 2086 laboratory confirmed COVID-19 cases, 1901 were admitted to hospital. Older age group, men and those of black or Asian minority ethnic (BAME) group were predominantly affected (p<0.05). These groups also had more severe infection resulting in ICU admission and need for mechanical ventilation (p<0.05). However, in a multivariate analysis, only increasing age was independently associated with increased risk of death (p<0.05). Mortality rate was 26.9% in hospitalised patients. CONCLUSION: The findings confirm that men, BAME and older population were most commonly and severely affected groups. Only older age was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Young Adult
3.
Cells ; 10(1)2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067688

ABSTRACT

Under natural conditions, injured cells can be repaired rapidly through inherent biological processes. However, in the case of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, muscular dystrophy, and other degenerative conditions, the natural repair process is impaired. Repair of injury to the cell membrane is an important aspect of physiology. Inadequate membrane repair function is implicated in the pathophysiology of many human disorders. Recent studies show that Mitsugumin 53 (MG53), a TRIM family protein, plays a key role in repairing cell membrane damage and facilitating tissue regeneration. Clarifying the role of MG53 and its molecular mechanism are important for the application of MG53 in regenerative medicine. In this review, we analyze current research dissecting MG53's function in cell membrane repair and tissue regeneration, and highlight the development of recombinant human MG53 protein as a potential therapeutic agent to repair multiple-organ injuries.


Subject(s)
Regenerative Medicine , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Phylogeny , Regeneration , Tripartite Motif Proteins/chemistry
4.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 2: 100015, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Military personnel in enclosed societies are at increased risk of respiratory infections. We investigated an outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a London Army barracks early in the pandemic. METHODS: Army personnel, their families and civilians had nasal and throat swabs for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by reverse transcriptase -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), virus isolation and whole genome sequencing, along with blood samples for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All tests were repeated 36 days later. FINDINGS: During the first visit, 304 (254 Army personnel, 10 family members, 36 civilians, 4 not stated) participated and 24/304 (8%) were SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive. Infectious virus was isolated from 7/24 (29%). Of the 285 who provided a blood sample, 7% (19/285) were antibody positive and 63% (12/19) had neutralising antibodies. Twenty-two (22/34, 64%) individuals with laboratory-confirmed infection were asymptomatic. Nine SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive participants were also antibody positive but those who had neutralising antibodies did not have infectious virus. At the second visit, no new infections were detected, and 13% (25/193) were seropositive, including 52% (13/25) with neutralising antibodies. Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity included contact with a confirmed case (RR 25.2; 95% CI 14-45), being female (RR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-6.0) and two-person shared bathroom (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.1-6.4). INTERPRETATION: We identified high rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Public Health control measures can mitigate spread but virus re-introduction from asymptomatic individuals remains a risk. Most seropositive individuals had neutralising antibodies and infectious virus was not recovered from anyone with neutralising antibodies. FUNDING: PHE.

5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(3): 796-803, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922398

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and nature of bacterial co-infections in COVID-19 patients within 48 hours of hospital admission and assess the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic treatment they received. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, we included all adult non-pregnant patients who were admitted to two acute hospitals in North West London in March and April 2020 and confirmed to have COVID-19 infection within 2 days of admission. Results of microbiological specimens taken within 48 hours of admission were reviewed and their clinical significance was assessed. Empirical antibiotic treatment of representative patients was reviewed. Patient age, gender, co-morbidities, inflammatory markers at admission, admission to ICU and 30 day all-cause in-hospital mortality were collected and compared between patients with and without bacterial co-infections. RESULTS: Of the 1396 COVID-19 patients included, 37 patients (2.7%) had clinically important bacterial co-infection within 48 hours of admission. The majority of patients (36/37 in those with co-infection and 98/100 in selected patients without co-infection) received empirical antibiotic treatment. There was no significant difference in age, gender, pre-existing illnesses, ICU admission or 30 day all-cause mortality in those with and without bacterial co-infection. However, white cell count, neutrophil count and CRP on admission were significantly higher in patients with bacterial co-infections. CONCLUSIONS: We found that bacterial co-infection was infrequent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients within 48 hours of admission. These results suggest that empirical antimicrobial treatment may not be necessary in all patients presenting with COVID-19 infection, although the decision could be guided by high inflammatory markers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coinfection/drug therapy , Empirical Research , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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