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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(12): e0602, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593799

ABSTRACT

To assess if genetic predictors for C-reactive protein and risk of venous thromboembolism are associated with severe outcomes among individuals who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: U.K. Biobank. PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: U.K. Biobank participants with European ancestry who were recorded to have a positive polymerase chain reaction test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between March 16, 2020, and August 14, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We constructed separate genetic risk scores for C-reactive protein and venous thromboembolism consisting of 56 and 37 genetic variants that have been significantly associated with venous thromboembolism and C-reactive protein, respectively. Among 1,126 individuals who were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019, 48% had a coronavirus disease 2019-related hospitalization, 16% received critical care support, 10% had critical respiratory support, and 21% died from coronavirus disease 2019. Genetic predisposition to high C-reactive protein concentrations was marginally associated with a lower risk of death from coronavirus disease 2019 (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73-1.00; p = 0.05). No other associations were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support associations between polygenic risk for elevated blood C-reactive protein concentrations or venous thromboembolism and severe coronavirus disease 2019 health outcomes. Thus, considering genetic predisposition associated with C-reactive protein concentrations or venous thromboembolism risk is not meaningful for predicting severe coronavirus disease 2019 health outcomes.

2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 414, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556321

ABSTRACT

Azvudine (FNC) is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV-1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Recently, we discovered FNC an agent against SARS-CoV-2, and have taken it into Phase III trial for COVID-19 patients. FNC monophosphate analog inhibited SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43 coronavirus with an EC50 between 1.2 and 4.3 µM, depending on viruses or cells, and selective index (SI) in 15-83 range. Oral administration of FNC in rats revealed a substantial thymus-homing feature, with FNC triphosphate (the active form) concentrated in the thymus and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Treating SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques with FNC (0.07 mg/kg, qd, orally) reduced viral load, recuperated the thymus, improved lymphocyte profiles, alleviated inflammation and organ damage, and lessened ground-glass opacities in chest X-ray. Single-cell sequencing suggested the promotion of thymus function by FNC. A randomized, single-arm clinical trial of FNC on compassionate use (n = 31) showed that oral FNC (5 mg, qd) cured all COVID-19 patients, with 100% viral ribonucleic acid negative conversion in 3.29 ± 2.22 days (range: 1-9 days) and 100% hospital discharge rate in 9.00 ± 4.93 days (range: 2-25 days). The side-effect of FNC is minor and transient dizziness and nausea in 16.12% (5/31) patients. Thus, FNC might cure COVID-19 through its anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity concentrated in the thymus, followed by promoted immunity.

3.
Eur J Radiol ; 146: 110069, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540609

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the general rules and future trajectories of deep learning (DL) networks in medical image analysis through bibliometric and hot spot analysis of original articles published between 2012 and 2020. METHODS: Original articles related to DL and medical imaging were retrieved from the PubMed database. For the analysis, data regarding radiological subspecialties; imaging techniques; DL networks; sample size; study purposes, setting, origins and design; statistical analysis; funding sources; authors; and first authors' affiliation was manually extracted from each article. The Bibliographic Item Co-Occurrence Matrix Builder and VOSviewer were used to identify the research topics of the included articles and illustrate the future trajectories of studies. RESULTS: The study included 2685 original articles. The number of publications on DL and medical imaging has increased substantially since 2017, accounting for 97.2% of all included articles. We evaluated the rules of the application of 47 DL networks to eight radiological tasks on 11 human organ sites. Neuroradiology, thorax, and abdomen were frequent research subjects, while thyroid was under-represented. Segmentation and classification tasks were the primary purposes. U-Net, ResNet, and VGG were the most frequently used Convolutional neural network-derived networks. GAN-derived networks were widely developed and applied in 2020, and transfer learning was highlighted in the COVID-19 studies. Brain, prostate, and diabetic retinopathy-related studies were mature research topics in the field. Breast- and lung-related studies were in a stage of rapid development. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluates the general rules and future trajectories of DL network application in medical image analyses and provides guidance for future studies.

4.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6966394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528596

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. CXCR4 provides neuroprotective effects, which can alleviate brain injury and inflammation induced by stroke. Previous studies have suggested that CXCR4 reduces the pyroptosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antipyroptosis effects and mechanisms of CXCR4 after SAH. SAH animal model was induced via endovascular perforation. A total of 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Recombinant human cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine ligand 12 (rh-CXCL-12) was administered intranasally at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before SAH. The neurobehavior tests were assessed, followed by performing Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The Western blot results suggested that the expressions of endogenous CXCL-12, CXCR4, and NLRP1 were increased and peaked at 24 h following SAH. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CXCR4 was expressed on neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Rh-CXCL-12 treatment improved the neurological deficits and reduced the number of FJC-positive cells, IL-18-positive neurons, and cleaved caspase-1(CC-1)-positive neurons after SAH. Meanwhile, rh-CXCL-12 treatment increased the levels of CXCL-12 and CXCR4, and reduced the levels of NLRP1, IL-18, IL-1ß, and CC-1. Moreover, the administration of AMD3100 abolished antipyroptosis effects of CXCL-12 and its regulation of CXCR4 post-SAH. The CXCR4/NLRP1 signaling pathway may be involved in CXCL-12-mediated neuronal pyroptosis after SAH. Early administration of CXCL-12 may be a preventive and therapeutic strategy against brain injury after SAH.

5.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1600-1606, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526089

ABSTRACT

Clinical evidence suggests the central nervous system is frequently impacted by SARS-CoV-2 infection, either directly or indirectly, although the mechanisms are unclear. Pericytes are perivascular cells within the brain that are proposed as SARS-CoV-2 infection points. Here we show that pericyte-like cells (PLCs), when integrated into a cortical organoid, are capable of infection with authentic SARS-CoV-2. Before infection, PLCs elicited astrocytic maturation and production of basement membrane components, features attributed to pericyte functions in vivo. While traditional cortical organoids showed little evidence of infection, PLCs within cortical organoids served as viral 'replication hubs', with virus spreading to astrocytes and mediating inflammatory type I interferon transcriptional responses. Therefore, PLC-containing cortical organoids (PCCOs) represent a new 'assembloid' model that supports astrocytic maturation as well as SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in neural tissue; thus, PCCOs serve as an experimental model for neural infection.


Subject(s)
Astrocytes/virology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Pericytes/virology , Viral Tropism/physiology , Astrocytes/cytology , Brain/pathology , Cell Differentiation/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/physiology
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2134241, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508587

ABSTRACT

Importance: The influence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and sleep-related hypoxemia in SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and COVID-19 outcomes remains unknown. Controversy exists regarding whether to continue treatment for SDB with positive airway pressure given concern for aerosolization with limited data to inform professional society recommendations. Objective: To investigate the association of SDB (identified via polysomnogram) and sleep-related hypoxia with (1) SARS-CoV-2 positivity and (2) World Health Organization (WHO)-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes while accounting for confounding including obesity, underlying cardiopulmonary disease, cancer, and smoking history. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study was conducted within the Cleveland Clinic Health System (Ohio and Florida) and included all patients who were tested for COVID-19 between March 8 and November 30, 2020, and who had an available sleep study record. Sleep indices and SARS-CoV-2 positivity were assessed with overlap propensity score weighting, and COVID-19 clinical outcomes were assessed using the institutional registry. Exposures: Sleep study-identified SDB (defined by frequency of apneas and hypopneas using the Apnea-Hypopnea Index [AHI]) and sleep-related hypoxemia (percentage of total sleep time at <90% oxygen saturation [TST <90]). Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 infection and WHO-designated COVID-19 clinical outcomes (hospitalization, use of supplemental oxygen, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and death). Results: Of 350 710 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2, 5402 (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [14.5] years; 3005 women [55.6%]) had a prior sleep study, of whom 1935 (35.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of the 5402 participants, 1696 were Black (31.4%), 3259 were White (60.3%), and 822 were of other race or ethnicity (15.2%). Patients who were positive vs negative for SARS-CoV-2 had a higher AHI score (median, 16.2 events/h [IQR, 6.1-39.5 events/h] vs 13.6 events/h [IQR, 5.5-33.6 events/h]; P < .001) and increased TST <90 (median, 1.8% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-12.8% sleep time] vs 1.4% sleep time [IQR, 0.10%-10.8% sleep time]; P = .02). After overlap propensity score-weighted logistic regression, no SDB measures were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Median TST <90 was associated with the WHO-designated COVID-19 ordinal clinical outcome scale (adjusted odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.74; P = .005). Time-to-event analyses showed sleep-related hypoxia associated with a 31% higher rate of hospitalization and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.57; P = .005). Conclusions and Relevance: In this case-control study, SDB and sleep-related hypoxia were not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 positivity; however, once patients were infected with SARS-CoV-2, sleep-related hypoxia was an associated risk factor for detrimental COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Florida , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypoxia , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Ohio , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/pathology , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/therapy
7.
China Economic Review ; : 101708, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1499723

ABSTRACT

The health risks of the current COVID-19 pandemic, together with the drastic mitigation measures taken in many affected nations, pose an obvious threat to public mental health. The social science literature has already established a clear link between mental health and sociodemographic as well as economic factors;at the same time, a growing number of studies investigate the role of biased risk perceptions. To assess this role in the context of COVID-19, this study first implements survey-based measures of health perception biases among Chinese adults during the pandemic. Then, it analyzes their relation to three mental health outcomes: life satisfaction, happiness, and depression (as measured by the CES − D). We show that the health overconfidence displayed by approximately 30% of the survey respondents is a clear risk factor for mental health problems;it is a statistically significant predictor of depression and low levels of happiness and life satisfaction. We also document that these effects are stronger in regions that experienced higher numbers of confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths. Our results also offer clear guidelines for the implementation of effective interventions to temper health overconfidence, particularly in uncontrollable situations like the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(42): e27512, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480011

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clusters in Hainan, and to provide a basis for the prevention and control of disease clusters.Descriptive epidemiology was used to retrospectively analyze the characteristics of disease clusters in 168 cases of COVID-19.Of the 168 COVID-19 cases, 99 (58.93%) comprised 29 clusters, 22 (75.86%) of which were imported and included 63 cases (63.64%), while 7 clusters (24.14%) were local and included 36 cases (36.36%). Of the cluster cases, 49 were men (49.49%) and 50 were women (50.50%), the median age was 52 years, and the maximum number of cases from 41 to 60 was at 37 years (37.37%). There were 67 first generation cases (67.68%), 28 (28.28%) second generation, and 4 (4.04%) third generation. Of the clusters, 68.97% occurred from January 31 to February 7, with the highest peak on February 6. The local disease clusters occurred with a time lag. The 2 cities with the most reported incidents were Sanya (10 cases, 34.48%) and Haikou (5 cases, 17.24%). Family clusters were most frequent, with 18 clusters (62.07%) involving 62 cases (62.63%), followed by social clusters, with 3 clusters (10.34%). The most complex clusters involved 3 cluster types (family, travel, and community). There was a statistically significant difference in the infectivity of the imported clusters versus the local clusters, with imported clusters being lower (Z = -2.851, P = .004). The infectivity of all cases or family members was highest in Haikou and lowest in Sanya. The infectivity of all cases with an incubation period of ≤7 days was 1.53 ±â€Š1.01, in which the infectivity of family members was 1.29 ±â€Š1.10. The infectivity of all cases with an incubation period of ≤14 days was 1.89 ±â€Š1.23, in which the infectivity of family members was 1.43 ±â€Š1.37.COVID-19 clusters in Hainan mainly occurred in families, and local clusters had high infectivity. Therefore, key populations and regions should be monitored, and targeted preventive measures should be carried out to provide a reference for the prevention and control of disease clusters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Hotspot , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 756987, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477895

ABSTRACT

The traditional meetings, incentives, conferences, and exhibitions (MICE) industry has been hit hard by social distancing regulations introduced to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, with concerns about pandemic risks and personal hygiene increasing the demand for online MICE technology. With the introduction of innovative new technologies to the MICE industry, it is important to study the psychology of online MICE attendees, particularly the factors affecting their behavioral intention to adopt online MICE technology during the pandemic. This study investigates the attitudes toward attending online MICE since the start of the epidemic based on the health belief model (HBM) and innovation diffusion theory (IDT). A total of 439 valid questionnaires were collected in China and used for structural equation modeling. The results show that the perceived safety threat, the comparative advantage, trialability, and outcome expectations positively impact the attendees' attitudes. Moreover, this study finds that attitude completely mediates the impact of perceived safety threat, comparative advantages, trialability, and outcome expectation on behavioral intention to attend online MICE events. These findings theoretically enrich the understanding of online MICE technology, the HBM, and the IDT and offer managerial implications for MICE organizers and exhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Motivation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470866

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of public health measures in containing an infectious disease largely depends on how the general public is taking the prevention practices in daily lives. Previous studies have shown that different risk perceptions and sociodemographic characteristics may lead to vastly different prevention behaviors. This paper applies a temporal perspective in examining the changing patterns of prevention practices over time and their dynamic relationships with the perceived risk towards COVID-19 and its individual characteristics. Three key timelines (February, April, and June of 2020) were identified to represent the early, lockdown, and reopening stages of the first wave. Data were drawn from an online survey conducted in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Canada (n = 470). Chi-square tests and logistic regression models revealed important temporal patterns in practicing different hygienic and mobility-related prevention measures and the respondents' risk perceptions during the three timelines. The factors predicting the level of prevention practices vary across the three timelines, based on the specific type of prevention, and within the changing public health contexts. This study contributes to the literature on COVID-19 by incorporating a temporal perspective in conceptualizing prevention predictors. It provides crucial insights for developing timely public health strategies to improve infectious disease prevention at different stages and for individuals with varying backgrounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 951, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic, resulting in considerable mortality. The risk factors, clinical treatments, especially comprehensive risk models for COVID-19 death are urgently warranted. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 281 non-survivors and 712 survivors with propensity score matching by age, sex, and comorbidities were enrolled from January 13, 2020 to March 31, 2020. RESULTS: Higher SOFA, qSOFA, APACHE II and SIRS scores, hypoxia, elevated inflammatory cytokines, multi-organ dysfunction, decreased immune cell subsets, and complications were significantly associated with the higher COVID-19 death risk. In addition to traditional predictors for death risk, including APACHE II (AUC = 0.83), SIRS (AUC = 0.75), SOFA (AUC = 0.70) and qSOFA scores (AUC = 0.61), another four prediction models that included immune cells subsets (AUC = 0.90), multiple organ damage biomarkers (AUC = 0.89), complications (AUC = 0.88) and inflammatory-related indexes (AUC = 0.75) were established. Additionally, the predictive accuracy of combining these risk factors (AUC = 0.950) was also significantly higher than that of each risk group alone, which was significant for early clinical management for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors could help to predict the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 patients at an early stage. The combined model might be more suitable for the death risk evaluation of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nano Today ; 40: 101280, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386357

ABSTRACT

New vaccine technologies are urgently needed to produce safe and effective vaccines in a more timely manner to prevent future infectious disease pandemics. Here, we describe erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization, a versatile vaccination strategy that boosts antiviral immune responses by using erythrocytes decorated with virus-mimetic nanoparticles carrying a viral antigen and a Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist. As a proof of concept, polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple in situ polymerization in which the nanoparticles were conjugated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunit and the TLR7/8 agonist R848. The resulting SARS-CoV-2 virus-mimetic nanoparticles were attached to erythrocytes via catechol groups on the nanoparticle. Erythrocytes naturally home to the spleen and interact with the immune system. Injection of the nanoparticle-decorated erythrocytes into mice resulted in greater maturation and activation of antigen-presenting cells, humoral and cellular immune responses in the spleen, production of S1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and systemic antiviral T cell responses than a control group treated with the nanoparticles alone, with no significant negative side effects. These results show that erythrocyte-mediated systemic antiviral immunization using viral antigen- and TLR agonist-presenting polydopamine nanoparticles-a generalizable method applicable to many viral infections-is effective new approach to developing vaccines against severe infectious diseases.

14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 557, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387494

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) is spread from human to human through the bite of the female Aedes aegypti mosquito and leads to about 100 million clinical infections yearly. Treatment options and vaccine availability for DENV are limited. Defective interfering particles (DIPs) are considered a promising antiviral approach but infectious virus contamination has limited their development. Here, a DENV-derived DIP production cell line was developed that continuously produced DENV-free DIPs. The DIPs contained and could deliver to cells a DENV serotype 2 subgenomic defective-interfering RNA, which was originally discovered in DENV infected patients. The DIPs released into cell culture supernatant were purified and could potently inhibit replication of all DENV serotypes in cells. Antiviral therapeutics are limited for many viral infection. The DIP system described could be re-purposed to make antiviral DIPs for many other RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, yellow fever, West Nile and Zika viruses.


Subject(s)
Defective Viruses , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/growth & development , Dengue/prevention & control , Virus Replication , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/metabolism , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter , HEK293 Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Luminescent Proteins/biosynthesis , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Load
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 726909, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359195

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in preclinical and clinical trials for various diseases and have shown great potential in the treatment of sepsis and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Inflammatory factors play vital roles in the pathogenesis of diseases. The interaction between inflammatory factors is extremely complex. Once the dynamics of inflammatory factors are unbalanced, inflammatory responses and cytokine storm syndrome develop, leading to disease exacerbation and even death. Stem cells have become ideal candidates for the treatment of such diseases due to their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which stem cells affect inflammation and immune regulation are still unclear. This article discusses the therapeutic mechanism and potential value of MSCs in the treatment of sepsis and the novel COVID-19, outlines how MSCs mediate innate and acquired immunity at both the cellular and molecular levels, and described the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and related molecular pathways. Finally, we review the safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy in these two diseases at the preclinical and clinical levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control
16.
One Earth ; 4(7):1037-1048, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1322298

ABSTRACT

Summary Transportation contributes to around one-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions, while also causing severe air pollution. The conversion to electric vehicles (EVs) represents a major path to decarbonize the transport sector, with potentially significant co-benefits for human health. However, the scale of such co-benefits largely remains an empirical question and lacks observational evidence. The full lockdown in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic provides an unprecedented real-world experiment to evaluate emission reduction potentials of a large-scale transition to EVs. Here, we utilize ground and satellite observations of air quality during the full lockdown to constrain predictions of a comprehensive chemical transport model and find that the substantial traffic reductions are near-linearly linked to reductions of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and NO2. A further extrapolation of a full conversion to EVs shows a significant reduction of PM2.5 (30%–70%) and NO2 (30%–80%) in most of China. Our findings provide fact-based evidence of potential environmental benefits generated by fully switching to EVs.

17.
Early Child Educ J ; : 1-15, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296948

ABSTRACT

This study highlights a survey on 5783 kindergarten teachers' occupational commitment and its influencing factors in the socioeconomic context of China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected through the WenJuanXing public online platform. Quantitative analysis results showed that kindergarten teachers' occupational commitment was optimistic on the whole during this period, among which the affective commitment and the normative commitment were satisfactory, but the continuing commitment needed to be strengthened. The type of kindergartens, the personnel affiliation, the educational background, and the professional post of kindergarten teachers had significant impacts on their occupational commitment. The income reduction was negatively correlated with and predictive of kindergarten teachers' occupational commitment. Anti-epidemic action and career confidence were positively correlated with and predictive of kindergarten teachers' occupational commitment. Furthermore, anti-epidemic action, income reduction, and career confidence had joint predictive effects on kindergarten teachers' occupational commitment. More related backgrounds and suggestions have been discussed.

18.
Transpl Immunol ; 68: 101435, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294281

ABSTRACT

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a rare complication after liver transplantation that characterized by high mortality. We presented a case of aGVHD after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient suffered from fever, oral ulcer, rashes and diarrhea and had a co-infection with Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis for cluster of differentiation (CD3) cells and skin biopsy indicated aGVHD. His regimens included high dose of steroids, ruxolitinib, basiliximab, local liver radiotherapy and antibiotics prophylaxis, with the withdrawal of tacrolimus and MMF. Unfortunately, he developed an acute rejection followed by cytomegalovirus infection and lung infection. Soon afterwards he was sent to "isolation ward" due to high suspicion for clinical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fortunately, He was excluded from COVID-19 after nucleic acid and antibody tests. Though closely contact with other COVID-19 patients for a month, the patient was not affected with COVID-19 through his careful protective measures. Finally, the patient recovered after antiviral and antifungal treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient recovered from aGVHD as a close contact.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
19.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284678

ABSTRACT

The emergence of rapidly expanding infectious diseases such as coronavirus (COVID-19) demands effective biosensors that can promptly detect and recognize the pathogens. Field-effect transistors based on semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials (2D-FETs) have been identified as potential candidates for rapid and label-free sensing applications. This is because any perturbation of such atomically thin 2D channels can significantly impact their electronic transport properties. Here, we report the use of FET based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) WSe2 as a promising biosensor for the rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. The sensor is created by functionalizing the WSe2 monolayers with a monoclonal antibody against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and exhibits a detection limit of down to 25 fg/µL in 0.01X phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Comprehensive theoretical and experimental studies, including density functional theory, atomic force microscopy, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, and electronic transport properties, were performed to characterize and explain the device performance. The results demonstrate that TMDC-based 2D-FETs can potentially serve as sensitive and selective biosensors for the rapid detection of infectious diseases.

20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253668, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282311

ABSTRACT

Supply chain integration plays an important role in the development of the vegetable industry in terms of vegetable quality, vegetable safety, and vegetable security in rural China. This paper explores how agricultural cooperatives integrate the vegetable supply chain by taking a trinity cooperative as an example in China. It explains the translation concatenation of supply chain integration for this cooperative by constructing actor networks in four development stages, including the seed stage, start-up stage, development stage, and mature stage. The findings show that supply chain integration in production cooperation, supply & sales cooperation, and credit cooperation is a useful trinity cooperative model of supply chain integration for investigating vegetable supply chain integration through internal integration and external integration. This paper suggests that cooperatives in the vegetable supply chain should facilitate close coordination among different shareholders and further improve the efficiency of supply chain integration. The government should provide training opportunities and funding to encourage cooperatives to participate in supply chain integration within the vegetable industry.


Subject(s)
Crop Production/economics , Farmers , Rural Population , Vegetables , China , Humans , Vegetables/economics , Vegetables/growth & development , Vegetables/supply & distribution
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