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1.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667345

ABSTRACT

This study compared the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines between people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative individuals. We recruited 120 PLWH and 53 HIV-negative individuals aged 18-59 years who had received an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in two Chinese cities between April and June 2021. Blood samples were tested for immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The prevalence and severity of adverse events associated with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were similar between PLWH and HIV-negative individuals. The seropositivity of neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2, of the total amount of antibody (total antibody) and of S-IgG were 71.3%, 81.9%, and 92.6%, respectively, among fully vaccinated PLWH. Among all participants, PLWH had lower neutralizing activity, total antibody, S-IgG, and T-cell-specific immune response levels, compared to HIV-negative individuals, after controlling for types of vaccine, time interval between first and second dose, time after receiving the second dose, and sociodemographic factors. PLWH with a longer interval since HIV diagnosis, who received their second dose 15-28 days prior to study commencement, and who had an interval of ≥21 days between first and second dose had higher neutralizing activity levels. The immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was lower among PLWH as compared to HIV-negative individuals. Vaccination guideline specific for PLWH should be developed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
2.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1383, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114711

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in the cities of Wuhan, Shenzhen, and Shijiazhuang in China. From January to April 2020, 38,144 healthy blood donors in the three cities were tested for total antibody against SARS-CoV-2 followed by pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, IgG, and IgM antibody testing. Finally, a total of 398 donors were confirmed positive. The age- and sex-standardized SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among 18-60 year-old adults (18-65 year-old in Shenzhen) was 2.66% (95% CI: 2.24%-3.07%) in Wuhan, 0.033% (95% CI: 0.0029%-0.267%) in Shenzhen, and 0.0028% (95% CI: 0.0001%-0.158%) in Shijiazhuang, respectively. Female sex and older-age were identified to be independent risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among blood donors in Wuhan. As most of the population of China remained uninfected during the early wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective public health measures are still certainly required to block viral spread before a vaccine is widely available.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Neutralization Tests , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(3): 300-309, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030468

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 threatens the whole world, which catalyzes a variety of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid test (NAT) kits. To monitor test quality and evaluate NAT kits, quality control materials that best simulate real clinical samples are needed. In this study, the performance of SARS-CoV-2 cell culture supernatant, PCDH-based pseudovirus, and MS2-based pseudovirus as quality control materials was compared. PCDH-based pseudovirus was found to be more similar in characteristics to SARS-CoV-2 particle, and more suitable for evaluating SARS-CoV-2 NAT kits than MS2-based pseudovirus. Proper detection using sensitive and precise NAT kits is essential to guarantee diagnosis. Thus, limit of detection, precision, anti-inference ability, and cross-reactivity of NAT kits from PerkinElmer, Beijing Wantai Biological Pharmacy Enterprise Co, Ltd, Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, Sansure Biotech Inc., Da An Gene Co, Ltd, Shanghai BioGerm Medical Biotechnology Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd, were compared using PCDH-based pseudovirus. For the seven kits evaluated, N gene was more sensitive than ORF1ab gene in most kits, whereas E gene was most sensitive among the three genes in Shanghai Kehua Bio-Engineering Co, Ltd, and Applied Biological Technologies Co, Ltd. PerkinElmer got the lowest limit of detection for N gene at 11.61 copies/mL, and the value was 34.66 copies/mL for ORF1ab gene. All of the kits showed good precision, with CV values less than 5%, as well as acceptable anti-interference ability of 2 mg/L human genomic DNA. No cross-reactivity was observed with other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans , Limit of Detection , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
5.
Transfus Med Rev ; 34(2): 75-80, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622874

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, a new coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), aroused the attention of the entire world. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 in China as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Two other coronavirus infections-SARS in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012-both caused severe respiratory syndrome in humans. All 3 of these emerging infectious diseases leading to a global spread are caused by ß-coronaviruses. Although coronaviruses usually infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, viral shedding in plasma or serum is common. Therefore, there is still a theoretical risk of transmission of coronaviruses through the transfusion of labile blood products. Because more and more asymptomatic infections are being found among COVID-19 cases, considerations of blood safety and coronaviruses have arisen especially in endemic areas. In this review, we detail current evidence and understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 through blood products as of February 10, 2020, and also discuss pathogen inactivation methods on coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Safety , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Public Health , Risk , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(3): e2106, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71880

ABSTRACT

Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases are global public concerns. With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China in December 2019, a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has been attracting tremendous attention. Rapid and accurate laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2 is essential for early discovery, early reporting, early quarantine, early treatment, and cutting off epidemic transmission. The genome structure, transmission, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are basically similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, the other two beta-CoVs of medical importance. During the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV epidemics, a variety of molecular and serological diagnostic assays were established and should be referred to for SARS-CoV-2. In this review, by summarizing the articles and guidelines about specimen collection, nucleic acid tests (NAT) and serological tests for SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, several suggestions are put forward to improve the laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, for NAT: collecting stool and blood samples at later periods of illness to improve the positive rate if lower respiratory tract specimens are unavailable; increasing template volume to raise the sensitivity of detection; putting samples in reagents containing guanidine salt to inactivate virus as well as protect RNA; setting proper positive, negative and inhibition controls to ensure high-quality results; simultaneously amplifying human RNase P gene to avoid false-negative results. For antibody test, diverse assays targeting different antigens, and collecting paired samples are needed.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , DNA Primers , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Ribonuclease P/genetics , Ribonuclease P/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1631-1633, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-32495

ABSTRACT

Because of high rates of 2019 novel coronavirus disease in Wuhan, China, Wuhan Blood Center began screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA on January 25, 2020. We screened donations in real-time and retrospectively and found plasma samples positive for viral RNA from 4 asymptomatic donors.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Donors , RNA, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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