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1.
China Journal of Leprosy and Skin Diseases ; 38(8):499-502, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954980

ABSTRACT

Background: Eight pm on April 13, 2022,a10:1 mixed test tube was found to be positive in the COVID-19 nucleic acid test site set up outside the hospital. In order to identify the infected case and control the spread of COVID-19 rapidly, we conducted this emergency investigation. Methods: According to the National COVID-19 Control and Prevention Protocol (8th edition), Guideline on Emergency Response to COVID-19 Case Found in Hospital in Shandong Province, and the Emergency Response Plan for COVID-19 in our hospital, information reporting, hospitalblockading, potential COVID- 19 cases tracing, close contact screening, environmental sampling and disinfecting, COVID-19 nucleic acid testing and risk assessment were carried out by our team. Results: A female COVID-19 case aged 50 years was identified. She is aodd-jobber who works in the labour market near the hospital. The virus strain was sequenced as Omicron BA.2. A total of 65 close contacts was controlled in a hotel. The COVID-19 nucleic acid test results for all the staff of hospital, environmental samples were negative. The risk of COVID-19 spread was controlled and the hospital restarted of clinical activities as normal at 8 am on April 14 after blockaded for 12 hours. Inthe following 7 days, the staff of the hospital were tested for COVID-19 nucleic acid twice a day, and the results were negative. Then the testing frequency changed to once a day. Conclusion: Formulating detailed and feasible COVID-19 emergency response plans based on the requirements of the public documents and the actual conditions of the hospital, is useful to improve the efficiency of emergency response to COVID-19 cases and save time for control of COVID-19 spread and restart the clinical activities of hospital. © 2022 Shandong Yinbao Technology Co. Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

2.
2022 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, NOMS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922758

ABSTRACT

Official statistics indicate that internet users all around the world watch more videos and play more games during the COVID-19 pandemic than at any time [18]. This unprecedented, challenging situation demands solutions to accommodate rapid growth while maintaining and/or enhancing the video quality. This paper proposes SODA-Stream, an SDN-based optimization framework for enhancing Quality-of-Experience (QoE) in DASH streaming. The optimization framework max-imizes the number of concurrent streaming sessions that can be accommodated in a network and maximize streaming quality. The practical implementation of the framework utilizes the dynamic routing and bandwidth allocation enabled by Software Defined Networking (SDN). The evaluation results show that SODA-Stream significantly outperforms the conventional network routing and resource allocation algorithms, accepting 52% more sessions, 45% improvement in bandwidth allocation, and 70% reduction in bandwidth wastage, smoother playback, and better viewing experience. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13313 LNCS:230-240, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919665

ABSTRACT

Social media is one of the most significant sources of information in modern people’s life. Due to the large quantity of user base and public opinions, when people read a blog post, the different tendencies of comments may affect their views on the event to a certain extent. This paper, taking the COVID-19 epidemic as an example, investigated the impact of Weibo (a popular social software in China) comments on readers’ sentiments. In this paper, text mining technology was adopted to collect data including the blogs and the comments under each blog, and the NLPIR-Parser platform was used to analyze the sentiment of the comments. Finally, the conclusion that the sentiments of other comments tend to follow the sentiments of the first comments was drawn. Based on the research results, this paper also gave some enlightenment on social media management and suggestions of public opinions oversight. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
International Journal of Innovation Management ; 26(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1909831

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has drawn great attention to environmental uncertainty. The current paper attempts to conceptually develop and empirically validate a research framework that explains how the firms' environmental uncertainty influences their innovation capability and stakeholder value. Drawing on contingency theory, resource dependence theory, and stakeholder theory, this study develops a conceptual framework for the related constructs and employs a partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to test the suggested framework. The empirical results validate both measurement (outer) and structural (inner) models. They indicate that environmental uncertainty is negatively associated with the innovation capability and stakeholder value while innovation capability is positively related to both internal and external stakeholder value. The results also show that internal stakeholder value positively affects external stakeholder value. Providing valuable insights into logistics and supply chain management, our study contributes to research in environmental uncertainty and innovation management based on the stakeholder theory. © 2022 World Scientific Publishing Europe Ltd.

5.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(5): 477-481, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911773

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, the COVID-19 disease caused by 2019-nCoV infection has continued to affect human health, posing a great threat to global public health. Several studies have shown that different degrees of liver injury can occur in patients with COVID-19, which is closely related with severe forms of the disease. Therefore, it is necessary for clinicians to further understand the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of COVID-19-associated liver injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Global Health , Humans
6.
Journal of Army Medical University ; 44(3):195-202, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903991

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct an XGBoost prediction model to predict disease severity of COVID-19 based on clinical characteristics dataset of COVID-19 patients.Methods A total of 347 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with complete medical information admitted from Feb 10 to April 5, 2020 were screened from the medical record system of Huoshenshan Hospital.Firstly, 21 features with significant differences were screened out as input features for the training model.Bayesian optimization was performed on the constructed XGBoost model to adjust the parameters, and the optimal combination of features was filtered based on feature importance.To further analyze the positive and negative effects of the numerical size of each feature on the prediction results, each feature importance was quantified and attributed by using SHapley Additive explanations (SHAP).Finally, the performance of the XGBoost prediction model was evaluated, and the model was compared and discussed with other machine learning methods, including support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes ( NB ) , logical regression ( LR) , and k-nearest neighbors ( KNN ).Results In this study, 21 features with significant differences between the severe and non-severe groups were selected for training and validation.The optimal subset with 10 features in the k-nearest neighbor model obtained the highest value of area under curve ( AUG) among the 4 models in the validation set.XGBoost and support vector machine were better than other machine learning methods in terms of prediction performance (AUG;0.942 0, and 0.959 4 on the test set, respectively) , and the training speed of XGBoost was significantly faster.Conclusion A prediction model based on XGBoost is successfully built to achieve early prediction of disease severity of GOVID-19 patients. © 2022 Journal of Army Medical University. All rights reserved.

7.
World Journal of Mens Health ; : 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897068

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the influences of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (CoronaVac) on male fertility and investigate the impact of a history of the CoronaVac vaccination in males on gamete and embryo development and in vitro fertilization Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study enrolled couples undergoing IVF cycles between June and August 2021 in China. According to the history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in males, the participants were divided into the vaccination group and the non-vaccination group. A self-controlled study of semen analyses for males before and after CoronaVac vaccination was conducted. Baseline characteristics were matched using propensity score matching. Participants were categorized into the unexposed group (non-vaccination) and exposed group (vaccination), and the population was 271 for each. Semen parameters and IVF outcomes were the main outcomes. Results: Generally, no statistically significant differences were exhibited between the matched cohorts regarding embryo developmental parameters, including fertilization rate, cleavage rate, high-quality embryo rate, blastocyst formation rate, and available blastocyst rate, as well as clinical outcomes, such as implantation rate, biochemical pregnancy rate, and clinical pregnancy rate. Moreover, males after vaccination seemed to have fluctuating semen parameters including increased semen volume, lower motility, and decreased normal forms of sperm, while the motile sperm counts were similar. In addition, all Conclusions: Our findings suggested that CoronaVac vaccinations in males may not have adverse effects on patient performance or the gamete and embryonic development potential during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments.

8.
Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies ; : 15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868485

ABSTRACT

Purpose This paper aims to reconceptualise entrenched supply chains associated with coffee production and consumption to digital supply chains for sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach A case study of seven small businesses involved with Philippine coffee is employed to examine how coffee value chains should be envisioned following COVID-19. Findings The COVID-19 pandemic reveals truncated barriers concerned with the lack of infrastructure, poverty cycles, sporadic workforce development policies and financial pressures that need to be redefined for coffee production and consumption to be more sustainable in the future. Research limitations/implications The study is restricted to a single country and a small pool of respondents that may not reflect similar practices in other regions or contexts. Originality/value This paper illuminates the plight of coffee farmers in an emerging production landscape of the Philippines, and develops new propositions to envision a digital value chain post-COVID-19.

9.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337392

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been ravaging throughout the world for more than two years and has severely impaired both human health and the economy. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) employs the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex for genome replication and transcription, making RdRp an appealing target for antiviral drug development. Here, we reveal that RdRp can recognize and utilize nucleoside diphosphates (NDPs) as a substrate to synthesize RNAs with an efficiency of about two thirds of using nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) as a substrate. NDPs incorporation is also template-specific and has high fidelity. Moreover, RdRp can incorporate β-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) into RNA while using diphosphate form molnupiravir (MDP) as a substrate. We also observed that MDP is a better substrate for RdRp than the triphosphate form molnupiravir (MTP).

10.
Frontiers in Surgery ; 9:9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855482

ABSTRACT

Background:& nbsp;The Visual Prostate Symptom Score (VPSS) is used for the assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It is usually administered by general practitioners (GPs), but in these cases, outcomes do not seem to be reflecting the real conditions of a patient well, with consequent risks of misestimations and misinterpretations. We developed an electronic audiovisual version of VPSS (EPSS), a new symptom scale based on a telemedicine mobile light-based app. The aim of this study is to test and evaluate its reliability.& nbsp;Methods:& nbsp;We enrolled male patients aged between 50 and 80 years across 24 community-based healthcare facilities in Guangzhou, China. Patients were asked to complete the Chinese version of VPSS and EPSS before consultation with the urology specialists. Patients were divided into two groups based on age. First, we analyzed the rate of full understanding of EPSS using a chi-square test. Then, we analyzed the difference between each score of EPSS, VPSS, and outcomes measured by specialists, used as the reference score (RS). Finally, the outcomes were analyzed with the Spearman test and Bartlett test separately.& nbsp;Results:& nbsp;Seventy-nine male patients were included (mean age 70.42 years). Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (> 70 years, n = 40) and group 2 (< 70 years, n = 39). The full-understanding rates in groups 1 and 2 were 50% and 64.1%, respectively. No significant differences were noted between groups (p = 0.206). A t-test was presented between each question of VPSS, EPSS, and RS. All questions did not display significant differences (p > 0.05);total scores from the three scales had no significant differences in the evaluation of LUTS. We further explored the variations of choices made by patients in different scales. Spearman's test among VPSS, EPSS, and RS showed positive correlations, and coefficients of the total score were 0.92, 0.91, and 0.93 (p < 0.05).& nbsp;Conclusion:& nbsp;EPSS can be easily used in a significant number of patients and showed correlation with the VPSS and RS. Moreover, certain items resulted in better performance than VPSS. The results showed that EPSS could be a valuable option for both patients and GPs monitoring LUTS and particularly helpful when teleconsultations are considered, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Epidemiology ; 70(SUPPL 1):S306, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1854027

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychological well-being of older adults may have been negatively affected by the outbreak of the COVID- 19 epidemic due to the presence of comorbidity, increased risk of complications, mortality, and difficulty in adapting to mhealth and social isolation. The study aimed to investigate the anxiety level of community older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic and explore its associated factors, so that there can be more evidence-based advice to improve the mental health status for the older adults. Methods: Online questionnaires and face to face communication were used to investigate 320 community older adults, who were selected randomly. The questionnaires were used to investigate the sociodemographic characteristics, anxiety and resilience level of the participants. One-way ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis were performed to explore the factors associated with the anxiety among the older adults. Results: The mean of the anxiety among the all participants is 44.03±10.89 and 128 persons (40%) suffer from the anxiety (mild anxiety: 84.38%, moderate anxiety: 14.06%, severe anxiety: 14.06%). The mean of resilience is 56.68±18.26, and the three dimensions of CD-RISC is negative correlation with the anxiety. The SAS can be influenced by the chronic disease history (P=0.045), physical health conditions (P=0.024), economic income (P=0.026), the health education of the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.001) and the level of resilience (P=0.002). Conclusions: The morbidity and score of the anxiety among the community older adults are higher during the COVID-19 epidemic than the usual. While the score of the CD-RISC is lower than the previous studies. Anxiety emerged as a prominent issue for community- dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interventions that targeted resilience may have the potential to reduce anxiety level and improve the psychological well-being of the older adults.

12.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(2):118-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843202

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has rapidly spread to many countries worldwide. The initial reports showed that the incidence rate in adults was higher, while children and adolescents had fewer cases of infection. However, the number of COVID-19 cases has gradually increased in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the percentage of children and/or adolescents of the total patients diagnosed with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to find relevant studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataMP 14 software. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The final results showed that the percentage of children and/or adolescents of all COVID-19 cases was 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.07], which meant an average of 6 cases in children per 10,000 COVID-19 cases. The percentage of children and/or adolescents with COVID-19 was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.00-0.10) in Asia, South America, North America and Europe, respectively. The present study showed a low percentage of COVID-19 cases of children and/or adolescents, but not without infection risk. Therefore, we should pay attention to the cases of children and/or adolescents during the COVID-19 period and raise our vigilance. © 2022, Medcom Limited. All rights reserved.

13.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822124

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to human health and there is an urgent need for drug development. In this study, we explored the potential mechanisms underlying the efficacy of polydatin against COVID-19. Methods: A combined approach of network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental verification were employed in this study. Potential targets of polydatin for treating COVID-19 were obtained from multiple drug and disease databases. Protein–protein interaction and enrichment analyses were performed to predict the potential mechanism of action of polydatin against COVID-19. The binding potential of polydatin and key targets was evaluated through molecular docking. Furthermore, experimental methods including flow cytometry and luciferase assay were used to validate the results of computational analyses. Results: The main diseases identified as polydatin targets included metabolic diseases, lung diseases, inflammation, infectious diseases, and tumors. Polydatin may be used to treat COVID-19 through interventions that alter the immune and inflammatory responses, including IL-17 signaling pathway, T-cell activation, cytokines and inflammatory response, lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway, as well as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) innate immunity evasion and cell-specific immune response. Polydatin can potentially bind to the target proteins related to COVID-19, such as SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, RdRp, and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), while directly exerting its regulatory or therapeutic functions. The experimental results showed that polydatin decreased the infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirus in HEK293T-ACE2 cells. Accordingly, polydatin may retard the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells by competitively binding to human ACE2. Conclusion: The potential targets and signaling pathways of polydatin against COVID-19 were preliminarily identified. The findings may benefit the development and application of polydatin as a treatment for COVID-19.

15.
Nature Machine Intelligence ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1805663

ABSTRACT

In the version of this article initially published, the first name of Chuansheng Zheng was misspelled as Chuangsheng. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. © The Author(s) 2022.

16.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate COVID-19 is common. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. METHODS: Ninety-five outpatients self-collected mid-turbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. Samples were tested for viral RNA, virus culture, and SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronavirus antibodies, and associations were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Viral RNA clearance, as measured by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, in 507 URT samples occurred a median (IQR) 33.5 (17-63.5) days post-symptom onset. Sixteen nasal-OP samples collected 2-11 days post-symptom onset were virus culture positive out of 183 RT-PCR positive samples tested. All participants but one with positive virus culture were negative for concomitant oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The mean time to first antibody detection in oral fluid was 8-13 days post-symptom onset. A longer time to first detection of oral fluid anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies (aHR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.020) and BMI >= 25kg/m 2 (aHR 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.78, p=0.009) were independently associated with a longer time to SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA clearance. Fever as one of first three COVID-19 symptoms correlated with shorter time to viral RNA clearance (aHR 2.06, 95% CI 1.02-4.18, p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that delayed rise of oral fluid SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, elevated BMI, and absence of early fever are independently associated with delayed URT viral RNA clearance.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22273653

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 first emerged on the Chinese mainland in January 2022 in Tianjin and caused a large wave of infections. During mass PCR testing, a total of 430 cases infected with Omicron were recorded between January 8 and February 7, 2022, with no new infections detected for the following 16 days. Most patients had been vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccines. The disease profile associated with BA.1 infection, especially after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, is unclear. Whether BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving inactivated vaccine could create a strong enough humoral immunity barrier against Omicron is not yet investigated. MethodsWe collected the clinical information and vaccination history of the 430 COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron BA.1. Re-positive cases and inflammation markers were monitored during the patients convalescence phase. Ordered multiclass logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity. Authentic virus neutralization assays against SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, Beta and Omicron BA.1 were conducted to examine the plasma neutralizing titers induced after post-vaccination Omicron BA.1 infection, and were compared to a group of uninfected healthy individuals who were selected to have a matched vaccination profile. FindingsAmong the 430 patients, 316 (73.5%) were adults with a median age of 47 years, and 114 (26.5%) were under-age with a median age of 10 years. Female and male patients account for 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with mild (47.7%) to moderate diseases (50.2%), with only 2 severe cases (0.5%) and 7 (1.6%) asymptomatic infections. No death was recorded. 341 (79.3%) of the 430 patients received inactivated vaccines (54.3% BBIBP-CorV vs. 45.5% CoronaVac), 49 (11.4%) received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (Ad5-nCoV), 2 (0.5%) received recombinant protein subunit vaccines (ZF2001), and 38 (8.8%) received no vaccination. No vaccination is associated with a substantially higher ICU admission rate among Omicron BA.1 infected patients (2.0% for vaccinated patients vs. 23.7% for unvaccinated patients, P<0.001). Compared with adults, child patients presented with less severe illness (82.5% mild cases for children vs. 35.1% for adults, P<0.001), no ICU admission, fewer comorbidities (3.5% vs. 53.2%, P<0.001), and less chance of turning re-positive on nucleic acid tests (12.3% vs. 22.5%, P=0.019). For adult patients, compared with no prior vaccination, receiving 3 doses of inactivated vaccine was associated with significantly lower risk of severe disease (OR 0.227 [0.065-0.787], P=0.020), less ICU admission (OR 0.023 [0.002-0.214], P=0.001), lower re-positive rate on PCR (OR 0.240 [0.098-0.587], P=0.002), and shorter duration of hospitalization and recovery (OR 0.233 [0.091-0.596], P=0.002). At the beginning of the convalescence phase, patients who had received 3 doses of inactivated vaccine had substantially lower systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and C-reactive protein than unvaccinated patients, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio, activated Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were higher compared to their 2-dose counterparts, suggesting that receipt of 3 doses of inactivated vaccine could step up inflammation resolution after infection. Plasma neutralization titers against Omicron, Beta, and wildtype significantly increased after breakthrough infection with Omicron. Moderate symptoms were associated with higher plasma neutralization titers than mild symptoms. However, vaccination profiles prior to infection, whether 2 doses versus 3 doses or types of vaccines, had no significant effect on post-infection neutralization titer. Among recipients of 3 doses of CoronaVac, infection with Omicron BA.1 largely increased neutralization titers against Omicron BA.1 (8.7x), Beta (4.5x), and wildtype (2.2x), compared with uninfected healthy individuals who have a matched vaccination profile. InterpretationReceipt of 3-dose inactivated vaccines can substantially reduce the disease severity of Omicron BA.1 infection, with most vaccinated patients presenting with mild to moderate illness. Child patients present with less severe disease than adult patients after infection. Omicron BA.1 convalescents who had received inactivated vaccines showed significantly increased plasma neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron BA.1, Beta, and wildtype SARS-CoV-2 compared with vaccinated healthy individuals. FundingThis research is supported by Changping Laboratory (CPL-1233) and the Emergency Key Program of Guangzhou Laboratory (EKPG21-30-3), sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Peoples Republic of China. Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSPrevious studies (many of which have not been peer-reviewed) have reported inconsistent findings regarding the effect of inactivated vaccines against the Omicron variant. On Mar 6, 2022, we searched PubMed with the query "(SARS-CoV-2) AND ((Neutralisation) OR (Neutralisation)) AND ((Omicron) OR (BA.1)) AND (inactivated vaccine)", without date or language restrictions. This search identified 18 articles, of which 13 were directly relevant. Notably, the participants in many of these studies have received only one or two doses of inactivated vaccine with heterologous booster vaccination; other studies have a limited number of participants receiving inactivated vaccines. Added value of this studyTo date, this is the first study to report on the protective effect of inactivated vaccines against the severe disease caused by the Omicron variant. We examine and compare the disease profile of adults and children. Furthermore, we estimate the effect of post-vaccination omicron infection on plasma neutralization titers against Omicron and other SARS-COV-2 variants. Specifically, the disease profile of Omicron convalescents who had received two-dose primary series of inactivated vaccines with or without a booster dose prior to infection is compared with unvaccinated patients. We also analyzed the effect of infection on neutralizing activity by comparing vaccinated convalescents with vaccinated healthy individuals with matched vaccination profiles. Implications of all the available evidenceCompared with adults, child patients infected with Omicron tend to present with less severe disease and are less likely to turn re-positive on nucleic acid tests. Receipt of two-dose primary series or three doses of inactivated vaccine is a protective factor against severe disease, ICU admission, re-positive PCR and longer hospitalization. The protection afforded by a booster dose is stronger than two-dose primary series alone. Besides vaccination, infection with Omicron is also a key factor for elevated neutralizing antibody titers, enabling cross-neutralization against Omicron, wildtype (WT) and the Beta variant.

18.
Blood ; 138(SUPPL 1):3525, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1770434

ABSTRACT

Background - The WINDOW-1 regimen introduced first-line ibrutinib with rituximab (IR) followed by 4 cycles of R-HCVAD for younger mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients (pts) demonstrating 90% CR on IR alone and we aimed to improve the CR rate with the addition of venetoclax. We therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of IR and venetoclax (IRV) followed by risk-stratified observation or short course R-HCVAD/MTX-ARA-C as consolidation in previously untreated young patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Our aim was to use a triplet chemotherapy-free induction to reduce the toxicity, complications and minimize chemotherapy exposure in MCL pts. Methods - We enrolled 50 previously untreated pts in this single institution, single arm, phase II clinical trial - NCT03710772. Pts received IR induction (Part-1) for initial 4 cycles. Pts were restaged at cycle 4 and received IRV for up to eight cycles (Cycle 5 to Cycle 12) starting with ramp up venetoclax dosing in Cycle 5. All pts who achieved CR prior to cycle 12 continued to receive IRV for 4 cycles (maximum 12 cycles) and then moved to part 2. Pts were stratified into three disease risk groups: high, moderate and low risk categories from the baseline data for assignment to R-HCVAD/MTX-ARA-C as consolidation in part 2 (4 cycles, 2 cycles, or no chemotherapy for high, medium and low risk pts respectively). Briefly, low risk pts were those with Ki-67 ≤30%, largest tumor mass <3 cm, low MIPI score and no features of high risk disease (Ki-67 ≥50%, mutations in the TP53, NSD2 or in NOTCH genes, complex karyotype or del17p, MYC positive, or largest tumor diameter >5 cm or blastoid/pleomorphic histology or if they remain in PR after 12 cycles of part 1. Medium risk are pts which did not belong to low or high-risk category. Those who experienced progression on part 1 went to part 2 and get 4 cycles of part 2. Patient were taken off protocol but not off study, if they remained in PR after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, these patients were followed up for time to next treatment and progression free survival on subsequent therapies. After part 2 consolidation, all pts received 2 years of IRV maintenance. The primary objective was to assess CR rates after IRV induction. Adverse events were coded as per CTCAE version 4. Molecular studies are being performed. Results - Among the 50 pts, the median age was 57 years (range - 35-65). There were 20 pts in high-risk group, 20 pts in intermediate-risk group and 10 pts in low-risk group. High Ki-67 (≥30%) in 18/50 (36%) pts. Eighteen (36%) had high and intermediate risk simplified MIPI scores. Six (12%) pts had aggressive MCL (blastoid/pleomorphic). Among the 24 TP53 evaluable pts, eight pts (33%) had TP53 aberrations (mutated and/or TP53 deletion by FISH). Forty-eight pts received IRV. Best response to IRV was 96% and CR of 92%. After part 2, the best ORR remained unaltered, 96% (92% CR and 4% PR). The median number of cycles of triplet IRV to reach best response was 8 cycles (range 2-12). Fifteen pts (30%) did not receive part 2 chemotherapy, two pts (4%) received 1 cycle, 16 pts (32%) 2 cycles and 13 pts (26%) got 4 cycles of chemotherapy. With a median follow up of 24 months, the median PFS and OS were not reached (2 year 92% and 90% respectively). The median PFS and OS was not reached and not significantly different in pts with high and low Ki-67% or with/without TP53 aberrations or among pts with low, medium or high-risk categories. The median PFS and OS was inferior in blastoid/pleomorphic MCL pts compared to classic MCL pts (p=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). Thirteen pts (26%) came off study - 5 for adverse events, 3 for on study deaths, and 2 for patient choice, 2 patients lost to follow up and one for disease progression. Overall, 5 pts died (3 on trial and 2 pts died off study, one due to progressive disease and another due to COVID pneumonia). Grade 3-4 toxicities on part 1 were 10% myelosuppression and 10% each with fatigue, myalgia and rashes and 3% mucositis. One pt developed grade 3 atrial flutter on part 1. None had grade 3-4 bleeding/bruising. Conclusions - Chemotherapy-free induction with IRV induced durable and deep responses in young MCL pts in the frontline setting. WINDOW-2 approach suggests that pts with low risk MCL do not need chemotherapy but further follow up is warranted. This combined modality treatment approach significantly improves outcomes of young MCL pts across all risk groups. Detailed molecular analyses will be reported. (Figure Presented).

19.
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759123

ABSTRACT

AlGaN germicidal ultraviolet (GUV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) are one of the most promising disinfection technologies in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic;however, GUV LEDs are still lacking in efficiency due to low p-type doping efficiency in p-AlGaN. The most successful approach for producing conductive p-type AlGaN is the implementation of a polarization-enhanced short period AlxGa1-xN/ AlyGa1-yN superlattice (SL) structure, which enhances hole injection and reduces device operating voltage. In this report, we investigated different aspects of the superlattice including the AlxGa1-xN and AlyGa1-yN alloy constituent compositions, x and y, period thickness, total thickness, and Mg dopant concentration in terms of LED performance as well as electrical, optical, and morphological characteristics. The polarization-enhanced p-type doping in the AlGaN superlattice was also investigated computationally, giving excellent agreement with experimental results. Highly efficient UVC LEDs (279 nm) with EQE of 2% at 5 A/cm2 were demonstrated. A maximum output power of 5.5 mW (56 mW/mm2) was achieved at 100 mA. IEEE

20.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S361, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746477

ABSTRACT

Background. BRII-196 and BRII-198 are human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with an extended half-life targeting distinct epitopes of the spike protein on SARSCoV-2. Mutations in these epitope regions are continuously emerging, potentially conferring resistance to COVID-19 therapeutics in development. Individual phase I studies showed that BRII-196 or BRII-198 alone were safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. The BRII-196 and BRII-198 cocktail is currently under evaluation in Phase 2/3 studies for the treatment of COVID-19. Methods. Preclinical study: BRII-196 and BRII-198 were evaluated in the microneutralization assay using pseudo-viruses encoding mutations identified in the spike protein of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns, including strains originating in UK, SA, BR, CA, and India. The fold-change in neutralization IC50 titers relative to wild-type virus was calculated. Phase 1 study: healthy adults received sequential IV BRII-196 and BRII-198 (n=9) or placebo (n=3);and were followed for 180 days. Two dose levels (750mg/750mg and 1500mg/1500mg) were evaluated for safety, pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity. Interim analysis results are presented. Results. Preclinical: BRII-196 and BRII-198 exhibited neutralizing activity against pseudo-virus variants that contained spike mutations of a panel of variants including B.1.1.7 (UK), B.1.351(SA), P.1(BR), B.1.427/429 (CA), B.1.526 (NY), and B.1.617 (IN), comparable to that against wild-type virus. Phase I study: BRII-196 plus BRII-198 was well tolerated with no dose-limiting adverse events (AEs), deaths, serious adverse events, or infusion reactions. The majority of AEs were isolated asymptomatic grade 1-2 laboratory abnormalities. (Table 1). Each mAb displayed pharmacokinetic characteristics expected of extended half-life YTE-antibodies. Conclusion. The BRII-196 and BRII-198 cocktail was well-tolerated, and maintains neutralization against currently reported circulating variants of concern. These preclinical and clinical results support further development of BRII-196 and BRII-198 as a therapeutic or prophylactic option for SARS-CoV-2.

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