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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1106837, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268541

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac cannot elicit high efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19, especially against the Omicron variant, but that can be improved by a third dose in adults. The use of a third dose of CoronaVac in adolescents may be supported by immunobridging studies in the absence of efficacy data. Methods: With an immunobridging design, our study (NCT04800133) tested the non-inferiority of the binding and neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses induced by a third dose of CoronaVac in healthy adolescents (N=94, median age 14.2 years, 56% male) compared to adults (N=153, median age 48.1 years, 44% male). Responses against wild-type (WT) and BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 were compared in adolescents. Safety and reactogenicity were also monitored. Results: A homologous third dose of CoronaVac further enhanced antibody response in adolescents compared to just 2 doses. Adolescents mounted non-inferior antibody and T cell responses compared to adults. Although S IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to BA.1 were lower than to WT, they remained detectable in 96% and 86% of adolescents. T cell responses to peptide pools spanning only the mutations of BA.1 S, N and M in adolescents were preserved, increased, and halved compared to WT respectively. No safety concerns were identified. Discussion: The primary vaccination series of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for adolescents should include 3 doses for improved humoral immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Adolescent , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Neutralizing
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 982155, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089843

ABSTRACT

Our study (NCT04800133) aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity in patients with IEIs receiving a 3-dose primary series of mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (age 12+) or inactivated whole-virion vaccine CoronaVac (age 3+) in Hong Kong, including Omicron BA.1 neutralization, in a nonrandomized manner. Intradermal vaccination was also studied. Thirty-nine patients were vaccinated, including 16 with homologous intramuscular 0.3ml BNT162b2 and 17 with homologous intramuscular 0.5ml CoronaVac. Two patients received 3 doses of intradermal 0.5ml CoronaVac, and 4 patients received 2 doses of intramuscular BNT162b2 and the third dose with intradermal BNT162b2. No safety concerns were identified. Inadequate S-RBD IgG and surrogate virus neutralization responses were found after 2 doses in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies and especially so against BA.1. Dose 3 of either vaccine increased S-RBD IgG response. T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens were detected in vaccinated IEI patients by intracellular cytokine staining on flow cytometry. Intradermal third dose vaccine led to high antibody response in 4 patients. The primary vaccination series of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in adults and children with IEIs should include 3 doses for optimal immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045986

ABSTRACT

Our study (NCT04800133) aimed to determine the safety and immunogenicity in patients with IEIs receiving a 3-dose primary series of mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 (age 12+) or inactivated whole-virion vaccine CoronaVac (age 3+) in Hong Kong, including Omicron BA.1 neutralization, in a nonrandomized manner. Intradermal vaccination was also studied. Thirty-nine patients were vaccinated, including 16 with homologous intramuscular 0.3ml BNT162b2 and 17 with homologous intramuscular 0.5ml CoronaVac. Two patients received 3 doses of intradermal 0.5ml CoronaVac, and 4 patients received 2 doses of intramuscular BNT162b2 and the third dose with intradermal BNT162b2. No safety concerns were identified. Inadequate S-RBD IgG and surrogate virus neutralization responses were found after 2 doses in patients with humoral immunodeficiencies and especially so against BA.1. Dose 3 of either vaccine increased S-RBD IgG response. T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens were detected in vaccinated IEI patients by intracellular cytokine staining on flow cytometry. Intradermal third dose vaccine led to high antibody response in 4 patients. The primary vaccination series of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in adults and children with IEIs should include 3 doses for optimal immunogenicity. Graphical

4.
Sci Adv ; 7(50): eabi6802, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559211

ABSTRACT

Limited understanding of T cell responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has impeded vaccine development and drug discovery for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We found that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2) was induced in T cells in the blood and lungs of patients with COVID-19. After binding to SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein through its immunoglobulin domain, TREM-2 then activated the CD3ζ/ZAP70 complex, leading to STAT1 phosphorylation and T-bet transcription. In vitro stimulation with M protein-reconstituted pseudovirus or recombinant M protein, and TREM-2 promoted the T helper cell 1 (TH1) cytokines interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor. In vivo infection of CD4­TREM-2 conditional knockout mice with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus A-59 showed that intrinsic TREM-2 in T cells enhanced TH1 response and viral clearance, thus aggravating lung destruction. These findings demonstrate a previously unidentified role for TREM-2 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and suggest potential strategies for drug discovery and clinical management of COVID-19.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 147, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177091
8.
MedComm (2020) ; 1(3): 270-301, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807359

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs), a subfamily of coronavirinae, are a panel of single-stranded RNA virus. Human coronavirus (HCoV) strains (HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63) usually cause mild upper respiratory diseases and are believed to be harmless. However, other HCoVs, associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and COVID-19, have been identified as important pathogens due to their potent infectivity and lethality worldwide. Moreover, currently, no effective antiviral drugs treatments are available so far. In this review, we summarize the biological characters of HCoVs, their association with human diseases, and current therapeutic options for the three severe HCoVs. We also highlight the discussion about novel treatment strategies for HCoVs infections.

9.
Nature ; 586(7830): 572-577, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691301

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. An effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. As an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells1,2. Here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises residues 319-545 of the RBD of the spike protein induces a potent functional antibody response in immunized mice, rabbits and non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) as early as 7 or 14 days after the injection of a single vaccine dose. The sera from the immunized animals blocked the binding of the RBD to ACE2, which is expressed on the cell surface, and neutralized infection with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Notably, vaccination also provided protection in non-human primates to an in vivo challenge with SARS-CoV-2. We found increased levels of RBD-specific antibodies in the sera of patients with COVID-19. We show that several immune pathways and CD4 T lymphocytes are involved in the induction of the vaccine antibody response. Our findings highlight the importance of the RBD domain in the design of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and provide a rationale for the development of a protective vaccine through the induction of antibodies against the RBD domain.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Animal , Models, Molecular , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum/immunology , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
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