Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Nature ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921637

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 have surged notably to become dominant in the United States and South Africa, respectively1,2. These new subvariants carrying further mutations in their spike proteins raise concerns that they may further evade neutralizing antibodies, thereby further compromising the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutic monoclonals. We now report findings from a systematic antigenic analysis of these surging Omicron subvariants. BA.2.12.1 is only modestly (1.8-fold) more resistant to sera from vaccinated and boosted individuals than BA.2. However, BA.4/5 is substantially (4.2-fold) more resistant and thus more likely to lead to vaccine breakthrough infections. Mutation at spike residue L452 found in both BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 facilitates escape from some antibodies directed to the so-called class 2 and 3 regions of the receptor-binding domain3. The F486V mutation found in BA.4/5 facilitates escape from certain class 1 and 2 antibodies but compromises the spike affinity for the viral receptor. The R493Q reversion mutation, however, restores receptor affinity and consequently the fitness of BA.4/5. Among therapeutic antibodies authorized for clinical use, only bebtelovimab retains full potency against both BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5. The Omicron lineage of SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, successively yielding subvariants that are not only more transmissible but also more evasive to antibodies.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337674

ABSTRACT

The Omicron subvariant BA.2 accounts for a large majority of the SARS-CoV-2 infection worldwide today 1 . However, its recent descendants BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 have surged dramatically to become dominant in the United States and South Africa, respectively 2,3 . That these novel Omicron subvariants carry additional mutations in their spike proteins raises concerns that they may further evade neutralizing antibodies, thereby further compromising the efficacy of our COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutic monoclonals. We now report findings from a systematic antigenic analysis of these surging Omicron subvariants. BA.2.12.1 is only modestly (1.8-fold) more resistant to sera from vaccinated and boosted individuals than BA.2. On the other hand, BA.4/5 is substantially (4.2-fold) more resistant and thus more likely to lead to vaccine breakthrough infections. Mutation at spike residue L452 found in both BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 facilitates escape from some antibodies directed to the so-called Class 2 and Class 3 regions of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) 4 . The F486V mutation found in BA.4/5 facilitates escape from certain Class 1 and Class 2 antibodies to the RBD but compromises the spike affinity for the cellular receptor ACE2. The R493Q reversion mutation, however, restores receptor affinity and consequently the fitness of BA.4/5. Among therapeutic antibodies authorized for clinical use, only bebtelovimab (LY-COV1404) retains full potency against both BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5. The Omicron lineage of SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, successively yielding subvariants that are not only more transmissible but also more evasive to antibodies.

3.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(3): 100080, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819525

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 antigen-based tests are well-calibrated to infectiousness and have a critical role to play in the COVID-19 public health response. We report the development and performance of a unique lateral flow immunoassay (LFA). Methods: Combinations of several monoclonal antibodies targeting multiple antigenic sites on the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) were isolated, evaluated, and chosen for the development of a LFA termed CoV-SCAN (BioMedomics, Inc.). Clinical point-of-care studies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals were conducted to evaluate positive predictive agreement (PPA) and negative predictive agreement (NPA) with RT-PCR as comparator. Results: In laboratory testing, CoV-SCAN detected 14 recombinant N-proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants with sensitivity in the range of 0.2-3.2 ng/mL, and 10 authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants with sensitivity in the range of 1.6-12.5 TCID50/swab. No cross reactivity was observed with other human coronaviruses or other respiratory pathogens. In clinical point-of-care testing on 148 individuals over age 2 with symptoms of ≤5 days, PPA was 87.2% (CI 95: 78.3-94.8%) and NPA was 100% (CI 95: 94.2-100%). In another 884 asymptomatic individuals, PPA was 85.7% (CI 95: 42.1-99.6%) and 99.7% (99.0-99.9%). Overall, CoV-SCAN detected over 97.2% of specimens with CT values <30 and 93.8% of nasal swab specimens with the Omicron variant, even within the first 2 days after symptom onset. Conclusions: The unique construction of CoV-SCAN using two pairs of monoclonal antibodies has resulted in a test with high performance that remains durable across multiple variants in both laboratory and clinical evaluations. CoV-SCAN should identify almost all individuals harboring infectious SARS-CoV-2. Summary: Unique construction of a point-of-care rapid antigen test using two pairs of monoclonal antibodies has led to good performance that remained durable across multiple variants in laboratory and clinical evaluations. Test should identify almost all individuals harboring infectious SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(646): eabn6859, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794534

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses, suggesting that 10-40 is a promising agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses but also uncovered a distinct antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Circ Res ; 130(7): 963-977, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that cardiac arrhythmias are frequent clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Sinus node damage may lead to bradycardia. However, it is challenging to explore human sinoatrial node (SAN) pathophysiology due to difficulty in isolating and culturing human SAN cells. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be a source to derive human SAN-like pacemaker cells for disease modeling. METHODS: We used both a hamster model and human ESC (hESC)-derived SAN-like pacemaker cells to explore the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on the pacemaker cells of the heart. In the hamster model, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to detect viral RNA and protein, respectively. We then created a dual knock-in SHOX2:GFP;MYH6:mCherry hESC reporter line to establish a highly efficient strategy to derive functional human SAN-like pacemaker cells, which was further characterized by single-cell RNA sequencing. Following exposure to SARS-CoV-2, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and RNA sequencing were used to confirm infection and determine the host response of hESC-SAN-like pacemaker cells. Finally, a high content chemical screen was performed to identify drugs that can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection, and block SARS-CoV-2-induced ferroptosis. RESULTS: Viral RNA and spike protein were detected in SAN cells in the hearts of infected hamsters. We established an efficient strategy to derive from hESCs functional human SAN-like pacemaker cells, which express pacemaker markers and display SAN-like action potentials. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection causes dysfunction of human SAN-like pacemaker cells and induces ferroptosis. Two drug candidates, deferoxamine and imatinib, were identified from the high content screen, able to block SARS-CoV-2 infection and infection-associated ferroptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Using a hamster model, we showed that primary pacemaker cells in the heart can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. Infection of hESC-derived functional SAN-like pacemaker cells demonstrates ferroptosis as a potential mechanism for causing cardiac arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19. Finally, we identified candidate drugs that can protect the SAN cells from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ferroptosis , Humans , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinoatrial Node/metabolism
6.
Nature ; 604(7906): 553-556, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721546

ABSTRACT

The identification of the Omicron (B.1.1.529.1 or BA.1) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Botswana in November 20211 immediately caused concern owing to the number of alterations in the spike glycoprotein that could lead to antibody evasion. We2 and others3-6 recently reported results confirming such a concern. Continuing surveillance of the evolution of Omicron has since revealed the rise in prevalence of two sublineages, BA.1 with an R346K alteration (BA.1+R346K, also known as BA.1.1) and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), with the latter containing 8 unique spike alterations and lacking 13 spike alterations found in BA.1. Here we extended our studies to include antigenic characterization of these new sublineages. Polyclonal sera from patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 or recipients of current mRNA vaccines showed a substantial loss in neutralizing activity against both BA.1+R346K and BA.2, with drops comparable to that already reported for BA.1 (refs. 2,3,5,6). These findings indicate that these three sublineages of Omicron are antigenically equidistant from the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and thus similarly threaten the efficacies of current vaccines. BA.2 also exhibited marked resistance to 17 of 19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies tested, including S309 (sotrovimab)7, which had retained appreciable activity against BA.1 and BA.1+R346K (refs. 2-4,6). This finding shows that no authorized monoclonal antibody therapy could adequately cover all sublineages of the Omicron variant, except for the recently authorized LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327483

ABSTRACT

The identification of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529.1 or BA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in Botswana in November 2021 1 immediately raised alarms due to the sheer number of mutations in the spike glycoprotein that could lead to striking antibody evasion. We 2 and others 3–6 recently reported results in this Journal confirming such a concern. Continuing surveillance of Omicron evolution has since revealed the rise in prevalence of two sublineages, BA.1 with an R346K mutation (BA.1+R346K) and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), with the latter containing 8 unique spike mutations while lacking 13 spike mutations found in BA.1. We therefore extended our studies to include antigenic characterization of these new sublineages. Polyclonal sera from patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 or recipients of current mRNA vaccines showed a substantial loss in neutralizing activity against both BA.1+R346K and BA.2, with drops comparable to that already reported for BA.1 2,3,5,6 . These findings indicate that these three sublineages of Omicron are antigenically equidistant from the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and thus similarly threaten the efficacies of current vaccines. BA.2 also exhibited marked resistance to 17 of 19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies tested, including S309 (sotrovimab) 7 , which had retained appreciable activity against BA.1 and BA.1+R346K 2–4,6 . This new finding shows that no presently approved or authorized monoclonal antibody therapy could adequately cover all sublineages of the Omicron variant.

8.
Nature ; 602(7898): 676-681, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616993

ABSTRACT

The B.1.1.529/Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings of our study. Here we found that B.1.1.529 is markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from patients who recovered from COVID-19, but also from individuals who were vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from individuals who were vaccinated and received a booster dose of mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies against all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 17 out of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones that are currently authorized or approved for use in patients. Moreover, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance on B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296805

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings from our study. We found B.1.1.529 to be markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from convalescent patients, but also from individuals vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from persons vaccinated and boosted with mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies to all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 18 of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones currently authorized or approved for use in patients. In addition, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S, and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance to B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296804

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses and thus its promise as an agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses, but also uncovered a new antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 147-157, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537457

ABSTRACT

The repeated emergence of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses as well as their evolving variants highlight the need to develop potent and broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. By screening monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from COVID-19-convalescent patients, we found one mAb, 2-36, with cross-neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV. We solved the cryo-EM structure of 2-36 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV spike, revealing a highly conserved epitope in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Antibody 2-36 neutralized not only all current circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-COV, but also a panel of bat and pangolin sarbecoviruses that can use human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor. We selected 2-36-escape viruses in vitro and confirmed that K378 T in SARS-CoV-2 RBD led to viral resistance. Taken together, 2-36 represents a strategic reserve drug candidate for the prevention and treatment of possible diseases caused by pre-emergent SARS-related coronaviruses. Its epitope defines a promising target for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Vero Cells
13.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109928, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466096

ABSTRACT

Antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 target mainly the receptor-binding domain or the N-terminal domain (NTD). Over a dozen potently neutralizing NTD-directed antibodies have been studied structurally, and all target a single antigenic supersite in NTD (site 1). Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of a potent NTD-directed neutralizing antibody 5-7, which recognizes a site distinct from other potently neutralizing antibodies, inserting a binding loop into an exposed hydrophobic pocket between the two sheets of the NTD ß sandwich. Interestingly, this pocket was previously identified as the binding site for hydrophobic molecules, including heme metabolites, but we observe that their presence does not substantially impede 5-7 recognition. Mirroring its distinctive binding, antibody 5-7 retains neutralization potency with many variants of concern (VOCs). Overall, we reveal that a hydrophobic pocket in NTD proposed for immune evasion can be used by the immune system for recognition.

14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(5): 747-751.e4, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188412

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about altered sensitivity to antibody-mediated immunity. The relative resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to antibody neutralization has been recently investigated. We report that another emergent variant from Brazil, P.1, is not only refractory to multiple neutralizing monoclonal antibodies but also more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma and vaccinee sera. The magnitude of resistance is greater for monoclonal antibodies than vaccinee sera and evident with both pseudovirus and authentic P.1 virus. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of a soluble prefusion-stabilized spike reveals that the P.1 trimer adopts exclusively a conformation in which one of the receptor-binding domains is in the "up" position, which is known to facilitate binding to entry receptor ACE2. The functional impact of P.1 mutations thus appears to arise from local changes instead of global conformational alterations. The P.1 variant threatens current antibody therapies but less so protective vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
15.
Nature ; 593(7857): 130-135, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120052

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had widespread effects across the globe, and its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread. Effective interventions need to be developed to end this pandemic. Single and combination therapies with monoclonal antibodies have received emergency use authorization1-3, and more treatments are under development4-7. Furthermore, multiple vaccine constructs have shown promise8, including two that have an approximately 95% protective efficacy against COVID-199,10. However, these interventions were directed against the initial SARS-CoV-2 virus that emerged in 2019. The recent detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 in the UK11 and B.1.351 in South Africa12 is of concern because of their purported ease of transmission and extensive mutations in the spike protein. Here we show that B.1.1.7 is refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain of the spike protein and is relatively resistant to a few monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding domain. It is not more resistant to plasma from individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 or sera from individuals who have been vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2. The B.1.351 variant is not only refractory to neutralization by most monoclonal antibodies against the N-terminal domain but also by multiple individual monoclonal antibodies against the receptor-binding motif of the receptor-binding domain, which is mostly due to a mutation causing an E484K substitution. Moreover, compared to wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.351 is markedly more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma (9.4-fold) and sera from individuals who have been vaccinated (10.3-12.4-fold). B.1.351 and emergent variants13,14 with similar mutations in the spike protein present new challenges for monoclonal antibody therapies and threaten the protective efficacy of current vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Resistance, Viral/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL