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1.
Transpl Int ; 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214949

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical syndrome of COVID-19 have significantly disrupted routine health care and life-saving procedures, including solid organ transplantation. The initial lack of personal protective equipment (PPE), the high infectivity, and rapid spread resulted in a change of practice in many transplant centers, including pausing living donor transplantation and limiting solid organ transplant to those waitlist candidates in urgent need of transplant.

2.
Microb Pathog ; 156: 104903, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211071

ABSTRACT

To investigate the distribution and risk factors of pathogens in secondary pulmonary infection in patients with COVID-19.142 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were collected, and 32 patients with pulmonary infection were taken as the infection group. The distribution of pathogens in the sputum specimens was applied for retrospective analysis. Meanwhile, 110 patients diagnosed with COVID-19, but without pulmonary infection were regarded as the asymptomatic group. The risk factors of pulmonary infection were analyzed with generalized linear models and logistic regression. The pathogens in the lung infection group were mainly gram-negative bacteria (22, 68.8%), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi accounted for 13 (40.6%), mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and 11 (34.4%), mainly Candida albicans. There were 14 cases (43.8%) infected with two or more pathogens. The comparison between the two groups found that, patients with elder age, underlying diseases, more lung lesions and low protein contents, were more likely to develop lung infections. At last, univariate analysis showed that 6 factors, including indwelling gastric catheter, the number of deep vein catheters, tracheal intubation tracheotomy, invasive mechanical ventilation, hormonal application, and the use of more than three antibacterial drugs, are risk factors for COVID-19 secondary pulmonary infection. Generalized linear models and logistic regression analysis showed antimicrobial use as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 secondary lung infection. There are many risk factors for secondary lung infection in severe COVID-19 patients, and it is recommended to use antibiotics reasonably.

3.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(8): 10853-10865, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197709

ABSTRACT

Because SARS-COV2 entry into cells is dependent on angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) increase ACE2 activity, the safety of ACEI/ARB usage during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a controversial topic. To address that issue, we performed a meta-analysis following The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Searches of the Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases identified 16 case-control studies examining the effect of ACEI/ARB on the incidence of COVID-19 and its severity. ACEI/ARB usage was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 morbidity (odds ratio (OR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.33, P=0.001) among the general population but not in a hypertensive population (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.21, P=0.553). ACEI/ARB usage was not associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 morbidity (coefficient 1.00, 95% CI 1.00-1.00, P=0.660) when we adjusted for hypertension in the general population. ACEI/ARB usage was also not associated with an increased risk of severe illness (OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.55-1.47, P=0.664) or mortality (OR 1.43, 95%CI 0.97-2.10, P=0.070) in COVID-19 patients. Our meta-analysis revealed that ACEI/ARB usage was not associated with either the increased risk of SARS-COV2 infection or the adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1174807

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has flipped traditional face-to-face exchanges This quickly prompted involuntary changes that required appropriate pedagogical strategies suited to online courses This study explored the experiences, interactions, and social presence (SP) of participants involved in the 2020 spring term postgraduate program in a Taiwanese university Through the interviews with instructors and students, SP was analyzed in terms of affective association, community cohesion, instructor involvement, and interaction intensity Results showed that SP was perceived favorably by students while teachers have attempted to enhance the learning environment by augmenting the SP indicators This study advances the understanding that despite having low perceptions on community cohesiveness and interaction intensity, there is some emerging evidence to suggest that SP has been observed by learners even under the pressures and limitations imposed by COVID-19 on HEIs Theoretical and practical contributions are provided to assist universities navigating their way out of COVID-19 [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e213071, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147545

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical effectiveness data on remdesivir are urgently needed, especially among diverse populations and in combination with other therapies. Objective: To examine whether remdesivir administered with or without corticosteroids for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with more rapid clinical improvement in a racially/ethnically diverse population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective comparative effectiveness research study was conducted from March 4 to August 29, 2020, in a 5-hospital health system in the Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, DC, area. Of 2483 individuals with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection assessed by polymerase chain reaction, those who received remdesivir were matched to infected individuals who did not receive remdesivir using time-invariant covariates (age, sex, race/ethnicity, Charlson Comorbidity Index, body mass index, and do-not-resuscitate or do-not-intubate orders) and time-dependent covariates (ratio of peripheral blood oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen, blood pressure, pulse, temperature, respiratory rate, C-reactive protein level, complete white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, albumin level, alanine aminotransferase level, glomerular filtration rate, dimerized plasmin fragment D [D-dimer] level, and oxygen device). An individual in the remdesivir group with k days of treatment was matched to a control patient who stayed in the hospital at least k days (5 days maximum) beyond the matching day. Exposures: Remdesivir treatment with or without corticosteroid administration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was rate of clinical improvement (hospital discharge or decrease of 2 points on the World Health Organization severity score), and the secondary outcome, mortality at 28 days. An additional outcome was clinical improvement and time to death associated with combined remdesivir and corticosteroid treatment. Results: Of 2483 consecutive admissions, 342 individuals received remdesivir, 184 of whom also received corticosteroids and 158 of whom received remdesivir alone. For these 342 patients, the median age was 60 years (interquartile range, 46-69 years), 189 (55.3%) were men, and 276 (80.7%) self-identified as non-White race/ethnicity. Remdesivir recipients had a shorter time to clinical improvement than matched controls without remdesivir treatment (median, 5.0 days [interquartile range, 4.0-8.0 days] vs 7.0 days [interquartile range, 4.0-10.0 days]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.22-1.79]). Remdesivir recipients had a 28-day mortality rate of 7.7% (22 deaths) compared with 14.0% (40 deaths) among matched controls, but this difference was not statistically significant in the time-to-death analysis (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.38-1.28). The addition of corticosteroids to remdesivir was not associated with a reduced hazard of death at 28 days (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.94; 95% CI, 0.67-5.57). Conclusions and Relevance: In this comparative effectiveness research study of adults hospitalized with COVID-19, receipt of remdesivir was associated with faster clinical improvement in a cohort of predominantly non-White patients. Remdesivir plus corticosteroid administration did not reduce the time to death compared with remdesivir administered alone.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/therapeutic use , Baltimore , Case-Control Studies , Comparative Effectiveness Research , District of Columbia , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Predicting the clinical trajectory of individual patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging but necessary to inform clinical care. The majority of COVID-19 prognostic tools use only data present upon admission and do not incorporate changes occurring after admission. OBJECTIVE: To develop the Severe COVID-19 Adaptive Risk Predictor (SCARP) (https://rsconnect.biostat.jhsph.edu/covid_trajectory/), a novel tool that can provide dynamic risk predictions for progression from moderate disease to severe illness or death in patients with COVID-19 at any time within the first 14 days of their hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Five hospitals in Maryland and Washington, D.C. PATIENTS: Patients who were hospitalized between 5 March and 4 December 2020 with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) confirmed by nucleic acid test and symptomatic disease. MEASUREMENTS: A clinical registry for patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was the primary data source; data included demographic characteristics, admission source, comorbid conditions, time-varying vital signs, laboratory measurements, and clinical severity. Random forest for survival, longitudinal, and multivariate (RF-SLAM) data analysis was applied to predict the 1-day and 7-day risks for progression to severe disease or death for any given day during the first 14 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 3163 patients admitted with moderate COVID-19, 228 (7%) became severely ill or died in the next 24 hours; an additional 355 (11%) became severely ill or died in the next 7 days. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for 1-day risk predictions for progression to severe disease or death was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.88 to 0.90) and 0.89 (CI, 0.87 to 0.91) during the first and second weeks of hospitalization, respectively. The AUC for 7-day risk predictions for progression to severe disease or death was 0.83 (CI, 0.83 to 0.84) and 0.87 (CI, 0.86 to 0.89) during the first and second weeks of hospitalization, respectively. LIMITATION: The SCARP tool was developed by using data from a single health system. CONCLUSION: Using the predictive power of RF-SLAM and longitudinal data from more than 3000 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, an interactive tool was developed that rapidly and accurately provides the probability of an individual patient's progression to severe illness or death on the basis of readily available clinical information. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Hopkins inHealth and COVID-19 Administrative Supplement for the HHS Region 3 Treatment Center from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

7.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105472, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084633

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. To develop effective and safe therapies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has become the major global public health concern. Traditional medicine (TM)/herbal medicines (HMs) have been used to treat multiple epidemics in human history, which brings hope for the fight against COVID-19 in some areas. For example, in China, India, and South Korea with traditional medication history and theory, the governments issued a series of guidelines to support TM/HMs in the medication of COVID-19. In contrast, other countries e.g. North American and European governments are typically silent on these practices, unless to warn of possible harm and overselling. Such difference is due to the discrepancy in culture, history and philosophical views of health care and medication, as well as unharmonized policies and standards in the regulation and legalization of TM/HMs among different areas. Herein, we reviewed the responses and scientific researches from seven selected countries on the policies and legalization of TM/HMs to treat COVID-19, and also analyzed the major challenges and concerns to utilize the traditional knowledge and resource.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /therapy , Complementary Therapies/legislation & jurisprudence , Drug Approval/legislation & jurisprudence , Global Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Healthcare Disparities/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Policy Making
8.
Ann Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for progression of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) to severe disease or death are underexplored in U.S. cohorts. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors on hospital admission that are predictive of severe disease or death from COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Five hospitals in the Maryland and Washington, DC, area. PATIENTS: 832 consecutive COVID-19 admissions from 4 March to 24 April 2020, with follow-up through 27 June 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Patient trajectories and outcomes, categorized by using the World Health Organization COVID-19 disease severity scale. Primary outcomes were death and a composite of severe disease or death. RESULTS: Median patient age was 64 years (range, 1 to 108 years); 47% were women, 40% were Black, 16% were Latinx, and 21% were nursing home residents. Among all patients, 131 (16%) died and 694 (83%) were discharged (523 [63%] had mild to moderate disease and 171 [20%] had severe disease). Of deaths, 66 (50%) were nursing home residents. Of 787 patients admitted with mild to moderate disease, 302 (38%) progressed to severe disease or death: 181 (60%) by day 2 and 238 (79%) by day 4. Patients had markedly different probabilities of disease progression on the basis of age, nursing home residence, comorbid conditions, obesity, respiratory symptoms, respiratory rate, fever, absolute lymphocyte count, hypoalbuminemia, troponin level, and C-reactive protein level and the interactions among these factors. Using only factors present on admission, a model to predict in-hospital disease progression had an area under the curve of 0.85, 0.79, and 0.79, at day 2, 4, and 7, respectively. LIMITATION: The study was done in a single health care system. CONCLUSION: A combination of demographic and clinical variables is strongly associated with severe COVID-19 disease or death and their early onset. The COVID-19 Inpatient Risk Calculator (CIRC), using factors present on admission, can inform clinical and resource allocation decisions. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Hopkins inHealth and COVID-19 Administrative Supplement for the HHS Region 3 Treatment Center from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response.

9.
EClinicalMedicine ; 25: 100478, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047557

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) poses a great challenge to global public health. New and effective intervention strategies are urgently needed to combat the disease. Methods: We conducted an open-label, non-randomized, clinical trial involving moderate COVID-19 patients according to study protocol. Patients were assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive either aerosol inhalation treatment with IFN-κ and TFF2, every 48 h for three consecutive dosages, in addition to standard treatment (experimental group), or standard treatment alone (control group). The end point was the time to discharge from the hospital. This study is registered with chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2000030262. Findings: A total of thirty-three eligible COVID-19 patients were enrolled from February 1, 2020 to April 6, 2020, eleven were assigned to the IFN-κ plus TFF2 group, and twenty-two to the control group. Safety and efficacy were evaluated for both groups. No treatment-associated severe adverse effects (SAE) were observed in the group treated with aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2, and no significant differences in the safety evaluations were observed between experimental and control groups. CT imaging was performed in all patients with the median improvement time of 5.0 days (IQR 3.0-9.0) in the experimental group versus 8.5 days (IQR 3.0-17.0) in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, the experimental group had a significant shorten median time in cough relief (4.5 days [IQR 2.0-7.0]) than the control group did (10.0 days [IQR 6.0-21.0])(p<0.005), in viral RNA reversion of 6.0 days (IQR 2.0-13.0) in the experimental group vs 9.5 days (IQR 3.0-23.0) in the control group (p < 0.05), and in the median hospitalization stays of 12.0 days (IQR 7.0-20.0) in the experimental group vs 15.0 days (IQR 10.0-25.0) in the control group (p<0.001), respectively. Interpretation: Aerosol inhalation of IFN-κ plus TFF2 is a safe treatment and is likely to significantly facilitate clinical improvement, including cough relief, CT imaging improvement, and viral RNA reversion, thereby achieves an early release from hospitalization. These data support to explore a scale-up trial with IFN-κ plus TFF2. Funding: National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Municipal Health Commission.

10.
Tourism Economics ; : 1354816620983954, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1024336

ABSTRACT

This study applies both the sup augmented Dickey?Fuller (SADF) and the generalized SADF tests to investigate whether bubbles exist in the Taiwan?s and Mainland China?s tourism stock markets, focusing on the COVID-19 period We use the weekly stock price index during the periods of January 4, 2000 to April 27, 2020 in Taiwan and August 13, 2007 to April 27, 2020 in Mainland China, respectively Empirical results demonstrate the existence of bubbles in the Taiwan tourism stock market during some subsample periods, including the recent COVID-19 outbreak In contrast with our findings concerning Taiwan, our empirical results found that the COVID-19 outbreak had no impact on the tourism stock market of Mainland China Especially important, we found that the fourth bubble in the Taiwan stock market began from March 23, 2020, and grew gradually, bursting on March 30, 2020 Our results have important policy implications for investors who attempt to invest in the tourism stock market

12.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5161

ABSTRACT

We explored the effect of Reyanning Mixture for the treatment of COVID-19 intervention mechanism and to screen its anti-virus compounds by using network pharmacol anal and mol docking technol First, we employed a network pharmacol method to screen active compounds, targets and to explore potential mechanisms in the treatment of COVID-19 Aline with ADME screening index, like oral bioavailability (OB) = 30% or Drug likeness index (DL) = 0 18, the active compounds against COVID-19 related targets were selected to construct ′herb-compound-target′ network Then, we used mol docking model to evaluate the binding abilities between active compounds and 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) 3CL protease receptor-binding domain (PBD ID 6LU7), which involving in mediating viral replication and transcription functions Based on above mentioned approaches, we chose 29 compounds and their related 35 targets to establish interaction network The network topol anal showed that those selected compounds with higher degree would produce marked anti-inflammatory effects by regulating 15 from 35 targets like CD40LG, CXCL10, CXCL8, IL10, IL2, and IL6 etc , which involving in IL-17 signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway In addition, Scutellariae Barbatae Herba and Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma Et Radix played important roles in the network At last, the mol docking results revealed that 7 of the 29 compounds were identified with higher docking score rank against 2019-nCoV 3CL protease, most of them were attributed to flavonoids Reyanning Mixture could exhibit both anti-inflammatory and anti-virus actions through multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 10: 587269, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979017

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been posing great threats to the world in many aspects. Effective therapeutic and preventive approaches including drugs and vaccines are still unavailable although they are in development. Comprehensive understandings on the life logic of SARS-CoV-2 and the interaction of the virus with hosts are fundamentally important in the fight against SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we briefly summarized the current advances in SARS-CoV-2 research, including the epidemic situation and epidemiological characteristics of the caused disease COVID-19. We further discussed the biology of SARS-CoV-2, including the origin, evolution, and receptor recognition mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. And particularly, we introduced the protein structures of SARS-CoV-2 and structure-based therapeutics development including antibodies, antiviral compounds, and vaccines, and indicated the limitations and perspectives of SARS-CoV-2 research. We wish the information provided by this review may be helpful to the global battle against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
/virology , /physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , /immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(22): 22405-22412, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940612

ABSTRACT

Severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19 has resulted in many deaths worldwide. Here, we analyzed the clinical characteristics of the first 17 reported cases of death due to COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Demographics, initial symptoms, complications, chest computerized tomography (CT) images, treatments, and prognoses were collected and analyzed from the National Health Committee of China data. The first 17 reported deaths from COVID-19 were predominately in older men; 82.35% of patients were older than 65 years, and 76.47% were males. The most common initial symptoms were fever or fatigue (14 cases, 82.35%), respiratory symptoms, such as cough (12 cases, 70.59%), and neurological symptoms, such as headache (3 cases, 17.65%). The most common finding of chest CT was viral pneumonia (5 cases, 29.41%). Anti-infectives (11 cases, 64.71%) and mechanical ventilation (9 cases, 52.94%) were commonly used for treatment. Most of the patients (16 cases, 94.12%) died of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our findings show that advanced age and male gender are effective predictors of COVID-19 mortality, and suggest that early interventions to reduce the incidence of ARDS may improve prognosis of COVID-19 pneumonia patients.

15.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 30(18):2754-2758, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-923251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of viral nucleic acid tests for clinical specimens of the hospitalized patients with acute respiratory tract infection(ARTI) so as to provide guidance for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of ARTI METHODS: Totally 479 patients with ARTI who were treated in Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University from Jan 1, 2017 to Jan 1, 2020 were enrolled in the study, the results of tests for 14 types of viruses(subtypes) such as FluA-H1, FluA-H3, FluB, parainfluenza virusI-IV, coronavirus OC43, 229 E, NL63, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus and adenovirus in the clinical specimens were retrospectively collected The isolation rates of the viruses and etiological and epidemiological characteristics of the patients with ARTI were observed and compared among the age groups and different seasons RESULTS: A total of 259 strains of viruses were isolated from sputum, alveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swab specimens of 479 patients, with the isolation rate 54 1%(259/479) Among the 14 types of respiratory tract viruses isolated, the isolation rates of FluA-H1, FluA-H3, human rhinovirus, adenovirus and FluB were 42 1%(109/259), 19 7%(51/259), 8 9%(23/259), 6 2%(16/259) and 5 4%(14/259), respectively The FluA-H1 was prevalent in autumn and winter, adenovirus was prevalent in summer, parainfluenza virusI was prevalent in summer, as compared with other seasons, there was significant difference(P<0 05);there was no significant difference in the isolation rates of other viruses among the seasons;there were no significant differences in the isolation rates of viruses among the age groups CONCLUSION: There are a variety of viruses isolated from the clinical specimens of the hospitalized patients with ARTI, the influenza viruses are dominant and are prevalent in autumn and winter The elderly patients are dominant among the hospitalized patients with the infection

17.
Review of Behavioral Economics ; 7(3):223-235, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-748993

ABSTRACT

We measure trends in activity patterns during the "lockdown" of the COVID-19 pandemics, using the Apple Maps Mobility Trends Report, the Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports and data from a worldwide online survey with more than 100,000 participants We focus on the months of March and April 2020, that is, a period where in most countries a "lockdown" took place that restricted social interactions and daily activities While the Apple Maps data gives high quality data on planned trips, Google data gives high quality location data, and the survey supplements both with data on activity intention We focus on a few countries with particularly good data coverage: France, Germany, UK and the US Our key finding is that during this period in most of these countries already a significant re-increase of activities was visible The increase in activity cannot be explained by relaxed regulations in the countries under study While some of these activities are certainly unavoidable, we also measured an increase in less necessary activities, which should be taken into account when discussing policies for the containment of the pandemics We also find strong differences in the relative importance of various activities across countries This may provide policy makers with valuable information about what type of activities are most relevant to reduce for curtailing the pandemics

19.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 1): 78-82, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641081

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Infection with SARS-CoV may cause coronary plaque instability and lead to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Management of ACS in patients with COVID-19 needs more consideration of the balance between clinical benefit and transmission risk of virus. This review provides recommendations of management strategies for ACS in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , /prevention & control , Cardiology/methods , Cardiology/standards , Comorbidity , Consensus , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Patient Care Management/methods , Risk Assessment , Societies, Medical/standards , Taiwan
20.
J Behav Exp Finance ; 27: 100349, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592035

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the differences in stock market reactions to the same kind of disease-related news by analyzing abnormal returns of global stock markets during Public Health Risk Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) announcements. Drawing the data from 26 stock market indices over the period from 22 April 2008 to 12 March 2020, we compare stock market reactions to all six PHEIC announcements made by the World Health Organization since 2009. Although the PHEIC announcements can be categorized as the same type of event, we found no consistent patterns in market reactions. The markets did not show significant reactions in a 30-day event window, which suggests a relatively low economic impact of the diseases on a global scale during this time, except for Covid-19. Among all diseases included in our study, only Covid-19 had a significant negative effect on stock markets at least lasting 30 days.

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