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1.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(11): 1601-1614, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556089

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has imposed significant risks to our health and affected our social and economic order, information on COVID-19 becomes readily accessible via various mass media and social media. In the current research, we aim to understand the impacts of employees' exposure to COVID-19 information on their workplace behaviors. Integrating Terror Management Theory (TMT; Becker, 1973; Greenberg et al., 1986) with Generativity Theory (Erikson, 1963, 1982), we proposed and investigated two psychological mechanisms (i.e., death anxiety and generativity-based death reflection) that account for the effects of employees' COVID-19 information exposure on their work withdrawal and helping behaviors toward coworkers. We also examined organizational actions [internal and external corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities] that served as a context for employees to make sense of their COVID-19 information exposure. We conducted two studies with samples of full-time employees (N1 = 278; N2 = 382) to test our predictions. Results in both studies showed that employees' exposure to COVID-19 information was positively related to their death anxiety and generativity-based death reflection, which in turn predicted their work withdrawal and helping behaviors, respectively. Further, employees' perceived internal CSR of their organization mitigated the positive association between COVID-19 information exposure and their death anxiety, weakening the positive indirect effect of COVID-19 information exposure on their work withdrawal. Our study offers new insights to the understanding of work and employment in the COVID-19 pandemic and sheds light on how individuals' death-related experiences shape work-related behaviors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Employment , Humans , Problem Solving , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Protoc ; 1(12): e303, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557813

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has become an important compound for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we describe the catalytic asymmetric synthesis of this anti-COVID-19 drug. First, the P-racemic phosphoryl chloride is synthesized in a facile procedure. Then, it is possible to obtain the protected remdesivir via the organocatalytic asymmetric phosphorylation of protected nucleoside GS441524 with P-racemic phosphoryl chloride catalyzed by chiral bicyclic imidazole. Finally, remdesivir is easily prepared by deprotection. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Synthesis of 2-ethylbutyl (chloro(phenoxy)phosphoryl)-L-alaninate rac-4 Basic Protocol 2: Synthesis of chiral bicyclic imidazole Ad-DPI Basic Protocol 3: Synthesis of remdesivir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(8): 1103-1117, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368908

ABSTRACT

Employers have increasingly turned to virtual interviews to facilitate online, socially distanced selection processes in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is little understanding about the experience of job candidates in these virtual interview contexts. We draw from Event System Theory (Morgeson et al., 2015) to advance and test a conceptual model that focuses on a high-stress, high-stakes setting and integrates literatures on workplace stress with literatures on applicant reactions. We predict that when applicants ruminate about COVID-19 during an interview and have higher levels of COVID-19 exhaustion, they will have higher levels of anxiety during virtual interviews, which in turn relates to reduced interview performance, lower perceptions of fairness, and reduced intentions to recommend the organization. Further, we predict that three factors capturing COVID-19 as an enduring and impactful event (COVID-19 duration, COVID-19 cases, COVID-19 deaths) will be positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. We tested our propositions with 8,343 job applicants across 373 companies and 93 countries/regions. Consistent with predictions, we found a positive relationship between COVID-19 rumination and interview anxiety, and this relationship was stronger for applicants who experienced higher (vs. lower) levels of COVID-19 exhaustion. In turn, interview anxiety was negatively related to interview performance, fairness perceptions, and recommendation intentions. Moreover, using a relevant subset of the data (n = 6,136), we found that COVID-19 duration and deaths were positively related to COVID-19 exhaustion. This research offers several insights for understanding the virtual interview experience embedded in the pandemic and advances the literature on applicant reactions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Employment/psychology , Interviews as Topic , Adult , Aspirations, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 957, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies of consequences of sickness absence such as health and well-being have been rare whereas risk factors for sickness absence have been studied extensively. This study assumed the consequences of sickness absence would differ by diagnostic group or by patient care type. The aim was to investigate sickness absence due to various diagnosis groups as a predictor for subsequent inpatient- and specialized outpatient care while controlling for familial confounding. METHODS: We utilized the register data of 69,552 twin individuals between 16 and 80 years of age (48% women). The first incident sickness absence spell, from baseline year 2005, including diagnosis of sickness absence was our primary exposure of interest and we followed them until the first incident inpatient- and specialized outpatient care episode with main diagnosis code or until 31.12.2013. RESULTS: A total of 7464 incident sickness absence spells took place (11%), 42% had inpatient care and 83% specialized outpatient care (mean follow-up time 3.2 years, SD 3.1 years). All the main sickness absence diagnosis groups were associated with increased risk of future care in comparison to no sickness absence. Controlling for confounders attenuated the associations in magnitude but with retaining direction, and we could not confirm an effect of familial factors. CONCLUSIONS: Sickness absence predicts both inpatient- and specialized outpatient care and the association is universal across diagnosis groups. The lower survival time and incidence rates of inpatient than specialized outpatient care point towards severity of diseases assumption. This finding was also universal across sickness absence diagnosis groups.


Subject(s)
Inpatients , Sick Leave , Ambulatory Care , Female , Humans , Male , Outpatients , Sweden/epidemiology
5.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(6): 825-838, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275874

ABSTRACT

To protect workers' safety while gradually resuming on-site operations amid the COVID-19 pandemic, many organizations are offering employees the flexibility to decide their work location on a daily basis (i.e., whether to work from home or to work in the office on a particular day). However, little is known about what factors drive employees' daily decisions to work from home versus office during the pandemic. Taking a social ecological perspective, we conceptualize employees' daily choice of work location (home vs. office) as a way to cope with stressors they have encountered on the previous day, and conducted a daily diary study to examine how five categories of work-related and COVID-related stressors during the pandemic (identified through a pilot interview study) may jointly predict employees' next-day work location. We collected data over five workdays from 127 participants working in a Chinese IT company which allowed employees to choose their work location on a daily basis amid the pandemic. We found that experiencing more work-family boundary stressors and work coordination stressors on a certain day were associated with a greater likelihood of working in the office (vs. at home) on the next day, while experiencing more workload stressors prompted employees to work at home (vs. in the office) on the next day. Furthermore, we found that COVID-19 infection-related stressors moderated the effects of technology stressors and workload stressors on next-day work location. Our research findings offer implications for understanding the driving factors of daily work location choices during and beyond the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Workplace/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Occup Health Sci ; 5(1-2): 1-23, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174053

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has imposed significant threats to individuals' physical health and has substantially changed the socioeconomic order and the nature of our work and life all over the world. To guide organizations to design effective workplace interventions to mitigate the negative impacts of COVID-19, we take the occupational health psychology (OHP) perspective to propose a framework that highlights important areas for organizations to intervene in order to better protect workers' physical health and safety and to promote workers' psychological well-being. Specifically, we integrate the prevention-based public health model with the Total Worker Health (TWH) and OHP-based approaches to propose a comprehensive set of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions that target different groups of employees with varied exposure risks to the new coronavirus. We believe these proposed interventions can contribute positively to the development of healthy and safe work. Implications of these proposed interventions for workers, organizations, and policy makers are also discussed.

7.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(1): 4-14, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059851

ABSTRACT

During normal and predictable circumstances, employees' occupational calling (i.e., a transcendent passion to use their talent and competencies toward positive societal impact and a sense of meaningfulness derived from working in a chosen occupational domain) is observed to be relatively stable. However, with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, circumstances have become anything but normal and predictable, thus putting employees' sense of occupational calling to the test. In this study, we investigate the possibility that occupational calling fluctuates across days during situations of crisis, and we identify antecedents and consequence of such fluctuations. To test our model, we conducted a daily diary study of 66 nurses working in intensive care units over 5 consecutive work days in a specialized Wuhan hospital that only admitted confirmed COVID-19 patients during the peak of the pandemic in China. We found that the daily number of code blue events (i.e., cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts with the primary goal of patient revival) was positively related to daily occupational calling for nurses. Moreover, individual differences in prosocial motivation predicted the average level and variability of occupational calling over the 5 days, which subsequently related to the nurses' job performance. Our study sheds light on how occupational calling enables people with the needed occupational knowledge and skills to function effectively in crisis situations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Critical Care Nursing/methods , Job Satisfaction , Motivation , Nurses/psychology , Work Performance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , China , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(3): e135-e144, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis, yet certain countries have had far more success in limiting COVID-19 cases and deaths. We suggest that collective threats require a tremendous amount of coordination, and that strict adherence to social norms is a key mechanism that enables groups to do so. Here we examine how the strength of social norms-or cultural tightness-looseness-was associated with countries' success in limiting cases and deaths by October, 2020. We expected that tight cultures, which have strict norms and punishments for deviance, would have fewer cases and deaths per million as compared with loose cultures, which have weaker norms and are more permissive. METHODS: We estimated the relationship between cultural tightness-looseness and COVID-19 case and mortality rates as of Oct 16, 2020, using ordinary least squares regression. We fit a series of stepwise models to capture whether cultural tightness-looseness explained variation in case and death rates controlling for under-reporting, demographics, geopolitical factors, other cultural dimensions, and climate. FINDINGS: The results indicated that, compared with nations with high levels of cultural tightness, nations with high levels of cultural looseness are estimated to have had 4·99 times the number of cases (7132 per million vs 1428 per million, respectively) and 8·71 times the number of deaths (183 per million vs 21 per million, respectively), taking into account a number of controls. A formal evolutionary game theoretic model suggested that tight groups cooperate much faster under threat and have higher survival rates than loose groups. The results suggest that tightening social norms might confer an evolutionary advantage in times of collective threat. INTERPRETATION: Nations that are tight and abide by strict norms have had more success than those that are looser as of the October, 2020. New interventions are needed to help countries tighten social norms as they continue to battle COVID-19 and other collective threats. FUNDING: Office of Naval Research, US Navy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Social Norms , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
9.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 570535, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058440

ABSTRACT

To evaluate social support and loneliness as well as their association among caregivers of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We collected data for caregivers of children with CKD and caregivers of healthy children and matched the two groups using propensity score matching (PSM). We compared the differences in social support and loneliness between the two groups after matching and analyzed the relationship between social support and loneliness in the observation group. Before PSM, we analyzed the data for 247 caregivers of children with CKD and 315 caregivers of healthy children from 13 provinces. After PSM, the two groups each included 202 caregivers. The social support score of caregivers of children with CKD was lower than that of caregivers of healthy children (P < 0.002), while the loneliness score was higher for caregivers of children with CKD than for caregivers of healthy children (P < 0.008). The social support score was negatively correlated with the loneliness score (r = -0.598, P < 0.001). Caregivers of children with CKD experienced less social support and greater loneliness than caregivers of healthy children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to providing social support for caregivers of CKD children and to improving the ability of these caregivers to cope with loneliness.

10.
Kidney Dis (Basel) ; 7(2): 100-110, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause renal involvement, and severe renal dysfunction is more common among patients with chronic comorbid conditions, especially patients with chronic kidney disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been proven to be the major receptor of SARS-CoV-2 in kidneys, suggesting that ACE2-related changes may be involved in renal injury during the infection. In this review, we systematically reviewed the literature to summarize findings on the mechanism of renal injury caused by SARS-COV-2 infection, in order to provide a theoretical basis for renal protection therapy. SUMMARY: For patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, renal injury mainly manifests as increased serum creatinine, variable degrees of proteinuria and hematuria, and radiographic abnormalities of the kidneys. In this review, we summarize the pathogenesis of renal injury deriving from SARS-CoV-2 infection by focusing on its etiology, pathology, and clinical manifestations. The virus causes kidney injury by either direct infection or systemic effects, including host immune clearance and immune tolerance disorders, endothelium-mediated vasculitis, thrombus formation, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, and hypoxia. KEY MESSAGES: Renal injury by SARS-CoV-2 is the result of multiple factors. Via highly expressed ACE2 in renal tissue, SARS-CoV-2 infection fundamentally initiates a mechanism of renal injury. Systemic effects such as host immune clearance and immune tolerance disorders, endothelial cell injury, thrombus formation, glucose and lipid metabolism disorder, and hypoxia aggravate this renal injury.

11.
Angewandte Chemie ; 59(47), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-915118

ABSTRACT

Asymmetric Synthesis The first catalytic asymmetric synthesis of remdesivir by the coupling of the P‐racemic phosphoryl chloride with protected nucleoside GS441524 is described by W. Zhang et al. in their Communication on page 20814.

12.
Angewandte Chemie ; 132(47), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-915115

ABSTRACT

Asymmetrische Synthese Die erste katalytische asymmetrische Synthese von Remdesivir durch die Kupplung von P‐racemischem Phosphorylchlorid mit dem geschützten Nukleosid GS441524 wird von W. Zhang et al. in der Zuschrift auf S. 21000 vorgestellt.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(47): 20814-20819, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739123

ABSTRACT

The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the anti-COVID-19 drug Remdesivir has been realized by the coupling of the P-racemic phosphoryl chloride with protected nucleoside GS441524. The chiral bicyclic imidazole catalyst used is crucial for the dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DyKAT) to proceed smoothly with high reactivity and excellent stereoselectivity (96 % conv., 22:1 SP :RP ). Mechanistic studies showed that this DyKAT is a first-order visual kinetic reaction dependent on the catalyst concentration. The unique chiral bicyclic imidazole skeleton and carbamate substituent of the catalyst are both required for the racemization process, involving the phosphoryl chloride, and subsequent stereodiscriminating step. A 10 gram scale reaction was also conducted with comparably excellent results, showing its potential for industrial application.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Catalysis , Humans , Imidazoles/chemistry , Kinetics , Molecular Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stereoisomerism
14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(9): 1259-1266, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the treatment of families with children on long-term KRT is challenging. This study was conducted to identify the current difficulties, worries regarding the next 2 months, and mental distress experienced by families with children on long-term KRT during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak and to deliver possible management approaches to ensure uninterrupted treatment for children on long-term KRT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A multicenter online survey was conducted between February 10 and 15, 2020, among the families with children on long-term KRT from five major pediatric dialysis centers in mainland China. The primary caregivers of children currently on long-term KRT were eligible and included. Demographic information, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection status, current difficulties, and worries regarding the next 2 months were surveyed using a self-developed questionnaire. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 were used to screen for depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. RESULTS: Among the children in the 220 families included in data analysis, 113 (51%) children were on dialysis, and the other 107 (49%) had kidney transplants. No families reported confirmed or suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019. Overall, 135 (61%) and 173 (79%) caregivers reported having difficulties now and having worries regarding the next 2 months, respectively. Dialysis supply shortage (dialysis group) and hard to have blood tests (kidney transplantation group) were most commonly reported. A total of 29 (13%) caregivers had depressive symptoms, and 24 (11%) had anxiety. After the survey, we offered online and offline interventions to address their problems. At the time of the submission of this paper, no treatment interruption had been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has had physical, mental, logistical, and financial effects on families with children on long-term KRT.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Family/psychology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Replacement Therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cost of Illness , Family Relations , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Services Accessibility , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 35(7): 1351-1357, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116368

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread not only in China but throughout the world. Children with kidney failure (chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5) are at significant risk for COVID-19. In turn, a set of recommendations for the prevention and control of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19 in pediatric hemodialysis (HD) centers and in home peritoneal dialysis (PD) settings have been proposed. The recommendations are based on the epidemiological features of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and COVID-19 disease, susceptibility factors, and preventive and control strategies. These recommendations will be updated as new information regarding SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 becomes available.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Dialysis/standards , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Epidemics , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , SARS-CoV-2
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