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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8410, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864762

ABSTRACT

Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer death in China and Australia, the countries with different socioenvironmental contexts in the Western Pacific Region. Comparing the age-period-cohort effect on LC mortality (LCM) between the two countries can help plan interventions and draw lessons for countries in the region. We collected LCM estimates between 1990 and 2019 from the GBD 2019. Age-period-cohort modelling was applied to compute the net drift, local drift, cross-sectional age curve, longitudinal age curve, and the rate ratios (RRs) of period and cohort. China had a higher LC age-standardized mortality rate than Australia in 2019 (men: 58.10 [95% uncertainty interval (UI): 46.53, 70.89] vs. 30.13 [95% UI: 27.88, 32.31]/100,000 population; women: 22.86 [95% UI: 18.52, 27.52] vs. 17.80 [95% UI: 15.93, 19.34]/100,000 population). Period and cohort effects on LCM improved more markedly among Australian men (RR for period effect, from 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41, 1.53] to 0.79 [95% CI 0.75, 0.84]; RR for cohort effect, from 2.56 [95% CI 2.44, 2.68] to 0.36 [95% CI 0.11, 1.18]) and Chinese women (RR for period effect, from 1.06 [95% CI 1.01, 1.11] to 0.85 [95% CI 0.82, 0.89]; RR for cohort effect, from 0.71 [95% CI 0.65, 0.78] to 0.51 [95% CI 0.26, 1.03]) during the study period and birth cohort. The LCM in Chinese population aged 65 to 79 and Australian women aged 75 to 79 increased. Smoking and particulate matter (PM) contributed most to LCM in China, while smoking and occupational carcinogens contributed most in Australia. Decreasing period and cohort risks for LCM attributable to smoking and PM were more remarkable in Australia than in China. The LCM attributable to occupational carcinogens was higher in Australia than in China, particularly for those aged 60 to 79. Vigorous tobacco and PM control, which brought a substantial decline in LCM in Australia, may help reduce LCM in China. Australia should highlight LC prevention among people with occupational exposure. Chinese aged ≥ 65 and Australian women aged ≥ 75 should be the priorities for LC interventions.


Subject(s)
Lung Neoplasms , Particulate Matter , Australia/epidemiology , Carcinogens , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 678941, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Indoor daylight levels can directly affect the physical and psychological state of people. However, the effect of indoor daylight levels on the clinical recovery process of the patient remains controversial. This study was to evaluate the effect of indoor daylight levels on hospital costs and the average length of stay (LOS) of a large patient population in general surgery wards. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed of patients in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine between January 2015 and August 2020. We measured daylight levels in the patient rooms of general surgery and assessed their association with the total hospital costs and LOS of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 2,998 patients were included in this study with 1,478 each assigned to two daylight level groups after matching. Overall comparison of hospital total costs and LOS among patients according to daylight levels did not show a significant difference. Subgroup analysis showed when exposed to higher intensity of indoor daylight, illiterate patients had lower total hospital costs (CNY ¥13070.0 vs. ¥15210.3, p = 0.018) and shorter LOS (7 vs. 10 days, p = 0.011) as compared to those exposed to a lower intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor daylight levels were not associated with the hospital costs and LOS of patients in the wards of general surgery, except for those who were illiterate. It might be essential to design guidelines for medical staff and healthcare facilities to enhance the indoor environmental benefits of daylight for some specific populations.


Subject(s)
Hospital Costs , Humans , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
3.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743537

ABSTRACT

Investigating the contributing factors of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) has always been an important topic in the field of traumatic psychology research. The current study explored the influences of pandemic/epidemic experiences, meditation experiences, and trait mindfulness on PTSS and the mediating role of emotional resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 522 participants in Hubei province completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Emotional Resilience Questionnaire, and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. The results showed that (1) participants who had family or friends diagnosed with COVID-19 scored higher on avoidance. (2) Participants who had family or friends had been diagnosed with SARS or H1N1 scored higher on PTSS. (3) Participants with meditation experience scored significantly higher on all dimensions of PTSS, other than avoidance. (4) The mediating role of recovering from negative emotions in the relationship between trait mindfulness and PTSS was significant (95%CI= [-0.212, -0.094]), while the generating positive emotion was not significant (95%CI= [-0.050, 0.071]). Individuals with pandemic/epidemic experience are more likely to have a high level of PTSS. Individuals who have meditation experience also express a higher level of PTSS, which may be a result of the quality of meditation. Trait mindfulness and the ability to recover from negative emotions were protective factors against PTSS.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330180

ABSTRACT

The use of glucocorticoids has given contradictory results for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report a novel disease association of a SNP rs9984273, which is situated in the interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR2) gene in an area corresponding to a binding motif of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The minor allele of SNP rs9984273 associates with higher IFNAR expression, lower IFN-gamma and IL-6 levels and less severe form of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) according to the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative database, and better outcome in interferon (IFN) beta treated patients with ARDS. Thus, the distribution of this SNP within clinical study arms may explain the contradictory results of multiple ARDS studies and outcomes in COVID-19 concerning type I IFN signalling and glucocorticoids. One-Sentence Summary Single nucleotide polymorphism in interferon receptor contributes to corticosteroid response and outcome in ARDS and COVID-19

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321465

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous studies showed that the effect of antivirals for COVID-19 was promising but varied across patient population, and was modest among severe cases. Chinese Medicine (CM) was extensively used and reported effective in China, awaiting further evidence support. We aimed to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of add-on semi-individualized.Methods: A retrospective total sampling cohort of 1788 adult confirmed COVID-19 patients were recruited from all 2235 consecutive records retrieved from 5 hospitals in Wuhan during15 January to 13 March 2020. Consultation notes, laboratory/imaging investigations, pharmacy and prognosis records were linked by an electronic medical record system and verified by at least 2 researchers independently. The mortality of add-on semi-individualized CM users and non-users was compared by weighted hazard ratios of multivariable Cox regression and by propensity score matching. Change of biomarkers was compared between groups and the frequency of CMs used was analysed. Subgroup analysis was performed to stratify disease severity and dose of CM exposure. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness.Findings: The crude mortality was 3.8% in the semi-individualized CM user group and 17.0% among the non-users. Add-on CM was associated with a significant mortality reduction of 58% (HR=0.42, 95%CI: 0.23 to 0.77, p=0.005) and 66% (HR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.76, p=0.009) among all and severe/critical COVID-19 cases with dose-dependent response, after inversely weighted with propensity score calculated by age, gender, history of hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease and disease severity. The result was robust in various stratified, weighted, matched, adjusted and sensitivity analyses. Severe/critical patients received add-on CM had a trend of stabilized D-dimer level after 3-7 days of admission compared to baseline.Interpretation: Add-on semi-individualized CM was associated with reduced mortality demonstrating dose-dependent response, especially among severe/critical COVID-19 patients. Chinese medicine could be considered as an add-on regimen for trial use.Funding Statement: This work is partially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (2017YFC1703506 and 2020YFC0841600). Declaration of Interests: No financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years;no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics review board of Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (HBZY2020-C01-01). Written consent was waived due to the retrospective nature.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315360

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) is one of the best-characterized drug targets among coronaviruses. In the current study, we adopted a multiple cross-docking strategy against different crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro to perform computer-based high-throughput virtual screening of possible inhibitors from a drug database using Autodock Vina and SeeSAR software, combined with our in-house automatic processing scripts. The KDs between screened candidates and Mpro were determined using Biacore. Seven drugs were found to fit the substrate-binding pocket of Mpro with a stable conformation, showing high KDs that ranged from 6.79E-7 M to 5.20E-5 M. Finally, mutagenesis studies confirmed that these drugs interact with Mpro specifically, suggesting that our method was reliable and convincing. Given the safety of these old drugs, they may serve as promising candidates to treat the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Our results also provide rational explanations for the behaviour of five drugs evaluated in clinical trials.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310726

ABSTRACT

As the COVID19 spreads across the world, prevention measures are becoming the essential weapons to combat the pandemic in the period of crisis. The lockdown measure is the most controversial one as it imposes an overwhelming impact on our economy and society. Especially when and how to enforce the lockdown measures are the most challenging questions considering both economic and epidemiological costs. In this paper, we extend the classic SIR model to find optimal decision making to balance between economy and people's health during the outbreak of COVID-19. In our model, we intend to solve a two phases optimization problem: policymakers control the lockdown rate to maximize the overall welfare of the society;people in different health statuses take different decisions on their working hours and consumption to maximize their utility. We develop a novel method to estimate parameters for the model through various additional sources of data. We use the Cournot equilibrium to model people's behavior and also consider the cost of death in order to leverage between economic and epidemic costs. The analysis of simulation results provides scientific suggestions for policymakers to make critical decisions on when to start the lockdown and how strong it should be during the whole period of the outbreak. Although the model is originally proposed for the COVID19 pandemic, it can be generalized to address similar problems to control the outbreak of other infectious diseases with lockdown measures.

8.
World journal of clinical cases ; 10(1):104-116, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1640299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with a better prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (the so-called obesity survival paradox), but conflicting results have been found. AIM To investigate the relationship between all-cause mortality and body mass index in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized in the First Hospital of Qinhuangdao from June 2013 to November 2018. The patients were grouped as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m2), and overweight/obesity (≥ 24 kg/m2). The primary outcome was all-cause hospital mortality. RESULTS Among 2327 patients, 297 (12.8%) were underweight, 1013 (43.5%) normal weight, and 1017 (43.7%) overweight/obesity. The all-cause hospital mortality was 4.6% (106/2327). Mortality was lowest in the overweight/obesity group and highest in the underweight group (2.8%, vs 5.0%, vs 9.1%, P < 0.001). All-cause mortality of overweight/obesity patients was lower than normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) = 0.535, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.334-0.855, P = 0.009], while the all-cause mortality of underweight patients was higher than that of normal-weight patients (OR = 1.886, 95%CI: 1.161-3.066, P = 0.010). Multivariable analysis showed that abnormal neutrophil counts (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.55-3.65, P < 0.001), abnormal albumin levels (OR = 0.20, 95%CI: 0.06-0.72, P = 0.014), high-risk Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score (OR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.48-5.64, P = 0.002), and intensive care unit admission (OR = 3.11, 95%CI: 1.77-5.49, P < 0.001) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION All-cause mortality of normal-weight patients was higher than overweight/ obesity patients, lower than that of underweight patients. Neutrophil counts, albumin levels, Confusion-Urea-Respiration-Blood pressure-65 score, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

9.
Environ Res ; 207: 112161, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Congenital anomalies (CAs) are the leading causes for children's disabilities and mortalities worldwide. The associations between air pollution and CAs are not fully characterized in fetuses born by in vitro fertilization (IVF) who are at high risk of congenital anomalies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 16,971 IVF cycles from three hospitals in Hebei Province, China, 2014-2019. Air quality data was obtained from 149 air monitoring stations. Individual average daily concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3 were estimated by spatiotemporal kriging method. Exposure windows were divided into 5: preantral follicle period, antral follicle period, germinal period, embryonic period and early fetal period. Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the associations between air pollutants and overall or organ-system specific congenital anomalies. Negative control exposure method was used to detect and reduce bias of estimation. RESULTS: We found increasing levels of PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with higher risk of overall congenital anomalies during early fetal period, equating gestation 10-12 weeks (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09, p = 0.013 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM2.5; OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, p = 0.021 for a 10 µg/m3 increase of PM10). Cleft lip and cleft palate were associated with PM10 in germinal period and early fetal period. The CAs of eye, ear, face and neck were related to CO in preantral follicle stage. We did not find an association between chromosome abnormalities and air pollution exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ambient air pollution was a risk factor for congenital anomalies in the fetuses conceived through IVF, especially exposure in early fetal period.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/toxicity , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fertilization in Vitro , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , Parturition , Pregnancy
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1396-1406, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20-49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Individuals aged 20 years or older who were generally healthy or had stable pre-existing medical conditions were eligible for enrolment. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) travel overseas within 14 days of screening, intention to travel overseas within 6 months of the screening visit, and the absence of prespecified medical conditions, including immunosuppressive illness, a history of autoimmune disease, malignancy with risk to recur, a bleeding disorder, uncontrolled HIV infection, uncontrolled hepatitis B and C virus infections, SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 infections, an allergy to any vaccine, or a serious medical condition that could interfere with the study. Study participants were randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered via intramuscular injection on day 1 and day 29. MVC-COV1901 contained 15 µg of S-2P protein adjuvanted with 750 µg CpG 1018 and 375 µg aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous solution, and the placebo contained the same volume of saline. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by age (≥20 to <65 years and ≥65 years). Participants and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from day 1 (the day of the first dose) to day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific IgG in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04695652. FINDINGS: Of 4173 individuals screened between Dec 30, 2020, and April 2, 2021, 3854 were enrolled and randomly assigned: 3304 to the MVC-COV1901 group and 550 to the placebo group. A total of 3844 participants (3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 549 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis set, and 1053 participants (903 and 150) had received both doses and were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis set. From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events in all study participants were pain at the injection site (2346 [71·2%] of 3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 128 [23·3%] of 549 in the placebo group), and malaise or fatigue (1186 [36·0%] and 163 [29·7%]). Fever was rarely reported (23 [0·7%] and two [0·4%]). At 28 days after the second dose of MVC-COV1901, the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody GMT was 662·3 (95% CI 628·7-697·8; 408·5 IU/mL), the GMT ratio (geometric mean fold increase in titres at day 57 vs baseline) was 163·2 (155·0-171·9), and the seroconversion rate was 99·8% (95% CI 99·2-100·0). INTERPRETATION: MVC-COV1901 has a good safety profile and elicits promising immunogenicity responses. These data support MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Young Adult
11.
Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul ; 109: 106260, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616431

ABSTRACT

Migration plays a crucial role in epidemic spreading, and its dynamic can be studied by metapopulation model. Instead of the uniform mixing hypothesis, we adopt networked metapopulation to build the model of the epidemic spreading and the individuals' migration. In these populations, individuals are connected by contact network and populations are coupled by individuals migration. With the network mean-field and the gravity law of migration, we establish the N-seat intertwined SIR model and obtain its basic reproduction number ℛ 0 . Meanwhile, we devise a non-markov Node-Search algorithm for model statistical simulations. Through the static network migration ansatz and ℛ 0 formula, we discover that migration will not directly increase the epidemic replication capacity. But when ℛ 0 > 1 , the migration will make the susceptive population evolve from metastable state (disease-free equilibrium) to stable state (endemic equilibrium), and then increase the influence area of epidemic. Re-evoluting the epidemic outbreak in Wuhan, top 94 cities empirical data validate the above mechanism. In addition, we estimate that the positive anti-epidemic measures taken by the Chinese government may have reduced 4 million cases at least during the first wave of COVID-19, which means those measures, such as the epidemiological investigation, nucleic acid detection in medium-high risk areas and isolation of confirmed cases, also play a significant role in preventing epidemic spreading after travel restriction between cities.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296594

ABSTRACT

Objectives To provide data on the immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV (PWH), MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing S-2P protein adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, was assessed. Methods A total of 57 PWH of ≥ 20 years of age who are on stable antiretroviral therapy and with CD4 + T cell ≥ 350 cells/mm 3 and HIV viral load < 10 3 copies/ml were compared with 882 HIV-negative participants. Participants received 2 doses of MVC-COV1901 28 days apart. Safety and the immunogenicity were evaluated. Results No vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. Seroconversion rates (SCRs) of 100% and 99.8% were achieved in people living with HIV (PWH) and comparators, respectively, 28 days after second dose. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus were 136.62 IU/mL (WHO Standardized International Unit) (95% CI 114.3-163.3) and 440.41 IU/mL (95% CI 421.3-460.4), for PWH and control groups, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, BMI category, and comorbidity, and the adjusted GMT ratio of comparator/PWH was 3.22 (95% CI 2.6-4.1). A higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with a higher GMT (R=0.27, p=0.039). Conclusions MVC-COV1901 has shown robust safety but weaker immunogenicity responses in PWH. As a result, a third dose or booster doses of MVC-COV1901 may be appropriate for PWH.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 733171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559118

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a global pandemic with high mortality and morbidity. Limited diagnostic methods hampered the infection control. Since the direct detection of virus mainly by RT-PCR may cause false-negative outcome, host response-dependent testing may serve as a complementary approach for improving COVID-19 diagnosis. Objective: Our study discovered a highly-preserved transcriptional profile of Type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent genes for COVID-19 complementary diagnosis. Methods: Computational language R-dependent machine learning was adopted for mining highly-conserved transcriptional profile (RNA-sequencing) across heterogeneous samples infected by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections. The transcriptomics/high-throughput sequencing data were retrieved from NCBI-GEO datasets (GSE32155, GSE147507, GSE150316, GSE162835, GSE163151, GSE171668, GSE182569). Mathematical approaches for homological analysis were as follows: adjusted rand index-related similarity analysis, geometric and multi-dimensional data interpretation, UpsetR, t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE), and Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Besides, Interferome Database was used for predicting the transcriptional factors possessing IFN-I promoter-binding sites to the key IFN-I genes for COVID-19 diagnosis. Results: In this study, we identified a highly-preserved gene module between SARS-CoV-2 infected nasal swab and postmortem lung tissue regulating IFN-I signaling for COVID-19 complementary diagnosis, in which the following 14 IFN-I-stimulated genes are highly-conserved, including BST2, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3, IFITM1, ISG15, MX1, MX2, OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, OASL, RSAD2, and STAT1. The stratified severity of COVID-19 may also be identified by the transcriptional level of these 14 IFN-I genes. Conclusion: Using transcriptional and computational analysis on RNA-seq data retrieved from NCBI-GEO, we identified a highly-preserved 14-gene transcriptional profile regulating IFN-I signaling in nasal swab and postmortem lung tissue infected by SARS-CoV-2. Such a conserved biosignature involved in IFN-I-related host response may be leveraged for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Machine Learning , Nasopharynx/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome
14.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296105

ABSTRACT

Summary Background We have assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccine MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing prefusion-stabilized spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide. Methods This is a phase 2, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multi-centre study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate MVC-COV1901. The study comprised 3,844 participants of ≥ 20 years who were generally healthy or with stable pre-existing medical conditions. The study participants were randomly assigned in a 6:1 ratio to receive either MVC-COV1901 containing 15 μg of S-2P protein or placebo containing saline. Participants received two doses of MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered 28 days apart via intramuscular injection. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from Day 1 (the day of first vaccination) to Day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 was assessed through geometric mean titres (GMT) and seroconversion rates (SCR) of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific immunoglobulin. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04695652 . Findings From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events across all study participants were pain at the injection site (64%), and malaise/fatigue (35%). Fever was rarely reported (<1%). For all participants in the MVC-COV1901 group, at 28 days after the second dose against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus, the GMT was 662·3 (408 IU/mL), the GMT ratio was 163·2, and the seroconversion rate was 99·8%. Interpretation MVC-COV1901 shows good safety profiles and promising immunogenicity responses. The current data supports MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials and could enable regulatory considerations for Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA). Funding Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control.

15.
European Review ; 29(6):762-769, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1521673

ABSTRACT

Early in 2020, while we were preparing for the Chinese lunar calendar’s New Year’s Day and Spring Festival on 25 January, the Covid-19 first appeared in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei Province and one of China’s biggest cities. The virus quickly spread through the entire country, causing thousands of people to lose their lives and many more to be hospitalized or quarantined. As a natural disaster suddenly appearing in the present world, the virus is a kind of revenge of nature upon human beings, who have exhausted the earth’s natural resources, ill-treated nature, and sometimes continued eating wild animals during the past few decades, as the grand project of modernity led to a process of globalization. The Butterfly Effect of this Black Swan, the coronavirus, set off a global upheaval. In China itself, through the joint efforts of ordinary people and medical personnel as well as central and local government intervention, the virus was effectively contained. Cases imported from abroad still flare up now and again though, and the epidemic escalates globally. Since this is a global health emergency, it should be contained by global governance.

16.
Innovation (N Y) ; 2(4): 100178, 2021 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481951
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 564938, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468327

ABSTRACT

T-cell reduction is an important characteristic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and its immunopathology is a subject of debate. It may be due to the direct effect of the virus on T-cell exhaustion or indirectly due to T cells redistributing to the lungs. HIV/AIDS naturally served as a T-cell exhaustion disease model for recognizing how the immune system works in the course of COVID-19. In this study, we collected the clinical charts, T-lymphocyte analysis, and chest CT of HIV patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China). The median age of the 21 patients was 47 years [interquartile range (IQR) = 40-50 years] and the median CD4 T-cell count was 183 cells/µl (IQR = 96-289 cells/µl). Eleven HIV patients were in the non-AIDS stage and 10 were in the AIDS stage. Nine patients received antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 12 patients did not receive any treatment. Compared to the reported mortality rate (nearly 4%-10%) and severity rate (up to 20%-40%) among COVID-19 patients in hospital, a benign duration with 0% severity and mortality rates was shown by 21 HIV/AIDS patients. The severity rates of COVID-19 were comparable between non-AIDS (median CD4 = 287 cells/µl) and AIDS (median CD4 = 97 cells/µl) patients, despite some of the AIDS patients having baseline lung injury stimulated by HIV: 7 patients (33%) were mild (five in the non-AIDS group and two in the AIDS group) and 14 patients (67%) were moderate (six in the non-AIDS group and eight in the AIDS group). More importantly, we found that a reduction in T-cell number positively correlates with the serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is contrary to the reported findings on the immune response of COVID-19 patients (lower CD4 T-cell counts with higher levels of IL-6 and CRP). In HIV/AIDS, a compromised immune system with lower CD4 T-cell counts might waive the clinical symptoms and inflammatory responses, which suggests lymphocyte redistribution as an immunopathology leading to lymphopenia in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Nano Energy ; 91: 106612, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458703

ABSTRACT

The fast-spreading of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping around the globe and brought heavy casualties and economic losses, which creates dire needs for technological solutions into medical preventive actions. In this work, triboelectric nanogenerator for respiratory sensing (RS-TENG) has been designed and integrated with facemask, which endows the latter with respiratory monitoring function. The output of RS-TENG for respiratory flow can reach up to about 8 V and 0.8 µA respectively although it varies with different respiratory status, which proves the high sensitivity of RS-TENG for respiratory monitoring. An apnea alarm system can be constructed by combining the smart facemask with circuit modules so that timely alarm can be transmitted after people stop breathing. Furthermore, RS-TENG can be used to control household appliances, which brings convenience to the life of the disabled people. Considering its incomparable advantages such as small volume, easy fabrication, simple installation and economical applicability, such design is helpful for developing multifunctional health monitoring gadgets during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441884

ABSTRACT

Bats have been identified as natural reservoirs of a variety of coronaviruses. They harbor at least 19 of the 33 defined species of alpha- and betacoronaviruses. Previously, the bat coronavirus HKU10 was found in two bat species of different suborders, Rousettus leschenaultia and Hipposideros pomona, in south China. However, its geographic distribution and evolution history are not fully investigated. Here, we screened this viral species by a nested reverse transcriptase PCR in our archived samples collected over 10 years from 25 provinces of China and one province of Laos. From 8004 bat fecal samples, 26 were found to be positive for bat coronavirus HKU10 (BtCoV HKU10). New habitats of BtCoV HKU10 were found in the Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan Provinces of China, and Louang Namtha Province in Laos. In addition to H. pomona, BtCoV HKU10 variants were found circulating in Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Hipposideros larvatus. We sequenced full-length genomes of 17 newly discovered BtCoV HKU10 strains and compared them with previously published sequences. Our results revealed a much higher genetic diversity of BtCoV HKU10, particularly in spike genes and accessory genes. Besides the two previously reported lineages, we found six novel lineages in their new habitats, three of which were located in Yunnan province. The genotypes of these viruses are closely related to sampling locations based on polyproteins, and correlated to bat species based on spike genes. Combining phylogenetic analysis, selective pressure, and molecular-clock calculation, we demonstrated that Yunnan bats harbor a gene pool of BtCoV HKU10, with H. pomona as a natural reservoir. The cell tropism test using spike-pseudotyped lentivirus system showed that BtCoV HKU10 could enter cells from human and bat, suggesting a potential interspecies spillover. Continuous studies on these bat coronaviruses will expand our understanding of the evolution and genetic diversity of coronaviruses, and provide a prewarning of potential zoonotic diseases from bats.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Biological Evolution , China , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Viral Proteins/genetics
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