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1.
Chem Sci ; 12(42): 14098-14102, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472230

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro or Mpro) is a key cysteine protease for viral replication and transcription, making it an attractive target for antiviral therapies to combat the COVID-19 disease. Here, we demonstrate that bismuth drug colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) is a potent inhibitor for 3CLpro in vitro and in cellulo. Rather than targeting the cysteine residue at the catalytic site, CBS binds to an allosteric site and results in dissociation of the 3CLpro dimer and proteolytic dysfunction. Our work provides direct evidence that CBS is an allosteric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro.

2.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471910

ABSTRACT

The global epidemic caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the infection of over 200 million people. To extend the knowledge of interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humans, we systematically investigate the interactome of 29 viral proteins in human cells by using an antibody-based TurboID assay. In total, 1,388 high-confidence human proximal proteins with biotinylated sites are identified. Notably, we find that SARS-CoV-2 manipulates the antiviral and immune responses. We validate that the membrane protein ITGB1 associates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, we reveal that SARS-CoV-2 proteins inhibit activation of the interferon pathway through the mitochondrial protein mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and the methyltransferase SET domain containing 2, histone lysine methyltransferase (SETD2). We propose 111 potential drugs for the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify three compounds that significantly inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2. The proximity labeling map of SARS-CoV-2 and humans provides a resource for elucidating the mechanisms of viral infection and developing drugs for COVID-19 treatment.

6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 221, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387195
7.
Cell Res ; 31(10): 1047-1060, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380899

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS2) has caused a global COVID-19 pandemic. The spike protein of SARS2 (SARS2-S) recognizes host receptors, including ACE2, to initiate viral entry in a complex biomechanical environment. Here, we reveal that tensile force, generated by bending of the host cell membrane, strengthens spike recognition of ACE2 and accelerates the detachment of spike's S1 subunit from the S2 subunit to rapidly prime the viral fusion machinery. Mechanistically, such mechano-activation is fulfilled by force-induced opening and rotation of spike's receptor-binding domain to prolong the bond lifetime of spike/ACE2 binding, up to 4 times longer than that of SARS-S binding with ACE2 under 10 pN force application, and subsequently by force-accelerated S1/S2 detachment which is up to ~103 times faster than that in the no-force condition. Interestingly, the SARS2-S D614G mutant, a more infectious variant, shows 3-time stronger force-dependent ACE2 binding and 35-time faster force-induced S1/S2 detachment. We also reveal that an anti-S1/S2 non-RBD-blocking antibody that was derived from convalescent COVID-19 patients with potent neutralizing capability can reduce S1/S2 detachment by 3 × 106 times under force. Our study sheds light on the mechano-chemistry of spike activation and on developing a non-RBD-blocking but S1/S2-locking therapeutic strategy to prevent SARS2 invasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tensile Strength , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166260, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-induced inflammatory responses are largely responsible for the death of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers inflammatory responses remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the regulatory role of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in infected cells and attempted to elucidate the molecular mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudovirions (SCV-2-S) were generated using the spike-expressing virus packaging system. Western blot, mCherry-GFP-LC3 labeling, immunofluorescence, and RNA-seq were performed to examine the regulatory mechanism of SCV-2-S in autophagic response. The effects of SCV-2-S on apoptosis were evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), Western blot, and flow cytometry analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to examine the mechanism of SCV-2-S in inflammatory responses. RESULTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-mediated SCV-2-S infection induced autophagy and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells. Mechanistically, SCV-2-S inhibited the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by upregulating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, thus promoting the autophagic response. Ultimately, SCV-2-S-induced autophagy triggered inflammatory responses and apoptosis in infected cells. These findings not only improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced pathogenic inflammation but also have important implications for developing anti-inflammatory therapies, such as ROS and autophagy inhibitors, for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis/immunology , Autophagy/physiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Vero Cells
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363676

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , /immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
10.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0074721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356909

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is bringing an unprecedented health crisis to the world. To date, our understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity is still limited. Previous studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12) was able to suppress interferon-ß (IFN-ß) activation in IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assays, which provided insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-ß promoter-mediated luciferase activity was reduced during coexpression of NSP12. However, we could show NSP12 did not affect IRF3 or NF-κB activation. Moreover, IFN-ß production induced by Sendai virus (SeV) infection or other stimulus was not affected by NSP12 at mRNA or protein level. Additionally, the type I IFN signaling pathway was not affected by NSP12, as demonstrated by the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Further experiments revealed that different experiment systems, including protein tags and plasmid backbones, could affect the readouts of IFN-ß promoter luciferase assays. In conclusion, unlike as previously reported, our study showed SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 protein is not an IFN-ß antagonist. It also rings the alarm on the general usage of luciferase reporter assays in studying SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Previous studies investigated the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and interferon signaling and proposed that several SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, including NSP12, could suppress IFN-ß activation. However, most of these results were generated from IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assay and have not been validated functionally. In our study, we found that, although NSP12 could suppress IFN-ß promoter luciferase activity, it showed no inhibitory effect on IFN-ß production or its downstream signaling. Further study revealed that contradictory results could be generated from different experiment systems. On one hand, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 could not suppress IFN-ß signaling. On the other hand, our study suggests that caution needs to be taken with the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-related luciferase assays.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Interferon-beta , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/biosynthesis , Interferon-beta/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
11.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0074721, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350002

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is bringing an unprecedented health crisis to the world. To date, our understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host innate immunity is still limited. Previous studies reported that SARS-CoV-2 nonstructural protein 12 (NSP12) was able to suppress interferon-ß (IFN-ß) activation in IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assays, which provided insights into the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-ß promoter-mediated luciferase activity was reduced during coexpression of NSP12. However, we could show NSP12 did not affect IRF3 or NF-κB activation. Moreover, IFN-ß production induced by Sendai virus (SeV) infection or other stimulus was not affected by NSP12 at mRNA or protein level. Additionally, the type I IFN signaling pathway was not affected by NSP12, as demonstrated by the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Further experiments revealed that different experiment systems, including protein tags and plasmid backbones, could affect the readouts of IFN-ß promoter luciferase assays. In conclusion, unlike as previously reported, our study showed SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 protein is not an IFN-ß antagonist. It also rings the alarm on the general usage of luciferase reporter assays in studying SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE Previous studies investigated the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and interferon signaling and proposed that several SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, including NSP12, could suppress IFN-ß activation. However, most of these results were generated from IFN-ß promoter luciferase reporter assay and have not been validated functionally. In our study, we found that, although NSP12 could suppress IFN-ß promoter luciferase activity, it showed no inhibitory effect on IFN-ß production or its downstream signaling. Further study revealed that contradictory results could be generated from different experiment systems. On one hand, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 NSP12 could not suppress IFN-ß signaling. On the other hand, our study suggests that caution needs to be taken with the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-related luciferase assays.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Interferon-beta , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/metabolism , Interferon-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/biosynthesis , Interferon-beta/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5376-5389, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206842

ABSTRACT

The suppression of types I and III interferon (IFN) responses by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contributes to the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to evade antiviral immunity needs further investigation. Here, we reported that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited types I and III IFN production by targeting multiple molecules of innate antiviral signaling pathways. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b impaired the induction of types I and III IFNs by Sendai virus and poly (I:C). SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b inhibited the activation of types I and III IFNs induced by the components of cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathways of RIG-I/MDA5-MAVS signaling, including RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TBK1, and IKKε, rather than IRF3-5D, which is the active form of IRF3. SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b also suppressed the induction of types I and III IFNs by TRIF and STING, which are the adaptor protein of the endosome RNA-sensing pathway of TLR3-TRIF signaling and the adaptor protein of the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway of cGAS-STING signaling, respectively. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b protein interacted with RIG-I, MDA-5, MAVS, TRIF, STING, and TBK1 and impeded the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IRF3. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b facilitated the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, the results showed that SARS-CoV-2 ORF9b negatively regulates antiviral immunity and thus facilitates viral replication. This study contributes to our understanding of the molecular mechanism through which SARS-CoV-2 impairs antiviral immunity and provides an essential clue to the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
DEAD Box Protein 58/immunology , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/immunology , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , I-kappa B Kinase/genetics , I-kappa B Kinase/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Interferons/genetics , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/immunology , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/metabolism , /immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Transfection , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
13.
Stem Cell Res ; 53: 102197, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046137

ABSTRACT

Excessive prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the key pathological basis for COVID-19 and a Celebrex treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with comorbidities led to 100% discharged rate and zero death (Hong et al. 2020). It is also suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infected multiple organs and the SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N) protein transcriptionally drives the expression of the host COX-2 gene. In order to test whether SARS-CoV-2 N protein activates COX-2 transcription in multiple human relevant cell types, an expression inducible human embryonic stem cell line was generated by piggyBac transposon system. This cell line maintained its pluripotency, differentiation potentials, normal morphology and karyotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Human Embryonic Stem Cells , Cell Line , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 299, 2020 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997814

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread worldwide and has affected more than 10 million individuals. A typical feature of COVID-19 is the suppression of type I and III interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral immunity. However, the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 evades antiviral immunity remains elusive. Here, we reported that the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein inhibits the production of type I and III IFNs induced by the cytosolic dsRNA-sensing pathway mediated by RIG-I/MDA-5-MAVS signaling. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein suppresses type I and III IFN induction stimulated by SeV infection or poly (I:C) transfection. Mechanistically, the SARS-CoV-2 M protein interacts with RIG-I, MAVS, and TBK1, thus preventing the formation of the multiprotein complex containing RIG-I, MAVS, TRAF3, and TBK1 and subsequently impeding the phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and activation of IRF3. Consequently, ectopic expression of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein facilitates the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. Taken together, these results indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 M protein antagonizes type I and III IFN production by targeting RIG-I/MDA-5 signaling, which subsequently attenuates antiviral immunity and enhances viral replication. This study provides insight into the interpretation of SARS-CoV-2-induced antiviral immune suppression and illuminates the pathogenic mechanism of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon Type I/biosynthesis , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Interferons/biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Interferons/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics
15.
J Med Virol ; 92(11): 2693-2701, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-942394

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV, or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) has caused an epidemic of the acute respiratory syndrome known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in humans. SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread to multiple regions of China and multiple other countries, posing a serious threat to public health. The spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 may use the same host cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), for entering host cells. The affinity between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 S protein is much higher than that of ACE2 binding to the SARS-CoV S protein, explaining why SARS-CoV-2 seems to be more readily transmitted from human to human. Here, we report that ACE2 can be significantly upregulated after infection of various viruses, including SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, or by the stimulation with inflammatory cytokines such as interferons. We propose that SARS-CoV-2 may positively induce its cellular entry receptor, ACE2, to accelerate its replication and spread; high inflammatory cytokine levels increase ACE2 expression and act as high-risk factors for developing COVID-19, and the infection of other viruses may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, drugs targeting ACE2 may be developed for the future emerging infectious diseases caused by this cluster of coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Gene Expression , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Microarray Analysis , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Up-Regulation
18.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1684-1689, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133577

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. Whether antibodies are important for the adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be determined. Here, 26 cases of COVID-19 in Jinan, China, were examined and shown to be mild or with common clinical symptoms, and no case of severe symptoms was found among these patients. Strikingly, a subset of these patients had SARS-CoV-2 and virus-specific IgG coexist for an unexpectedly long time, with two cases for up to 50 days. One COVID-19 patient who did not produce any SARS-CoV-2-bound IgG successfully cleared SARS-CoV-2 after 46 days of illness, revealing that without antibody-mediated adaptive immunity, innate immunity alone may still be powerful enough to eliminate SARS-CoV-2. This report may provide a basis for further analysis of both innate and adaptive immunity in SARS-CoV-2 clearance, especially in nonsevere cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers , COVID-19/blood , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Viral Load , Young Adult
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