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1.
J Eat Disord ; 10(1): 59, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study examined the role of anxiety and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) burnout in the relationship between coronavirus stress and overeating among Chinese college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Chinese college students (N = 2926; Mage = 19.90, SD = 1.47, range = 18-25 years old; 54.34% female) completed self-reported online questionnaires regarding coronavirus stress, anxiety, COVID-19 burnout, and overeating. RESULTS: Anxiety showed partially indirect effect on the association between coronavirus stress and overeating. COVID-19 burnout exacerbated the indirect pathway between coronavirus stress and overeating via anxiety. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This is the first study, to our knowledge, that examines the underlying mechanisms of the coronavirus stress and overeating behavior association among Chinese college students. The results support several existing theories on stress and problematic eating behaviors and provide practical implications for prevention and intervention programs of overeating during the COVID-19 pandemic.


One's response is not arbitrary when confronted with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previous research has found that individuals with coronavirus stress still be more prone to overeat. We also know from other research that anxiety is the most salient aspect of overeating. However, no research has investigated whether the coronavirus stress of college students is significantly associated with overeating and examine the potential indirect pathway and moderating mechanisms in this association. With the aid of 2926 participants, we found that, coronavirus stress was linked to college students' overeating. We also found that this relationship was partially explained by anxiety. In addition, the association between anxiety and overeating was stronger for those with higher COVID-19 burnout. This study is an important step in unpacking how coronavirus stress relates to overeating of Chinese college students. However, they are limited by the cross-sectional nature of the study, meaning we cannot imply causality. We recommend that further research replicate our findings in people with diagnosed feeding and eating disorders using a longitudinal design.

2.
Cell ; 185(13): 2265-2278.e14, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803705

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough infections by SARS-CoV-2 variants become the global challenge for pandemic control. Previously, we developed the protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 based on the dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of prototype SARS-CoV-2. Here, we developed a chimeric RBD-dimer vaccine approach to adapt SARS-CoV-2 variants. A prototype-Beta chimeric RBD-dimer was first designed to adapt the resistant Beta variant. Compared with its homotypic forms, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of variants and conferred better protection in mice. The protection of the chimeric vaccine was further verified in macaques. This approach was generalized to develop Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer to adapt the currently prevalent variants. Again, the chimeric vaccine elicited broader sera neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 variants and conferred better protection against challenge by either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The chimeric approach is applicable for rapid updating of immunogens, and our data supported the use of variant-adapted multivalent vaccine against circulating and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315567

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, led to the ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), which has claimed more than a half million lives in a few months. Enormous efforts are being made in developing vaccines and therapeutic treatment to fight against COVID-19. Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses are currently used as vaccine candidates;therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of SARS-CoV-2. We have propagated and purified a clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2 and genetically and structurally characterized β-propiolactone inactivated viruses. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are observed, the majority of viral spikes appear nail-shaped resembling a postfusion state, where S1 protein of the spike has disassociated. Cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map which closely matches the overall structure of SARS-CoV S2 spike and their corresponding glycosylation sites. Our findings have major implications in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design owing to the critical importance of prefusion immunogens.Funding: This work was supported by the Science and Technology Innovation Committee of Shenzhen Municipality(202002073000002), the National Institutes of Health grant P50AI150481 (P.Z.), the UK Wellcome Trust Investigator Award 206422/Z/17/Z(P.Z.), and the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council grant BB/S003339/1 (P.Z.). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing financial or non-financial interests. Ethical Approval: The research received approval from the Research Ethics Committee of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, China (approval number: 2020-038). The Research Ethics Committee waived the requirement informed consent before the study started because of the urgent need to collect epidemiological and clinical data. We analyzed the data anonymously.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312954

ABSTRACT

In the United States, the COVID-19 pandemic became an unconventional vehicle to advance partisan rhetoric and antagonism. Using data available at the individual- (Study 1;N = 4,220), county- (Study 2;n = 3,046), and state-level (n = 49), we found that partisanship and political orientation was a robust and strong correlate of mask use. Political conservatism and Republican partisanship were related to downplaying the severity of COVID-19 and perceiving masks as being ineffective that, in turn, were related to lower mask use. In contrast, we found that counties with majority Democrat partisanship reported greater mask use, controlling for various socioeconomic and demographic factors. Lastly, states with strong cultural collectivism reported greater mask use while those with strong religiosity reported the opposite. States with greater Democrat partisanship and strong cultural collectivism subsequently reported lower COVID-19 deaths, mediated by greater mask use and lower COVID-19 cases, in the five months following the second wave of COVID-19 in the US during the Summer of 2020. Nonetheless, more than the majority for Democrats (91.58%), Republicans (77.52%), and third-party members (82.48%) reported using masks. Implications for findings are discussed.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312952

ABSTRACT

With the exponential spread of COVID-19 across the United States, federal and local government agencies have issued orders for residents to shelter-in-place. This study utilizes data collected from Unacast Inc. spanning observations of 3,142 counties across 50 states and the District of Columbia (N = 230,846) from March 8, 2020 to April 13, 2020 (n = 104,930) and from April 14, 2020 to May 24, 2020 (n = 131,912) in a 3-level multilevel model to examine the correlates of social distancing behavior, as measured by the relative reduction in 1) distance traveled and 2) non-essential visitations since baseline pre-COVID-19 times. Results indicate that educational attainment and political partisanship were the most consistent correlates of social distancing. State-level indicators of culture appeared to have differentiated effects depending on whether the model outcomes were reduction in general mobility or to non-essential venues. State-level neuroticism was generally positively related to social distancing, but states marked by high neuroticism were slower to engage in such behaviors. Counties and states characterized as already engaging in preventive health measures (e.g., vaccination rates, preparedness for at-risk populations) enjoyed quicker engagement in social distancing. Specific implications of findings and future directions are discussed.

6.
Cell ; 185(4): 630-640.e10, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611650

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues worldwide with many variants arising, some of which are variants of concern (VOCs). A recent VOC, omicron (B.1.1.529), which obtains a large number of mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein, has risen to intense scientific and public attention. Here, we studied the binding properties between the human receptor ACE2 (hACE2) and the VOC RBDs and resolved the crystal and cryoelectron microscopy structures of the omicron RBD-hACE2 complex as well as the crystal structure of the delta RBD-hACE2 complex. We found that, unlike alpha, beta, and gamma, omicron RBD binds to hACE2 at a similar affinity to that of the prototype RBD, which might be due to compensation of multiple mutations for both immune escape and transmissibility. The complex structures of omicron RBD-hACE2 and delta RBD-hACE2 reveal the structural basis of how RBD-specific mutations bind to hACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Static Electricity , Structural Homology, Protein
7.
Int J Behav Med ; 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global spread of COVID-19 has brought immense psychological distress and sleep problems to those affected. This study examined the mediating role of rumination in the direct association between COVID-19 stressors and poor sleep quality and the moderating roles of emotion regulation strategies. METHOD: A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted in China during the early outbreak of the pandemic. A total of 1106 Chinese college students (Mage = 19.58, SD = 1.61) completed measures of COVID-19 stressors, rumination, emotion regulation strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and poor sleep quality. RESULTS: COVID-19 stressors were positively associated with poor sleep quality (ß = .431, p < .001), and rumination partially mediated this association. The mediation effect accounted for 70.93% of the total effect of COVID-19 stressors on poor sleep quality. Moreover, cognitive reappraisal moderated the relation between COVID-19 stressors and rumination, and expressive suppression moderated the association between rumination and poor sleep quality. CONCLUSION: Rumination could be a mechanism by which COVID-19 stressors are linked with poor sleep quality. Cognitive reappraisal might provide desired benefits to improving sleep quality while expressive suppression may do the opposite. Implications for future steps and health interventions are discussed.

8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 589579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378199

ABSTRACT

Federal and local government agencies were quick to issue orders for residents to shelter-in-place in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. This study utilized data collected from Unacast Inc., spanning observations of 3,142 counties across 50 states and the District of Columbia (N = 230,846) from March 8, 2020 to April 13, 2020 (n = 104,930) and from April 14, 2020 to May 24, 2020 (n = 131,912) in a 3-level multilevel model to examine the correlates of social distancing behavior, as measured by the relative reduction in (1) distance traveled and (2) non-essential visitations since baseline pre-COVID-19 times. Results showed that educational attainment and political partisanship were the most consistent correlates of social distancing. State-level indicators of culture appeared to have differentiated effects depending on whether the model outcomes were reduction in general mobility or to non-essential venues. State-level neuroticism was generally positively related to social distancing, but states marked by high neuroticism were slower to engage in such behaviors. Counties and states characterized as already engaging in preventive health measures (e.g., vaccination rates, preparedness for at-risk populations) enjoyed quicker engagement in social distancing. Specific implications of findings and future directions are discussed.

9.
Structure ; 28(11): 1218-1224.e4, 2020 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872505

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted from the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019. Currently, multiple efforts are being made to rapidly develop vaccines and treatments to fight COVID-19. Current vaccine candidates use inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viruses; therefore, it is important to understand the architecture of inactivated SARS-CoV-2. We have genetically and structurally characterized ß-propiolactone-inactivated viruses from a propagated and purified clinical strain of SARS-CoV-2. We observed that the virus particles are roughly spherical or moderately pleiomorphic. Although a small fraction of prefusion spikes are found, most spikes appear nail shaped, thus resembling a postfusion state, where the S1 protein of the spike has disassociated from S2. Cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging of these spikes yielded a density map that closely matches the overall structure of the SARS-CoV postfusion spike and its corresponding glycosylation site. Our findings have major implications for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, especially those using inactivated viruses.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Propiolactone/pharmacology , Virion/drug effects , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Electron Microscope Tomography , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virion/ultrastructure
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