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1.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 358:131903, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819523

ABSTRACT

The disposal of medical waste has become an increasing environmental issue since the COVID-19 epidemic outbreaks. Conventional disposal methods have produced waste of fossil resources and environmental problems. In this study, the waste medical mask-derived materials were tested as viscosity reducer and pour point depressant to evaluate the possibility of being used as crude oil fluidity improver. The results show that the materials derived from the three parts of the waste medical mask can reduce the viscosity and pour point of each crude oil samples from different oilfields in China. The middle layer of the medical mask (PP-2) displays the highest efficiency, and the viscosity reduction rate and maximum pour point reduction reaches 81% and 8.3 °C at 500 ppm, respectively. A probable mechanism of improving rheological properties of the crude oil samples by the medical mask-derived materials was further proposed after the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and the wax crystal morphology analysis. We hope this work could provide a way to solve the current environmental issues under COVID-19.

2.
Bioengineering ; 9(4):136, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809683

ABSTRACT

Objective: Pulmonary function parameters play a pivotal role in the assessment of respiratory diseases. However, the accuracy of the existing methods for the prediction of pulmonary function parameters is low. This study proposes a combination algorithm to improve the accuracy of pulmonary function parameter prediction. Methods: We first established a system to collect volumetric capnography and then processed the data with a combination algorithm to predict pulmonary function parameters. The algorithm consists of three main parts: a medical feature regression structure consisting of support vector machines (SVM) and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithms, a sequence feature regression structure consisting of one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN), and an error correction structure using improved K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. Results: The root mean square error (RMSE) of the pulmonary function parameters predicted by the combination algorithm was less than 0.39L and the R2 was found to be greater than 0.85 through a ten-fold cross-validation experiment. Conclusion: Compared with the existing methods for predicting pulmonary function parameters, the present algorithm can achieve a higher accuracy rate. At the same time, this algorithm uses specific processing structures for different features, and the interpretability of the algorithm is ensured while mining the feature depth information.

3.
BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making ; 22(1):1-11, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1808363

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment in surgical patients is important for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of patients. The commonly used Caprini model is limited by its inadequate ability to discriminate between risk stratums on the surgical population in southwest China and lengthy risk factors. The purpose of this study was to establish an improved VTE risk assessment model that is accurate and simple. Methods: This study is based on the clinical data from 81,505 surgical patients hospitalized in the Southwest Hospital of China between January 1, 2019 and June 18, 2021. Among the population, 559 patients developed VTE. An improved VTE risk assessment model, SW-model, was established through Logistic Regression, with comparisons to both Caprini and Random Forest. Results: The SW-model incorporated eight risk factors. The area under the curve (AUC) of SW-model (0.807 [0.758, 0.853], 0.804 [0.765, 0.840]), are significantly superior (p = 0.001 and p = 0.044) to those of the Caprini (0.705 [0.652, 0.757], 0.758 [0.719, 0795]) on two test sets, but inferior (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002) to Random Forest (0.854 [0.814, 0.890], 0.839 [0.806, 0.868]). In decision curve analysis, within threshold range from 0.015 to 0.04, the DCA curves of the SW-model are superior to Caprini and two default strategies. Conclusions: The SW-model demonstrated a higher discriminative capability to distinguish VTE positive in surgical patients compared with the Caprini model. Compared to Random Forest, Logistic Regression based SW-model provided interpretability which is essential in guarantee the procedure of risk assessment transparent to clinicians. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making is the property of BioMed Central and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; 150:112997, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803595

ABSTRACT

Background This study aimed to investigate the seroreactivity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and its adverse events among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and healthy controls (HCs). Methods A total of 60 SLE patients, 70 RA patients and 35 HCs, who received a complete inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cells) regimen, were recruited in the current study. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Results There were no significant differences regarding the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and the self-reported vaccination-related adverse events among SLE patients, RA patients and HCs. The inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appeared to be well-tolerated and moderately immunogenic. In addition, case-only analysis indicated that in SLE patients, the disease manifestation of rash and anti-SSA autoantibody were associated with seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2, whereas the uses of ciclosporin and leflunomide had influence on the seroprevalence of IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2. In RA patients, rheumatoid factor (RF) appeared to be associated with the seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion Our study reveals that the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination-related adverse effects are similar among SLE, RA and HCs, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for SLE and RA patients to prevent from the pandemic of COVID-19.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 824578, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775646

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a serious emerging global health problem, and little is known about the role of oropharynx commensal microbes in infection susceptibility and severity. Here, we present the oropharyngeal microbiota characteristics identified by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing through the NANOPORE platform of oropharynx swab specimens from 10 mild COVID-19 patients and 10 healthy controls. Our results revealed a distinct oropharyngeal microbiota composition in mild COVID-19 patients, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Pseudomonas stutzeri and depletion of Sphingomonas yabuuchiae, Agrobacterium sullae, and Pseudomonas veronii. Based on the relative abundance of the oropharyngeal microbiota at the species level, we built a microbial classifier to distinguish COVID-19 patients from healthy controls, in which P. veronii, Pseudomonas fragi, and S. yabuuchiae were identified as the most prominent signatures for their depletion in the COVID-19 group. Several members of the genus Campylobacter, especially Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter rectus, which were highly enriched in COVID-19 patients with higher severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load and showed a significant correlation with disease status and several routine clinical blood indicators, indicate that several bacteria may transform into opportunistic pathogen in COVID-19 patients when facing the challenges of viral infection. We also found the diver taxa Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus alactolyticus in the network of disease patients, suggesting that these oropharynx microbiota alterations may impact COVID-19 severity by influencing the microbial association patterns. In conclusion, the low sample size of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients (n = 10) here makes these results tentative; however, we have provided the overall characterization that oropharyngeal microbiota alterations and microbial correlation patterns were associated with COVID-19 severity in Anhui Province.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Humans , Oropharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Protein Cell ; 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773029

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinical manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various examined tissues/organs, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Based on our findings, neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, was significantly elevated in cerebral cortex post infection, accompanied by active immune response releasing inflammatory factors and signal transmission among tissues, which enhanced infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in a positive feedback way, leading to viral encephalitis. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.

7.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 121, 2022 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768837

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of 2019 turned into a global pandemic. To help analyze the spread and evolution of the virus, we collated and analyzed data related to the viral genome, sequence variations, and locations in temporal and spatial distribution from GISAID. Information from the Wikipedia web page and published research papers were categorized and mined to extract epidemiological data, which was then integrated with the public dataset. Genomic and epidemiological data were matched with public information, and the data quality was verified by manual curation. Finally, an online database centered on virus genomic information and epidemiological data can be freely accessible at https://www.biosino.org/kgcov/ , which is helpful to identify relevant knowledge and devising epidemic prevention and control policies in collaboration with disease control personnel.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330164

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has caused serious casualties worldwide. In recent months, the virus has mutated into an increasingly infectious form (Delta variant) and spread rapidly. Methods In the current study, we analyzed the clinical, epidemiological and viral genetic characteristics of the first four imported Delta cases in Anhui Province, China. Results The four imported Delta cases developed chest inflammation, tissue damage and recovered after admission, the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CRP levels showed a first increasing and then decreasing trend. The changes of hs-CRP /CRP and serum neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels were associated with the regression of chest lesions. The combination of genetic sequencing and epidemiological analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection of these four patients may originate from Russia. Conclusions Our study found the certain correlations of serum hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels with the occurrence, development and outcome of COVID-19 delta variant, suggesting that monitoring hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels of COVID-19 delta variant patients at hospital admission may be useful for understanding the severity of patients’ current conditions.

9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329972

ABSTRACT

Background: The classic prescription Chaihu Shugan Powder (CHSGP) has been widely used in clinical Chinese medicine treatment and has clear clinical effects in the treatment of emotional diseases. Based on the increasing incidence of emotional diseases such as insomnia and depression in the population during the COVID-19 pandemic, we will explore the mechanism of CHSGP in the treatment of insomnia and depression with “Same Treatment for Different Diseases”. Methods: : Using a bioinformatics and network pharmacology platform, protein database and STRING database, we collected CHSGP chemical composition and related target data and constructed a "component-target" action network through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking technology was used to verify key active ingredients and core targets. Results: : A total of 119 active compounds of CHSGP were screened, such as quercetin, kaempferol, and β-sitosterol, and 113 common related targets overlapped with insomnia and depression. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis mainly involved immune, inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, endocrine and other related targets and signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that small molecular compounds (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone and beta-sitosterol) had good binding effects with five target proteins (AKT1, IL1B, IL-6, FOS, GSK3B) to play a role in regulating immunity, the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling. Conclusions: : Under the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it revealed the complex mechanism of multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway of the classic CHSGP for insomnia and depression, laying a theoretical foundation for its clinical application of its "same treatment for different diseases".

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(12)2020 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725660

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of people's lives all over the world. This Facebook survey study aimed to investigate the COVID-19-related factors that were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts among members of the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan. The online survey recruited 1970 participants through a Facebook advertisement. Their self-reported experience of sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the previous week were collected along with a number of COVID-19-related factors, including level of worry, change in social interaction and daily lives, any academic/occupational interference, levels of social and specific support, and self-reported physical health. In total, 55.8% of the participants reported sleep disturbance, and 10.8% reported having suicidal thoughts in the previous week. Multiple COVID-19-related factors were associated with sleep disturbance and suicidal thoughts in the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased worry about COVID-19, more severe impact of COVID-19 on social interaction, lower perceived social support, more severe academic/occupational interference due to COVID-19, lower COVID-19-specified support, and poorer self-reported physical health were significantly associated with sleep disturbance. Less handwashing, lower perceived social support, lower COVID-19-specified support, poorer self-reported physical health, and younger age were significantly associated with suicidal thoughts. Further investigation is needed to understand the changes in mental health among the public since the mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , Adult , Anxiety , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Social Media , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 829273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715010

ABSTRACT

Detection of serum-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody has become a complementary means for the identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As we already know, the neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 decrease during the course of time after convalescence, whereas the duration of antibody responses in the convalescent patients has not been defined clearly. In the current study, we collected 148 serum samples from 37 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities. The neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IgM and IgG against COVID-19 were determined by CLIA Microparticle and microneutralization assay, respectively. The time duration of serum titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recorded. Our results indicate that IgG (94.44%) and Nabs (89.19%) can be detected at low levels within 190-266 days of disease onset. The findings can advance knowledge regarding the antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and provide a method for evaluating the immune response after vaccination.

13.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(2): 197-198, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704441
14.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 2022 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699825

ABSTRACT

We examined the effects of anticipatory emotions induced by episodic future thinking on the basic decision-process of delay discounting and preventive behaviors during the most stringent COVID-19 "lockdown" period in China. We define anticipatory emotions as any discrete emotions induced from anticipating decision outcomes and felt during decision-making. In an online study conducted with healthy volunteers, anticipatory emotions were induced and appraised by asking participants to rate various emotions they feel when thinking they may be infected by COVID-19 (N = 246). The participants in the control group reported their present emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic (N = 245). Compared with the control group, the participants in the anticipatory emotion group had a higher future-oriented preference for monetary rewards, with a significantly lower delay discounting rate. These participants also had a higher intention to engage in proactive, preventive behaviors. The likelihood estimate of being infected by COVID-19 mediated these effects. Moreover, anticipatory disgust increased the preference for larger-and-later rewards. Anticipatory emotions induced by future thinking guide fast and rational decision-making in a health crisis.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 566609, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699160

ABSTRACT

Object: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of α-Lipoic acid (ALA) for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A randomized, single-blind, group sequential, active-controlled trial was performed at JinYinTan Hospital, Wuhan, China. Between February 2020 and March 2020, 17 patients with critically ill COVID-19 were enrolled in our study. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either ALA (1200 mg/d, intravenous infusion) once daily plus standard care or standard care plus equal volume saline infusion (placebo) for 7 days. All patients were monitored within the 7 days therapy and followed up to day 30 after therapy. The primary outcome of this study was the Sequential Organ Failure Estimate (SOFA) score, and the secondary outcome was the all-cause mortality within 30 days. Result: Nine patients were randomized to placebo group and 8 patients were randomized to ALA group. SOFA score was similar at baseline, increased from 4.3 to 6.0 in the placebo group and increased from 3.8 to 4.0 in the ALA group (P = 0.36) after 7 days. The 30-day all-cause mortality tended to be lower in the ALA group (3/8, 37.5%) compared to that in the placebo group (7/9, 77.8%, P = 0.09). Conclusion: In our study, ALA use is associated with lower SOFA score increase and lower 30-day all-cause mortality as compared with the placebo group. Although the mortality rate was two-folds higher in placebo group than in ALA group, only borderline statistical difference was evidenced due to the limited patient number. Future studies with larger patient cohort are warranted to validate the role of ALA in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49534.

16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(12): 1071-1072, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699854
17.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328833

ABSTRACT

Background: The classic prescription Chaihu Shugan Powder (CHSGP) has been widely used in clinical Chinese medicine treatment and has clear clinical effects in the treatment of emotional diseases. Based on the increasing incidence of emotional diseases such as insomnia and depression in the population during the COVID-19 pandemic, we will explore the mechanism of CHSGP in the treatment of insomnia and depression with “Same Treatment for Different Diseases”. Methods: : Using a bioinformatics and network pharmacology platform, protein database and STRING database, we collected CHSGP chemical composition and related target data and constructed a "component-target" action network through Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analysis. Molecular docking technology was used to verify key active ingredients and core targets. Results: : A total of 119 active compounds of CHSGP were screened, such as quercetin, kaempferol, and β-sitosterol, and 113 common related targets overlapped with insomnia and depression. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis mainly involved immune, inflammation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, endocrine and other related targets and signaling pathways. Molecular docking showed that small molecular compounds (kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin, 7-methoxy-2-methyl isoflavone and beta-sitosterol) had good binding effects with five target proteins (AKT1, IL1B, IL-6, FOS, GSK3B) to play a role in regulating immunity, the inflammatory response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and endocrine signaling. Conclusions: : Under the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it revealed the complex mechanism of multicomponent, multitarget, and multipathway of the classic CHSGP for insomnia and depression, laying a theoretical foundation for its clinical application of its "same treatment for different diseases".

18.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327486

ABSTRACT

Constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1 and BA.2, pose a severe challenge to COVID-19 control 1–10 . Broad-spectrum antibody therapeutics and vaccines are needed for defending against future SARS-CoV-2 variants and sarbecovirus pandemics 11–14 ;however, we have yet to gain a comprehensive understanding of the epitopes capable of inducing broad sarbecovirus neutralization. Here, we report the identification of 241 anti-RBD broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies isolated from 44 SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated SARS convalescents. Neutralizing efficacy of these antibodies against D614G, SARS-CoV-1, Omicron variants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2), RATG13 and Pangolin-GD is tested, and their binding capability to 21 sarbecovirus RBDs is measured. High-throughput yeast-display mutational screening was further applied to determine each antibody’s RBD escaping mutation profile, and unsupervised epitope clustering based on escaping mutation hotspots was performed 7,15–18 . A total of 6 clusters of broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies with diverse breadth and epitopes were identified, namely Group E1 (S309 19 , BD55-3152 site), E3 (S2H97 20 site), F1 (CR3022 21 , S304 22 site), F2 (DH1047 23 , BD55-3500 site), F3 (ADG-2 24 , BD55-3372 site) and B’ (S2K146 25 site). Members of E1, F2 and F3 demonstrate the highest neutralization potency;yet, Omicron, especially BA.2, has evolved multiple mutations (G339D, N440K, T376A, D405N, R408S) to escape antibodies of these groups. Nevertheless, broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies that survived Omicron would serve as favorable therapeutic candidates. Furthermore, structural analyses of selected drug candidates propose two non-competing antibody pairing strategies, E1-F2 and E1-F3, as broad-spectrum antibody cocktails. Together, our work provides a comprehensive epitope map of broad sarbecovirus neutralizing antibodies and offers critical instructions for designing broad-spectrum vaccines.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325426

ABSTRACT

Due to the lockdown measures during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the economic activities and the associated emissions have significantly declined. This reduction in emissions has created a natural experiment to assess the impact of the emitted precursor control policy on ozone (O$_3$) pollution, which has become a public concern in China during the last decade. In this study, we utilized comprehensive satellite, ground-level observations, and source-oriented chemical transport modeling to investigate the O$_3$ variations during the COVID-19 in China. Here we found that the O$_3$ formation regime shifted from a VOC-limited regime to a NOx-limited regime due to the lower NOx during the COVID-19 lockdown. However, instead of these changes of the O$_3$ formation region, the significant elevated O$_3$ in the North China Plain (40%) and Yangtze River Delta (35%) were mainly attributed to the enhanced atmospheric oxidant capacity (AOC) in these regions, which was different from previous studies. We suggest that future O$_3$ control policies should comprehensively consider the synergistic effects of O$_3$ formation regime and AOC on the O$_3$ elevation.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324533

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinic manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various tissues/organs examined, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Neuronal receptor NRP1 expression showed a significant induction by SARS-CoV-2 in cerebral cortex, which might be responsible for a higher infectivity and consequent inflammatory response. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.

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