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2.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(2): 197-198, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704441
3.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(12): 1071-1072, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699854
4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(10): 903-910, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546070

ABSTRACT

Effective strategies are urgently needed to decrease the risk of untoward outcomes of pregnant women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) infection. Pregnant women are a vulnerable population to infectious disease pandemics with dramatically increased infectious diseases-related serious complications, such as the need of hospitalizations, the need of admission to intensive care unit, and the final disease-related death compared with those nonpregnant counterparts or those pregnant women without infection. Several studies have shown that vaccinations in pregnancy are a safe and highly effective strategy, not only for pregnant women but also for fetus and/or newborn because of the passive transplacental transfer of antibodies to the offspring. Active and passive prevention of infectious diseases is approved as effective strategies for women who attempt to become pregnant or during pregnancy. Despite the large and proven scientific evidence, pregnant women still puzzle over whether they should get vaccinated. The question therefore arises: Why are pregnant women so reluctant to receive vaccination? The explanation is more likely in the way that the benefits of vaccination have been communicated "confusedly." In fact, like virtually all clinical trials, all the COVID-19 vaccine trials have excluded pregnant and lactating women from participating, contributing to uncertainty of safety and efficacy in COVID-19 vaccines that have been well prepared and available for the general adult population worldwide. Moreover, messenger RNA vaccine is a relatively brand-new vaccine, and experience with this type of vaccine is still scarce. It is hard to overcome this innovation deadlock. The knowledge and awareness of pregnant women who are at risk, and full information on the knowledge of vaccines and related preventable diseases in pregnant women may avoid hesitancy and increase vaccine acceptance. The current review is a part two addressing the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women. We focus on the up-to-date information about the application of vaccination on pregnant women, especially during this COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pregnancy/immunology , Pregnant Women
5.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(9): 813-820, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494058

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) is a pandemic disease with rapidly and widely disseminating to the world. Based on experiences about the H1N1, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus pandemics, pregnant women who are infected are disproportionately more likely to develop severe illness and need more hospitalizations, intensive care, and finally die of diseases compared with those nonpregnant counterparts or those pregnant women without infection. Although more than one half of pregnant women with COVID-19 are asymptomatic, and as well as their symptoms are frequently mild, this observation presents a further challenge regarding service provision, prevention, and management, in which this may result in overlooking the risk of COVID-19 during pregnancy. As predictable, despite much advance in critical care in recent decades, during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women with COVID-19 are really at higher risk to progress to severe illness; require hospitalization; need intensive care, such as the use of mechanical ventilation as well as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and of most important, die than their nonpregnant counterparts and pregnant women without COVID-19. The magnitude of the risk to pregnant women further extend to their newborn from COVID-19 with resultant significantly increasing perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates. The heightened risk of untoward outcomes in pregnant women emphasizes an urgent need of national or international recommendations and guidelines to optimize prevention and management strategies for COVID-19 in pregnancy. Active and passive prevention of COVID-19 is approved as effective strategies for women who attempt to be pregnant or during pregnancy. Understanding that pregnant women who are a vulnerable population is essential to improve the care in the novel and urgent COVID-19 pandemic. The current review is a part I to summarize the up-to-date information about the impact of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant women and focus on clinical presentations and untoward pregnancy outcomes of these pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(5): 945-948, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) is a global health crisis. Although pregnant women are a vulnerable population during the infectious pandemics, extremely rare cases of pregnant women infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are described in Taiwan. We share our experience to manage a pregnant women with COVID-19 in the third trimester and subsequent delivery at term. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old woman presented with sore throat, cough and rhinorrhea was diagnosed as laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at the 35 gestational weeks (GW). During the hospitalization, the disease progressed with a need of oxygen supplement and prednisolone therapy. She was discharged uneventfully at 37 GW. Finally, she delivered a female baby with Apgar score of 8-9 points at 38 GW by cesarean section due to the deformity of pelvic cavity resulted from previous surgery for pelvic bone tumor. Both mother and her offspring (without SARS-CoV-2 infection) were discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSION: Our report adds the growing body of experience toward management of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Decision making of timing and method of delivery is regarding to individualized condition and hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Adult , Apgar Score , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
7.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 60(5): 942-944, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336974

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A real-Taiwan experience to deal with near-term pregnant woman infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) is extremely limited. We described the first case in Taiwan. CASE REPORT: A 30-year-old woman, primigravida had a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection at 36 gestational weeks (GW). She was asymptomatic. Ten days later, she was hospitalized and receive a selective cesarean section with a term baby weighted 3142 gm (Apgar score 8 and 9 at 1st and 5th minute, respectively) at 38 GW. No evidence of in utero and direct transmission was found and newborn was free of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: It is still uncertain whether timing or mode of delivery is appropriate in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant woman in near term, but we suggested that a selective delivery time at 38 GW or later, regardless of which mode of delivery is finally decided, can be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Apgar Score , Asymptomatic Diseases , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Taiwan
8.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(10): 895-897, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990893

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has been spread worldwide rapidly now. Over 5.3-million confirmed cases and 340,000 disease-associated deaths have been found till May 25, 2020. The potential pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 to affect the target is via the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. This receptor plays a dominant role in the fertility function. Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis. In this literature, we reviewed several studies to evaluate the relevance between SARS-CoV-2, ACE receptor, and female and male reproductive system and found that the risk of being attacked by SARS-CoV-2 is higher in males than in females. Since men infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus may have the risk of impaired reproductive performance, such as the orchitis and an elevated of luteinizing hormone (LH), and additionally, SARS-CoV-2 virus may be found in semen, although the latter is still debated, all suggest that we should pay much attention to sexual transmitted disease and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Genitalia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Female , Fertility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
9.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(9): 812-816, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752078

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, later named SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic disease worldwide. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is continuing at a rapid speed. Till May 4, 2020, there have been 3,407,747 confirmed cases and 238,198 deaths globally. The common symptoms in pregnant women are fever, cough, and dyspnea. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has transient overexpression and increased activity during pregnancy, which is now confirmed as the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 and plays essential roles in human infection and transmission. There is no evidence that pregnant women are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. To date, there is no valid medication or vaccination. The immune suppression or modulation during pregnancy increases the risk of severe pneumonia. Remdesivir is an antiviral medication targeting ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis that has clinical improvement in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Chloroquine is controversial in its effectiveness and safety to treat SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir is safe in pregnancy. Chloroquine has not been formally assigned to a pregnancy category by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The management strategy includes monitoring fetal heart rate and uterine contractions; early oxygenation if O2 saturation is less than 95%; empiric antibiotics for prevention of secondary infection; corticosteroid to treat maternal SARS-CoV-2 disease routinely is not suggested, only for fetal lung maturation in selected cases; and consideration of delivery is according to the obstetric indication, gestational age, and severity of the disease. During epidemics, delivery at 32-34 weeks is considered. The indication for the Cesarean section should be flexible to minimize the risk of infection during the delivery. The newborn should be in isolation ward immediately after birth; breastfeeding is not contraindicated but should avoid direct transmission infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
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