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1.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics ; : 113974, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1611633

ABSTRACT

Rapid and reliable detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody can provide immunological evidence in addition to nucleic acid test for the early diagnosis and on-site screening of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All-solid-state biosensor capable of rapid, quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is still lacking. Herein, we propose an electronic labelling strategy of protein molecules and demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 protein biosensor employing colloidal quantum dots (CQDs)-modified electrode. The feature current peak corresponding to the specific binding reaction of SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody proteins was observed for the first time. The unique charging and discharging effect depending on the alternating voltage applied was ascribed to the quantum confinement, Coulomb blockade and quantum tunneling effects of quantum dots. CQDs-modified electrode could recognize the specific binding reaction between antigen and antibody and then transduce it into significant electrical current. In the case of serum specimens from COVID-19 patient samples, the all-solid-state protein biosensor provides quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibody with correlation coefficient of 93.8% compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results. It discriminates patient and normal samples with accuracy of about 90%. The results could be read within 1 min by handheld testing system prototype. The sensitive and specific protein biosensor combines the advantages of rapidity, accuracy, and convenience, facilitating the implement of low-cost, high-throughput immunological diagnostic technique for clinical lab, point-of-care testing (POCT) as well as home-use test.

2.
Displays ; : 102144, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1587952

ABSTRACT

Radiomics based on lesion segmentation has been widely accepted for disease diagnosis;however, it is difficult to precisely determine the boundary for pneumonia due to its diffuse characteristics. In this study, we aimed to propose an automatic radiomics method using whole-lung segmentation in pneumonia discrimination and assist clinical practitioners in fast and accurate diagnosis. In the discovery set, data from 151 participants diagnosed with type A or B influenza virus pneumonia, 63 diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 50 healthy participants were collected. The three groups of data were compared in pairs. A total of 117 radiomics features were extracted from whole-lung images segmented by a four-layer U-net. We then utilized a logistic regression model to train the model and used the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to assess its performance. The L1 regularization term was used in feature selection, and 10-fold cross-validation was used to tune the hyperparameters. Fourteen radiomics features were selected to classify influenza pneumonia and health, and the AUC was 0.957 (95% confidential interval (CI): 0.939, 0.976) in the training set and 0.914 (95% CI: 0.866, 0.963) in the testing set. Eighteen features were selected for COVID-19 and health, and the AUC was 0.949 (95% CI: 0.926, 0.973)in the training set and 0.911 (95% CI: 0.859, 0.963) in the testing set. Twenty-eight features were selected for influenza virus pneumonia and COVID-19, and the AUC was 0.895 (95% CI: 0.870, 0.920) in the training set and 0.839 (95% CI: 0.791, 0.887) in the testing set. The results show that the automatic radiomics model based on whole lung segmentation is effective in distinguishing influenza virus pneumonia, COVID-19 and health, and may assist in the diagnosis of influenza virus pneumonia and COVID-19.

3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24246, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Predicting early respiratory failure due to COVID-19 can help triage patients to higher levels of care, allocate scarce resources, and reduce morbidity and mortality by appropriately monitoring and treating the patients at greatest risk for deterioration. Given the complexity of COVID-19, machine learning approaches may support clinical decision making for patients with this disease. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to derive a machine learning model that predicts respiratory failure within 48 hours of admission based on data from the emergency department. METHODS: Data were collected from patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to Northwell Health acute care hospitals and were discharged, died, or spent a minimum of 48 hours in the hospital between March 1 and May 11, 2020. Of 11,525 patients, 933 (8.1%) were placed on invasive mechanical ventilation within 48 hours of admission. Variables used by the models included clinical and laboratory data commonly collected in the emergency department. We trained and validated three predictive models (two based on XGBoost and one that used logistic regression) using cross-hospital validation. We compared model performance among all three models as well as an established early warning score (Modified Early Warning Score) using receiver operating characteristic curves, precision-recall curves, and other metrics. RESULTS: The XGBoost model had the highest mean accuracy (0.919; area under the curve=0.77), outperforming the other two models as well as the Modified Early Warning Score. Important predictor variables included the type of oxygen delivery used in the emergency department, patient age, Emergency Severity Index level, respiratory rate, serum lactate, and demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The XGBoost model had high predictive accuracy, outperforming other early warning scores. The clinical plausibility and predictive ability of XGBoost suggest that the model could be used to predict 48-hour respiratory failure in admitted patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Machine Learning , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Decision Rules , Early Warning Score , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , ROC Curve , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779720, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528877

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the approval of COVID-19 vaccinations for children and adolescents in China, parental vaccine hesitancy will emerge as a new challenge with regard to the administration of these vaccines. However, little is known regarding this hesitancy as well as regional differences that may exist between parents from Shandong vs. Zhejiang. Methods: To assess these issues, an online survey was conducted via a Wenjuanxing platform over the period from July 22 to August 14, 2021. Parents from Shandong and Zhejiang were recruited from Wechat groups and results from a total of 917 subjects were analyzed. Factors evaluated in this survey included socio-demographic variables, parental vaccine hesitancy, Parental Attitudes toward Childhood Vaccines (PACV) domains (behavior, safety and efficacy, general attitudes) and social support. Results: Compared with those from Shandong (N = 443), parents from Zhejiang (N = 474) showed significantly higher prevalence rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (19.4 vs. 11.7%, p = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that yearly household incomes of ≥120,000 RMB (p = 0.041), medical workers (p = 0.022) and general attitudes of PACV (p = 0.004) were risk factors for vaccine hesitancy among parents from Shandong, while behavior (p = 0.004), safety and efficacy (p < 0.001) and general attitudes of PACV (p = 0.002) were risk factors for parents from Zhejiang. Among parents with vaccine hesitancy (N = 144), concerns over side effects (91.0%) and unknown effects (84.0%) of the COVID-19 vaccine were the most prevalent reasons for hesitancy. Evidence providing proof of vaccine safety (67.4%) and assurance of a low risk of being infected by COVID-19 (60.4%) were the two most effective persuasive factors. Conclusion: Parents from Zhejiang showed a higher prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy as compared with those from Shandong. Behavior, safety and efficacy, and general attitudes of PACV were the risk factors associated with this hesitancy in these parents from Zhejiang. Given the identification of the various reasons for parental vaccine hesitancy, different strategies as well as regional adjustments in these strategies will be required for an effective and convincing protocol for childhood vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
Mol Ther ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510414

ABSTRACT

To advance a novel concept of debulking virus in the oral cavity, the primary site of viral replication, virus-trapping proteins CTB-ACE2 were expressed in chloroplasts and clinical-grade plant material was developed to meet FDA requirements. Chewing gum (2 g) containing plant cells expressed CTB-ACE2 up to 17.2 mg ACE2/g dry weight (11.7% leaf protein), have physical characteristics and taste/flavor like conventional gums, and no protein was lost during gum compression. CTB-ACE2 gum efficiently (>95%) inhibited entry of lentivirus spike or VSV-spike pseudovirus into Vero/CHO cells when quantified by luciferase or red fluorescence. Incubation of CTB-ACE2 microparticles reduced SARS-CoV-2 virus count in COVID-19 swab/saliva samples by >95% when evaluated by microbubbles (femtomolar concentration) or qPCR, demonstrating both virus trapping and blocking of cellular entry. COVID-19 saliva samples showed low or undetectable ACE2 activity when compared with healthy individuals (2,582 versus 50,126 ΔRFU; 27 versus 225 enzyme units), confirming greater susceptibility of infected patients for viral entry. CTB-ACE2 activity was completely inhibited by pre-incubation with SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain, offering an explanation for reduced saliva ACE2 activity among COVID-19 patients. Chewing gum with virus-trapping proteins offers a general affordable strategy to protect patients from most oral virus re-infections through debulking or minimizing transmission to others.

6.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493682

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, over 100 million people have been infected by COVID-19, millions of whom have died. In the latest year, a large number of omics data have sprung up and helped researchers broadly study the sequence, chemical structure and function of SARS-CoV-2, as well as molecular abnormal mechanisms of COVID-19 patients. Though some successes have been achieved in these areas, it is necessary to analyze and mine omics data for comprehensively understanding SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Hence, we reviewed the current advantages and limitations of the integration of omics data herein. Firstly, we sorted out the sequence resources and database resources of SARS-CoV-2, including protein chemical structure, potential drug information and research literature resources. Next, we collected omics data of the COVID-19 hosts, including genomics, transcriptomics, microbiology and potential drug information data. And subsequently, based on the integration of omics data, we summarized the existing data analysis methods and the related research results of COVID-19 multi-omics data in recent years. Finally, we put forward SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) multi-omics data integration research direction and gave a case study to mine deeper for the disease mechanisms of COVID-19.

7.
J Health Commun ; 26(9): 657-666, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488088

ABSTRACT

Due to the increasing amount of new information that is emerging about COVID-19, traditional and web-based information sources are commonly used to spread and seek information. This study compared differences in information seeking, trust of information sources, and use of protective behaviors (e.g., mask wearing) among individuals in the US and China during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 722 valid responses in the US and 493 valid responses in China were collected via online surveys in May 2020. Pearson's Chi-square tests, independent samples t-tests, and multiple linear regressions were used to conduct the analyses. Results showed that US respondents accessed significantly fewer COVID-19 information sources, rated significantly lower levels of trust in these sources, and reported significantly lower levels of protective behaviors than the Chinese respondents. In both countries, trust in newspapers, radio/community broadcasting, and news portals were significantly positively correlated with protective behaviors. While trust of TV was significant in both populations, in China it was positively correlated, whereas in the US was negatively correlated, with protective behaviors. Findings from this study showed that coordinated and consistent messages from governmental officials, health authorities, and media platforms are important to promote and encourage protective behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Information Seeking Behavior , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust
8.
Biomed Hub ; 6(3): 102-110, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484151

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19, a continuously emerging human-to-human infectious disease, has exerted a significant impact on the mental health of college students. However, little is known regarding the variations in the mental health issues experienced by college students during the peak versus reopening stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Methods: To assess these issues, an online longitudinal survey was conducted via a WeChat applet. Undergraduates (n = 300) were recruited from 26 universities throughout Jinan in February 2020 (T1 - the epidemic peak stage) and in January 2021 (T2 - the society reopening stage). Their mental status was determined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 item, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Results: Of the original 300 college students recruited for this survey, 294 responses at T1 and 285 at T2 were analyzed. Compared with responses obtained at T1, college students at T2 showed a greater prevalence of depression (65.3 vs. 51.0%; p = 0.001) and anxiety (47.7 vs. 38.1%, p = 0.019), and experienced more severe depression (p < 0.001) and anxiety (p < 0.001). Both males (p = 0.03) and females (p < 0.01) showed higher levels of depression at T2 versus T1, while no differences were obtained with regard to anxiety and insomnia. At T1, Grade 4 students showed greater levels of depression (p = 0.005) and anxiety (p = 0.008) than that of Grade 1 students. While at T2, only greater levels of depression (p = 0.004) were present when compared with that of Grade 1 students. Additionally, Grade 4 college students demonstrated a greater prevalence of depression at T2 versus T1 (p = 0.03), but no statistically differences were present for anxiety and insomnia. No statistically significant differences were obtained among the 4 grades of college students for insomnia at either the T1 or T2. Conclusion: With progression of the COVID-19 epidemic, college students showed increasing levels of depression and anxiety, with Grade 4 college students being most seriously affected. It is imperative that intervention strategies be implemented to mitigate against these mental health issues resulting from the COVID-19 epidemic.

9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462427

ABSTRACT

SCovid (http://bio-annotation.cn/scovid) aims at providing a comprehensive resource of single-cell data for exposing molecular characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 10 human tissues. COVID-19, an epidemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been found to be accompanied with multiple-organ failure since its first report in Dec 2019. To reveal tissue-specific molecular characteristics, researches regarding to COVID-19 have been carried out widely, especially at single-cell resolution. However, these researches are still relatively independent and scattered, limiting the comprehensive understanding of the impact of virus on diverse tissues. To this end, we developed a single-cell atlas of COVID-19. Firstly we collected 21 single-cell datasets of COVID-19 across 10 human tissues paired with control datasets. Then we constructed a pipeline for the analysis of these datasets to reveal molecular characteristics of COVID-19 based on manually annotated cell types. The current version of SCovid documents 1 042 227 single cells of 21 single-cell datasets across 10 human tissues, 11 713 stably expressed genes and 3778 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs). SCovid provides a user-friendly interface for browsing, searching, visualizing and downloading all detailed information.

10.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(6):544-548, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1395021

ABSTRACT

Objective: Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa, causing about 5 000 deaths every year. With the increasing trade and travel between China and Africa, the probability of importation of Lassa fever from Africa to China is on the rise. This study aims to access the risk of importation of Lassa fever into China in the next five years.

12.
Clin Chem ; 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 antigen assays are desirable to mitigate false negative results. Limited data are available to quantify and track SARS-CoV-2 antigen burden in respiratory samples from different populations. METHODS: We developed the Microbubbling SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Assay (MSAA) with smartphone readout, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/mL (10.6 fmol/L) nucleocapsid (N) antigen or 4000 copies/mL inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs. We developed a computer vision and machine learning-based automatic microbubble image classifier to accurately identify positives and negatives, and quantified and tracked antigen dynamics in ICU COVID inpatients and immunocompromised COVID patients. RESULTS: Compared to qualitative RT-PCR methods, the MSAA demonstrated a positive percent agreement (PPA) of 97% (95% confidence interval (CI), 92-99%) and a negative percent agreement (NPA) of 97% (95% CI, 94-100%) in a clinical validation study with 372 residual clinical NP swabs. In immunocompetent individuals, the antigen positivity rate in swabs decreased as days-after-symptom-onset increased, despite persistent nucleic acid positivity. Antigen was detected for longer and variable periods of time in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies. Total microbubble volume, a quantitative marker of antigen burden, correlated inversely with Ct values and days-after-symptom-onset. Viral sequence variations were detected in patients with long duration of high antigen burden. CONCLUSIONS: The MSAA enables sensitive and specific detection of acute infections, quantification and tracking of antigen burden, and may serve as a screening method in longitudinal studies to identify patients who are likely experiencing active rounds of ongoing replication and warrant close viral sequence monitoring.

13.
Disease Surveillance ; 36(5):403-405, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1352841

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in May 2021.

14.
Biotechnol J ; 16(11): e2100207, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an urgent need for the development of therapeutic interventions. Of which, neutralizing antibodies play a crucial role in the prevention and resolution of viral infection. METHODS: We generated antibody libraries from 18 different COVID-19 recovered patients and screened neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants. After 3 rounds of panning, 456 positive phage clones were obtained with high affinity to RBD (receptor binding domain). Clones were then reconstituted into whole human IgG for epitope binning assay and all 19 IgG were classified into 6 different epitope groups or Bins. RESULTS: Although all antibodies were found to bind RBD, the antibodies in Bin2 had superior inhibitory ability of the interaction between spike protein and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2). Most importantly, the antibodies from Bin2 showed stronger binding affinity or ability to mutant RBDs (N501Y, W463R, R408I, N354D, V367F, and N354D/D364Y) derived from different SARS-CoV-2 strains as well, suggesting the great potential of these antibodies in preventing infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its mutations. Furthermore, such neutralizing antibodies strongly restricted the binding of RBD to hACE2 overexpressed 293T cells. Consistently, these antibodies effectively neutralized wildtype and more transmissible mutant pseudovirus entry into hACE2 overexpressed 293T cells. In Vero-E6 cells, one of these antibodies can even block the entry of live SARS-CoV-2 into cells at 12.5 nM. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the neutralizing human antibodies from the patient-derived antibody libraries have the potential to fight SARS-CoV-2 and its mutants in this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1442-1450, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343666

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide. Due to the limited virus strains, few key mutations that would be very important with the evolutionary trends of virus genome were observed in early studies. Here, we downloaded 1809 sequence data of SARS-CoV-2 strains from GISAID before April 2020 to identify mutations and functional alterations caused by these mutations. Totally, we identified 1017 nonsynonymous and 512 synonymous mutations with alignment to reference genome NC_045512, none of which were observed in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein. On average, each of the strains could have about 1.75 new mutations each month. The current mutations may have few impacts on antibodies. Although it shows the purifying selection in whole-genome, ORF3a, ORF8 and ORF10 were under positive selection. Only 36 mutations occurred in 1% and more virus strains were further analyzed to reveal linkage disequilibrium (LD) variants and dominant mutations. As a result, we observed five dominant mutations involving three nonsynonymous mutations C28144T, C14408T and A23403G and two synonymous mutations T8782C, and C3037T. These five mutations occurred in almost all strains in April 2020. Besides, we also observed two potential dominant nonsynonymous mutations C1059T and G25563T, which occurred in most of the strains in April 2020. Further functional analysis shows that these mutations decreased protein stability largely, which could lead to a significant reduction of virus virulence. In addition, the A23403G mutation increases the spike-ACE2 interaction and finally leads to the enhancement of its infectivity. All of these proved that the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is toward the enhancement of infectivity and reduction of virulence.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virulence/genetics
16.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 647880, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332132

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate if the number of admitted extremely preterm (EP) infants (born before 28 weeks of gestational age) differed in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the SafeBoosC-III consortium during the global lockdown when compared to the corresponding time period in 2019. Design: This is a retrospective, observational study. Forty-six out of 79 NICUs (58%) from 17 countries participated. Principal investigators were asked to report the following information: (1) Total number of EP infant admissions to their NICU in the 3 months where the lockdown restrictions were most rigorous during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, (2) Similar EP infant admissions in the corresponding 3 months of 2019, (3) the level of local restrictions during the lockdown period, and (4) the local impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on the everyday life of a pregnant woman. Results: The number of EP infant admissions during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was 428 compared to 457 in the corresponding 3 months in 2019 (-6.6%, 95% CI -18.2 to +7.1%, p = 0.33). There were no statistically significant differences within individual geographic regions and no significant association between the level of lockdown restrictions and difference in the number of EP infant admissions. A post-hoc analysis based on data from the 46 NICUs found a decrease of 10.3%in the total number of NICU admissions (n = 7,499 in 2020 vs. n = 8,362 in 2019). Conclusion: This ad hoc study did not confirm previous reports of a major reduction in the number of extremely pretermbirths during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrial.gov, identifier: NCT04527601 (registered August 26, 2020), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04527601.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323246

ABSTRACT

(1) Objective: Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that have evaluated the benefits of exercise training for elderly pulmonary fibrosis (PF) patients. (2) Methods: Studies in either English or Chinese were retrieved from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Wanfang, PubMed, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus databases from inception until the first week of April 2021. Age, body mass index (BMI), and exercise frequency, intensity, type, and duration were considered for each participant. The specific data recorded were the six-minute walk distance (6MWD), maximal rate of oxygen consumption (peak VO2), predicted forced vital capacity (FVC% pred), predicted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO% pred), predicted total lung capacity (TLC% pred), St. George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) total score and a modified medical research council score (mMRC). (3) Results: Thirteen studies comprised this meta-analysis (eleven randomized controlled trials and two prospective studies design), wherein 335 patients were exercised and 334 were controls. The results showed that exercise training increased the 6MWD (Cohen's d = 0.77, MD = 34.04 (95% CI, 26.50-41.58), p < 0.01), peak VO2 (Cohen's d = 0.45, MD = 1.13 (95% CI, 0.45-1.82), p = 0.0001) and FVC% pred (Cohen's d = 0.42, MD = 3.94 (95% CI, 0.91-6.96), p = 0.01). However, exercise training reduced scores for the SGRQ (Cohen's d = 0.89, MD = -8.79 (95% CI, -10.37 to -7.21), p < 0.01) and the mMRC (Cohen's d = 0.64, MD = -0.58 (95% CI, -0.79 to -0.36), p < 0.01). In contrast, exercise training could not increase DLCO% pred (Cohen's d = 0.16, MD = 1.86 (95% CI, -0.37-4.09), p = 0.10) and TLC% pred (Cohen's d = 0.02, MD = 0.07 (95% CI, -6.53-6.67), p = 0.98). Subgroup analysis showed significant differences in frequency, intensity, type, and age in the 6MWD results (p < 0.05), which were higher with low frequency, moderate intensity, aerobic-resistance-flexibility-breathing exercises and age ≤ 70. Meanwhile, the subgroup analysis showed significant differences in exercise intensity and types in the mMRC results (p < 0.05), which were lower with moderate intensity and aerobic-resistance exercises. (4) Conclusions: Exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation can improved cardiopulmonary endurance and quality of life in elderly patients with PF. The 6MWDs were more noticeable with moderate exercise intensity, combined aerobic-resistance-flexibility-breathing exercises and in younger patients, which all were not affected by BMI levels or exercise durations. As to pulmonary function, exercise training can improve FVC% pred, but has no effect on DLCO% pred and TLC% pred.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Aged , China , Exercise , Exercise Tolerance , Humans , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 99(10): 1373-1384, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309024

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic debilitating condition characterized by progressive deposition of connective tissue, leading to a steady restriction of lung elasticity, a decline in lung function, and a median survival of 4.5 years. The leading causes of pulmonary fibrosis are inhalation of foreign particles (such as silicosis and pneumoconiosis), infections (such as post COVID-19), autoimmune diseases (such as systemic autoimmune diseases of the connective tissue), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The therapeutics currently available for pulmonary fibrosis only modestly slow the progression of the disease. This review is centered on the interplay of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-17) as they contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, and the possible avenues to develop effective therapeutics that disrupt this interplay.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Inflammation/complications , Models, Biological
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 680202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285351

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a plethora of psychological problems worldwide since its onset in December 2019. In the upheaval period, compared with medical college students, nonmedical students' psychological state deserves additional concern due to their lack of medical knowledge. Although the epidemic in China has been largely controlled for several months, the mental health problems resulting from the COVID-19 epidemic persist to this day. In this study, we assessed the mental health problems and associated risk factors experienced by nonmedical vs. medical college students in universities of Shandong Province during the COVID-19 epidemic recovery period. Methods: An online survey was conducted over the period from 17 to 19 December 2020. A total of 954 Chinese college students (486 nonmedical and 468 medical students) from three universities of Shandong Province participated in the survey. Mental health variables were assessed with use of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Results: Compared with medical students, nonmedical college students had higher prevalence rates of depression (53.9 vs. 46.4%; p = 0.020) and insomnia (28.0 vs. 22.4%, p = 0.049), as well as higher total scores on the PHQ-9 (p = 0.03) and ISI (p < 0.01). Among nonmedical college students, being female and native of non-Shandong were risk factors for anxiety and depression (p < 0.01), while only native of non-Shandong for insomnia (p < 0.01). Among medical students, age (p < 0.01) and living in rural areas (p = 0.04) were risk factors for depression, while only age (p < 0.05) was a risk factor for anxiety and insomnia. Conclusion: Nonmedical college students in the universities of Shandong Province had more mental health problems and more risk factors for developing them during the COVID-19 epidemic recovery period than medical students. These nonmedical students require additional attention and recovery programs to alleviate the increased incidence of psychological problems related to COVID-19.

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