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2.
Epidemiology Bulletin ; 36(15):87-88, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-708672

ABSTRACT

Since December 21, 2019, on-board inspection had been implemented on direct flights from Wuhan, China, marking the beginning of boarder quarantine challenges in respond to COVID-19 pandemic In line with the development of the international epidemic, the Central Epidemic Command Center gradually expanded entry restrictions and post-entry quarantine requirements Since March 19, 2020, all foreign nationals had been prohibited from entering Taiwan Passengers eligible for entry were required to undergo home quarantine for 14 days Upon arrival, passengers were required to declare their symptoms and travel history, and to receive fever screening and health assessment Throat swab specimens were collected from those who presented symptoms at the airport or in the hospital, and then these passengers stayed in a centralized quarantine facility to wait for testing results In addition, aiming at reducing risks originated from crowds and frequent movement, only aircrafts from five airports in China were allowed to enter Taiwan Also, all connecting flights were suspended, and cruises and cross-strait passenger liners were banned from calling at ports of Taiwan For front-line officers at ports of entry, health monitoring and protection guidelines were developed to protect their safety In order to ensure safety and security of air and sea transport, the competent authorities in charge of transportation have established an epidemic prevention and management mechanism for air and sea transport respectively Over 184,000 home quarantine notices had been issued by border quarantine authorities More than 80% of the inbound travelers completed the declaration via Entry Quarantine System, greatly improving timeliness and accuracy of information required for further epidemic prevention and control in community With on-board quarantine and health surveillance system for entry, not only the first confirmed case in Taiwan, but also more than one-third of imported cases were detected through border quarantine, sparing more capacity for domestic response and preparedness for medical resources and medical systems and therefore alleviating pressure on epidemic prevention and control in the community Despite continuous and serious epidemic and significant challenges ahead, Taiwan keeps on implementing various quarantine measures in accordance with the principle of "strict risk control at border " to comprehensively protect border security

3.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging worldwide threat to public health. While chest computed tomography (CT) plays an indispensable role in its diagnosis, the quantification and localization of lesions cannot be accurately assessed manually. We employed deep learning-based software to aid in detection, localization and quantification of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 2460 RT-PCR tested SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (1250 men and 1210 women; mean age, 57.7 ± 14.0 years (age range, 11-93 years) were retrospectively identified from Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan from February 11 to March 16, 2020. Basic clinical characteristics were reviewed. The uAI Intelligent Assistant Analysis System was used to assess the CT scans. RESULTS: CT scans of 2215 patients (90%) showed multiple lesions of which 36 (1%) and 50 patients (2%) had left and right lung infections, respectively (> 50% of each affected lung's volume), while 27 (1%) had total lung infection (> 50% of the total volume of both lungs). Overall, 298 (12%), 778 (32%) and 1300 (53%) patients exhibited pure ground glass opacities (GGOs), GGOs with sub-solid lesions and GGOs with both sub-solid and solid lesions, respectively. Moreover, 2305 (94%) and 71 (3%) patients presented primarily with GGOs and sub-solid lesions, respectively. Elderly patients (≥ 60 years) were more likely to exhibit sub-solid lesions. The generalized linear mixed model showed that the dorsal segment of the right lower lobe was the favoured site of COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Chest CT combined with analysis by the uAI Intelligent Assistant Analysis System can accurately evaluate pneumonia in COVID-19 patients.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1546-1553, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627739

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the attack rates, and identify the risk factors of COVID-19 infection. Based on a retrospective cohort study, we investigated 11,580 contacts of COVID-19 cases in Guangdong Province from 10 January to 15 March 2020. All contacts were tested by RT-PCR to detect their infection of SARS-COV-2. Attack rates by characteristics were calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors of infection for COVID-19. A total of 515 of 11,580 contacts were identified to be infected with SARS-COV-2. Compared to young adults aged 20-29 years, the infected risk was higher in children (RR: 2.59, 95%CI: 1.79-3.76), and old people aged 60-69 years (RR: 5.29, 95%CI: 3.76-7.46). Females also had higher infected risk (RR: 1.66, 95%CI: 1.39-2.00). People having close relationship with index cases encountered higher infected risk (RR for spouse: 20.68, 95%CI: 14.28-29.95; RR for non-spouse family members: 9.55, 95%CI: 6.73-13.55; RR for close relatives: 5.90, 95%CI: 4.06-8.59). Moreover, contacts exposed to index case in symptomatic period (RR: 2.15, 95%CI: 1.67-2.79), with critically severe symptoms (RR: 1.61, 95%CI: 1.00-2.57), with symptoms of dizzy (RR: 1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.30), myalgia (RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 1.15-1.94), and chill (RR: 1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) had higher infected risks. Children, old people, females, and family members are susceptible of COVID-19 infection, while index cases in the incubation period had lower contagiousness. Our findings will be helpful for developing targeted prevention and control strategies to combat the worldwide pandemic.


Subject(s)
Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
5.
Shock ; 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618627

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening respiratory illness caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its clinical presentation can vary from the asymptomatic state to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction. Due to our insufficient understanding of its pathophysiology and lack of effective treatment, the morbidity and mortality of severe COVID-19 patients are high. Patients with COVID-19 develop ARDS fueled by exaggerated neutrophil influx into the lungs and cytokine storm. B-1a cells represent a unique subpopulation of B lymphocytes critical for circulating natural antibodies, innate immunity, and immunoregulation. These cells spontaneously produce natural IgM, interleukin (IL)-10, and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Natural IgM neutralizes viruses and opsonizes bacteria, IL-10 attenuates the cytokine storm, and GM-CSF induces IgM production by B-1a cells in an autocrine manner. Indeed, B-1a cells have been shown to ameliorate influenza virus infection, sepsis, and pneumonia, all of which are similar to COVID-19. The recent discovery of B-1a cells in humans further reinforces their potentially critical role in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and their anticipated translational applications against viral and microbial infections. Given that B-1a cells protect against ARDS via immunoglobulin production and the anti-COVID-19 effects of convalescent plasma treatment, we recommend that studies be conducted to further examine the role of B-1a cells in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and explore their therapeutic potential to treat COVID-19 patients.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 190(2): 179-184, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378114

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect the haematopoietic system. Thrombocytopenia at admission was prevalent, while late-phase or delayed-phase thrombocytopenia (occurred 14 days after symptom onset) is rare. This retrospective, single-centre study screened 450 COVID-19 patients and enrolled 271 patients at the Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from January 25 to March 9, 2020. COVID-19-associated delayed-phase thrombocytopenia occurred in 11·8% of enrolling patients. The delayed-phase thrombocytopenia in COVID-19 is prone to develop in elderly patients or patients with low lymphocyte count on admission. The delayed-phase thrombocytopenia is significantly associated with increased length of hospital stay and higher mortality rate. Delayed-phase nadir platelet counts demonstrated a significantly negative correlation with B cell percentages. We also provided and described bone marrow aspiration pathology of three patients with delayed-phase thrombocytopenia, showing impaired maturation of megakaryocytes. We speculated that immune-mediated platelet destruction might account for the delayed-phase thrombocytopenia in a group of patients. In addition, clinicians need to pay attention to the delayed-phase thrombocytopenia especially at 3-4 weeks after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Bone Marrow/pathology , China , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1488-1498, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324710

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has attracted great attentions from the whole world. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has been widely used and shown satisfying efficacies in treating all stages of COVID-19. In this study, the molecular interaction networks of different stages of COVID-19(the early, severe, critical and recovery stage) were constructed using the links among symptoms-related genes collected from TCMIP V2.0(http://www.tcmip.cn/), an integrated pharmacology network-computing platform for TCM. Following the network topological feature calculation and functional enrichment analysis, we found that the molecular targets and pathways related with the "immune-inflammation system" were involved throughout all the stages of COVID-19. The severe stage and the critical period of COVID-19 were occupied by a large proportion of inflammatory factors and pathways, suggesting that there might be a cytokine storm in these periods, along with respiratory disorders, cardiopulmonary dysfunction, nervous system disorders, etc. Accordingly, the therapeutic targets and pathways hit by the recommended prescriptions against COVID-19 were also aimed to regulate the balance of immune-inflammation system, nutrient absorption and metabolism, abnormal energy metabolism, the cardio-pulmonary function, nerve system function, etc., which may be related to the therapeutic effects of these prescriptions in terms of several clinical symptoms, such as expiratory dyspnea, chest tightness and shortness of breath, abdominal distension and constipation, sweating and limb cold, dizziness, and irritability, etc. The above findings reflect the integrative actions of TCM characterizing by multiple-components, multiple-targets, multiple-pathways, and multiple-effects. This study systematically constructed the molecular networks of different TCM syndromes during the development and progression of COVID-19 and uncovered the biological basis for symptomatic treatment of TCM. Furthermore, our data revealed the pharmacological mechanisms and the scientific connotation of recommended prescriptions, which may provide supports for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 using TCM.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e99, 2020 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306263

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, patients of atypical pneumonia due to an unidentified microbial agent were reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Subsequently, a novel coronavirus was identified as the causative pathogen which was named SARS-CoV-2. As of 12 February 2020, more than 44 000 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been confirmed in China and continue to expand. Provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions of China have launched first-level response to major public health emergencies one after another from 23 January 2020, which means restricting movement of people among provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and to depict the effect of restricting population movement. In this study, Excel 2010 was used to demonstrate the temporal distribution at the day level and SPSS 23.0 was used to analyse the correlation between the migration scale index and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. We found that since 23 January 2020, Wuhan migration scale index has dropped significantly and since 26 January 2020, Hubei province migration scale index has dropped significantly. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and showed a downward trend from 6 February 2020. New confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province gradually increased since 24 January 2020, and maintained at a high level from 24 January 2020 to 4 February 2020, then showed a downward trend. Wuhan migration scale index from 9 January to 22 January, 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Wuhan from 22 January to 4 February. Hubei province migration scale index from 10 January to 23 January and 11 January to 24 January was correlated with the number of new confirmed COVID-19 cases per day in China except for Hubei province from 22 January to 4 February. Our findings suggested that people who left Wuhan from 9 January to 22 January, and those who left Hubei province from 10 January to 24 January, led to the outbreak in the rest of China. The 'Wuhan lockdown' and the launching of the first-level response to this major public health emergency may have had a good effect on controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. Although new COVID-19 cases continued to be confirmed in China outside Wuhan and Hubei provinces, in our opinion, these are second-generation cases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Time
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e18718, 2020 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, over 80,000 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were confirmed in China. Public prevention and control measures, along with efforts from all sectors of society, were undertaken to control and eliminate disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes Chinese citizens' response to the epidemic, the preventive measures they implemented to avoid being infected, and the public strategies that were carried out by the government, health workers, etc. We also discuss the efficacy of these measures in controlling the epidemic in China. METHODS: Information on the responses and behaviors of Chinese citizens were collected through a cross-sectional, internet-based survey using Dingxiang Doctor's public account on WeChat. Information on public strategies implemented by all sectors of society to control the epidemic and data on new COVID-19 cases were collected from the internet, mainly from government websites. Standard descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 10,304 participants responded to the survey, with 10,198 valid responses; 74.1% (n=7557) were female and 25.9% (n=2641) were male. Overall, 98.2% (n=10,013) of participants paid high or very high attention to the epidemic, with WeChat being their main information source (n=9400, 92.2%). Over half the participants (n=5878, 57.7%) were confident that the epidemic could be curbed in China; 92.4% (n=9427) opened windows for ventilation more frequently than usual; 97.9% (n=9986) used masks in public; 95.7% (n=9759) avoided large crowds and stayed at home as much as possible; and 97.9% (n=9988) washed their hands more often than usual. Women were more likely to practice these behaviors than men (P<.001). With a series of strict public control measures, like nationwide health education campaigns, holiday extensions, the Examine and Approve Policy on the resumption of work, close management of working and living quarters, a health QR (Quick Response) code system, community screening, and social distancing policies, the number of new cases have decreased dramatically since February 12, 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The methods employed by Chinese citizens and authorities have effectively curtailed the spread of COVID-19, demonstrating that this pandemic can be brought under control as long as the right measures are taken.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
VideoGIE ; 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209554
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