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1.
EPJ Data Sci ; 12(1): 17, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238815

ABSTRACT

Human mobility restriction policies have been widely used to contain the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). However, a critical question is how these policies affect individuals' behavioral and psychological well-being during and after confinement periods. Here, we analyze China's five most stringent city-level lockdowns in 2021, treating them as natural experiments that allow for examining behavioral changes in millions of people through smartphone application use. We made three fundamental observations. First, the use of physical and economic activity-related apps experienced a steep decline, yet apps that provide daily necessities maintained normal usage. Second, apps that fulfilled lower-level human needs, such as working, socializing, information seeking, and entertainment, saw an immediate and substantial increase in screen time. Those that satisfied higher-level needs, such as education, only attracted delayed attention. Third, human behaviors demonstrated resilience as most routines resumed after the lockdowns were lifted. Nonetheless, long-term lifestyle changes were observed, as significant numbers of people chose to continue working and learning online, becoming "digital residents." This study also demonstrates the capability of smartphone screen time analytics in the study of human behaviors. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1140/epjds/s13688-023-00391-9.

2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286564, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236961

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) varies from other pneumonia-related ARDS. We evaluated whether the mortality rates differed for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19-related ARDS in the Asian population in 2021. This single center retrospective observational cohort study included patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19-related ARDS that required invasive mechanical ventilation. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes included hospital length of stay, ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ventilator-free days (VFDs) during the first 28 days. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed to correct potential confounders by age, obesity or not, and ARDS severity. One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After 1:1 propensity score matching, there were 50 patients in each group. The all-cause in-hospital mortality of all patients was 38 (38%), and no significant differences were found between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19-related ARDS (17 [34%) vs. 21 [42%], p = 0.410). Both groups had length of stay (30.0 [20.0-46.0] vs. 27.0 [13.0-45.0] days, p = 0.312), ICU length of stay (19.0 [13.0-35.0] vs. 16.0 [10.0-32.0] days, p = 0.249), length of mechanical ventilation (19.0 [10.0-36.0] vs. 14.0 [9.0-29.0] days, p = 0.488), and ventilator-free days during the first 28 days (5.5 [0.0-17.0] vs. 0.0 [0.0-14.0] days, p = 0.320). Immunocompromised status (Hazard ratio: 3.63; 95% CI: 1.51-8.74, p = 0.004) and progress to severe ARDS (Hazard ratio: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.18-7.22, p = 0.020) were significant in-hospital mortality-related confounders. There were no significant difference in mortality among both groups. Immunocompromised status and progression to severe ARDS are two possible risk factors for patients with ARDS; COVID-19 is not a mortality-related risk exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Hospital Mortality
3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 15: 1138418, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327140

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) after Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are poorly investigated. Objective: We aimed to explore the clinical features and outcomes of hospitalized PD patients with COVID-19. Methods: A total of 48 PD patients and 96 age-and sex-matched non-PD patients were included. Demographics, clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: PD patients with COVID-19 were elderly (76.69 ± 9.21 years) with advanced stage (H-Y stage 3-5 as 65.3%). They had less clinical symptoms (nasal obstruction, etc.), more proportions of severe/critical COVID-19 clinical classification (22.9 vs. 1.0%, p < 0.001), receiving oxygen (29.2 vs. 11.5%, p = 0.011), antibiotics (39.6 vs. 21.9%, p = 0.031) therapies, as well as longer hospitalization duration (11.39 vs. 8.32, p = 0.001) and higher mortality (8.3% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.001) relative to those without PD. Laboratory results showed that the PD group had higher white blood cell counts (6.29 vs. 5.16*109, p = 0.001), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (3.14 vs. 2.11, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein level (12.34 vs. 3.19, p < 0.001). Conclusion: PD patients with COVID-19 have insidious clinical manifestation, elevated proinflammatory markers and are prone to the development of severe/critical condition, contributing to a relatively poor prognosis. Early identification and active treatment of COVID-19 are pivotal to advanced PD patients during the pandemic.

4.
J Chem Inf Model ; 63(10): 3005-3017, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia continues to spread in the entire globe with limited medication available. In this study, the active compounds in Chinese medicine (CM) recipes targeting the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) protein for the treatment of COVID-19 were explored. METHODS: The conformational structure of TMPRSS2 protein (TMPS2) was built through homology modeling. A training set covering TMPS2 inhibitors and decoy molecules was docked to TMPS2, and their docking poses were re-scored with scoring schemes. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to select the best scoring function. Virtual screening of the candidate compounds (CCDs) in the six highly effective CM recipes against TMPS2 was conducted based on the validated docking protocol. The potential CCDs after docking were subject to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiment. RESULTS: A training set of 65 molecules were docked with modeled TMPS2 and LigScore2 with the highest area under the curve, AUC, value (0.886) after ROC analysis selected to best differentiate inhibitors from decoys. A total of 421 CCDs in the six recipes were successfully docked into TMPS2, and the top 16 CCDs with LigScore2 higher than the cutoff (4.995) were screened out. MD simulations revealed a stable binding between these CCDs and TMPS2 due to the negative binding free energy. Lastly, SPR experiments validated the direct combination of narirutin, saikosaponin B1, and rutin with TMPS2. CONCLUSIONS: Specific active compounds including narirutin, saikosaponin B1, and rutin in CM recipes potentially target and inhibit TMPS2, probably exerting a therapeutic effect on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors , Humans , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Rutin , Serine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 162: 114614, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290733

ABSTRACT

The continuing heavy toll of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates development of therapeutic options. We adopted structure-based drug repurposing to screen FDA-approved drugs for inhibitory effects against main protease enzyme (Mpro) substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 for non-covalent and covalent binding. Top candidates were screened against infectious SARS-CoV-2 in a cell-based viral replication assay. Promising candidates included atovaquone, mebendazole, ouabain, dronedarone, and entacapone, although atovaquone and mebendazole were the only two candidates with IC50s that fall within their therapeutic plasma concentration. Additionally, we performed Mpro assays on the top hits, which demonstrated inhibition of Mpro by dronedarone (IC50 18 µM), mebendazole (IC50 19 µM) and entacapone (IC50 9 µM). Atovaquone showed only modest Mpro inhibition, and thus we explored other potential mechanisms. Although atovaquone is Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor, we did not observe inhibition of DHODH at the respective SARS-CoV-2 IC50. Metabolomic profiling of atovaquone treated cells showed dysregulation of purine metabolism pathway metabolite, where ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E) was downregulated by atovaquone at concentrations equivalent to its antiviral IC50. Atovaquone and mebendazole are promising candidates with SARS-CoV-2 antiviral activity. While mebendazole does appear to target Mpro, atovaquone may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by targeting host purine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , Drug Repositioning , Dronedarone/pharmacology , Pandemics , Atovaquone/pharmacology , Mebendazole/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
6.
Biomedicines ; 11(4)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303521

ABSTRACT

Endothelial impairment and dysfunction are closely related to the pathogenesis of steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH). Recent studies have showed that hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a crucial role in endothelial homeostasis maintenance. Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) could suppress HIF-1 degradation and result in nucleus stabilization by repressing prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymatic activity. Our results showed that methylprednisolone (MPS) remarkably undermined biological function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) by inhibiting colony formation, migration, angiogenesis, and stimulating senescence of EPCs, while DMOG treatment alleviated these effects by promoting HIF-1α signaling pathway, as evidenced by senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) staining, colony-forming unit, matrigel tube formation, and transwell assays. The levels of proteins related to angiogenesis were determined by ELISA and Western blotting. In addition, active HIF-1α bolstered the targeting and homing of endogenous EPCs to the injured endothelium in the femoral head. Histopathologically, our in vivo study showed that DMOG not only alleviated glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis but also promoted angiogenesis and osteogenesis in the femoral head as detected by microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) analysis and histological staining of OCN, TRAP, and Factor Ⅷ. However, all of these effects were impaired by an HIF-1α inhibitor. These findings demonstrate that targeting HIF-1α in EPCs may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of SONFH.

7.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2248340

ABSTRACT

The continuing heavy toll of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitates development of therapeutic options. We adopted structure-based drug repurposing to screen FDA-approved drugs for inhibitory effects against main protease enzyme (Mpro) substrate-binding pocket of SARS-CoV-2 for non-covalent and covalent binding. Top candidates were screened against infectious SARS-CoV-2 in a cell-based viral replication assay. Promising candidates included atovaquone, mebendazole, ouabain, dronedarone, and entacapone, although atovaquone and mebendazole were the only two candidates with IC50s that fall within their therapeutic plasma concentration. Additionally, we performed Mpro assays on the top hits, which demonstrated inhibition of Mpro by dronedarone (IC50 18 µM), mebendazole (IC50 19 µM) and entacapone (IC50 9 µM). Atovaquone showed only modest Mpro inhibition, and thus we explored other potential mechanisms. Although atovaquone is Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor, we did not observe inhibition of DHODH at the respective SARS-CoV-2 IC50. Metabolomic profiling of atovaquone treated cells showed dysregulation of purine metabolism pathway metabolite, showing that ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E) is downregulated by atovaquone at concentrations equivalent to its antiviral IC50. Atovaquone and mebendazole are promising candidates targeting SARS-CoV-2, however atovaquone did not significantly inhibit Mpro at therapeutically meaningful concentrations but may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 viral replication by targeting host purine metabolism. Graphical

8.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Risk and Insurance ; 17(1):1-32, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2286101

ABSTRACT

Whether the stay-at-home order and face mask mandate are effective in slowing down the COVID-19 virus transmission is up for debate. To investigate this matter, we employ a unique angle. A two-wave logistic equation is proposed and then fitted to the cumulative case counts of all 50 states in the U.S. from the onset to early December of 2020 when vaccinating begins at large scale. The data period is confined to isolate the effects of executive orders from that of vaccination. The length of the first wave's accelerating phase is regressed on variables describing the stay-at-home order and face mask mandate, along with control variables. A state's lockdown duration is discovered to be negatively related to the time it takes for the virus to transit from accelerating to decelerating rates. This finding provides statistical support to the executive orders and can be useful in guiding risk management of future pandemics.

9.
J Med Chem ; 65(4): 2785-2793, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253698

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic due to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At the time of this manuscript's publication, remdesivir is the only COVID-19 treatment approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration. However, its effectiveness is still under question due to the results of the large Solidarity Trial conducted by the World Health Organization. Herein, we report that the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, GS-441524, potently inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero E6 and other cell lines. Challenge studies in both an AAV-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 and in mice infected with murine hepatitis virus, a closely related coronavirus, showed that GS-441524 was highly efficacious in reducing the viral titers in CoV-infected organs without notable toxicity. Our results support that GS-441524 is a promising and inexpensive drug candidate for treating of COVID-19 and other CoV diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Disease Models, Animal , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
10.
Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp ; 667: 131367, 2023 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288845

ABSTRACT

Personal protective textiles have attracted extensive interest since Corona Virus Disease 2019 has broken out. Moreover, developing eco-friendly, multifunctional waterproof, and breathable surface is of great importance but still faces enormous challenges. Notably, good hydrophobicity and breathability are necessary for protective textiles, especially protective clothing and face masks for healthcare. Herein, the multifunctional composite coatings with good UV-resistant, anti-oxidative, hydrophobic, breathable, and photothermal performance has been rapidly created to meet protective requirements. First, the gallic acid and chitosan polymer was coated onto the cotton fabric surface. Subsequently, the modified silica sol was anchored on the coated cotton fabric surface. The successful fabrication of composite coatings was verified by RGB values obtained from the smartphone and K/S value. The present work is an advance for realizing textile hydrophobicity by utilizing fluorine-free materials, compared with the surface hydrophobicity fabricated with conventional fluorinated materials. The surface free energy has been reduced from 84.2 to27.6 mJ/m2 so that the modified cotton fabric could repel the ethylene glycol, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide solutions, respectively. Besides, the composite coatings possesses lower adhesion to deionized water. After 70 cycles of the sandpaper abrasion, the fluorine-free hydrophobic coatings still exhibits good hydrophobicity with WCA of 124.6 ± 0.9°, with overcoming the intrinsic drawback of the poor abrasion resistance of hydrophobic surfaces. Briefly, the present work may provide a universal strategy for rapidly creating advanced protective coatings to meet personal healthcare, and a novel method for detecting RGB values of composite coatings by smartphone.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 1020123, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224861

ABSTRACT

Background: An in silico screen was performed to identify FDA approved drugs that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), followed by in vitro viral replication assays, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice. These studies identified atovaquone as a promising candidate for inhibiting viral replication. Methods: A 2-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection. Enrolled patients were randomized 2:1 to atovaquone 1500 mg BID versus matched placebo. Patients received standard of care treatment including remdesivir, dexamethasone, or convalescent plasma as deemed necessary by the treating team. Saliva was collected at baseline and twice per day for up to 10 days for RNA extraction for SARS-CoV-2 viral load measurement by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. The primary outcome was the between group difference in log-transformed viral load (copies/mL) using a generalized linear mixed-effect models of repeated measures from all samples. Results: Of the 61 patients enrolled; 41 received atovaquone and 19 received placebo. Overall, the population was predominately male (63%) and Hispanic (70%), with a mean age of 51 years, enrolled a mean of 5 days from symptom onset. The log10 viral load was 5.25 copies/mL vs. 4.79 copies/mL at baseline in the atovaquone vs. placebo group. Change in viral load did not differ over time between the atovaquone plus standard of care arm versus the placebo plus standard of care arm. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of atovaquone plasma concentration demonstrated a wide variation in atovaquone levels, with an inverse correlation between BMI and atovaquone levels, (Rho -0.45, p = 0.02). In post hoc analysis, an inverse correlation was observed between atovaquone levels and viral load (Rho -0.54, p = 0.005). Conclusion: In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, atovaquone did not demonstrate evidence of enhanced SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance compared with placebo. However, based on the observed inverse correlation between atovaquone levels and viral load, additional PK-guided studies may be warranted to examine the antiviral effect of atovaquone in COVID-19 patients.

13.
ACS Meas Sci Au ; 2(5): 414-421, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185512

ABSTRACT

Mucous samples collected through nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are considered gold standard specimens for the detection of respiratory pathogens. Matrices of these highly viscous samples often cause significant background noises in immunoassays, especially immunoassays with high sensitivity. We demonstrated such nonspecific background signals in both a chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a novel highly sensitive immunoassay called Microbubbling SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Assay (MSAA). We developed and demonstrated the effectiveness of two quick sample pretreatment methods, filtration and preadsorption, to decrease nonspecific signals and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using these pretreatment methods, the SNR (at 3.6 × 104 copies/mL of inactivated SARS-CoV-2) was increased by 42.4-fold (95% CI 41.0-43.8) and 67.1-fold (95% CI 57.9-76.3) in the MSAA, and 1.3-fold (95% CI 0.9-1.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI 1.6-2.0) in the chemiluminescence ELISA assay. Sample pretreatment methods developed in this study are broadly adaptable for the development of immunoassays for highly viscous samples.

14.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 17: 87-92, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197653

ABSTRACT

Background: Molnupiravir (MOL) is an oral antiviral medication that has recently been treated for COVID-19. Objectively: We perform a prospective and observational study to elucidate the efficacy and safety of MOL in healthcare patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A observational, non-randomized study of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in 46 healthcare facilities and treated with MOL started within 5 days after the onset of signs or symptoms. We recorded data for all patients, including demographic data, clinical features, and symptoms. Treatment response was classified into cure, stable, hospitalization and death. Multivariate analysis was performed with stepwise logistic regression for hospitalization and death risk factors. Results: In total, 856 patients were diagnosed as having COVID-19 and treated with MOL during the study period. Of those, 496 patients (57.9%) were cured, 256 patients (29.9%) in stable condition, 104 patients (12.2%) hospitalized, and 22 patients (2.6%) died, respectively. There was significant effectiveness (87.8%) in COVID-19 patients using MOL. Multivariate analysis was performed to confirm the risk factors for hospitalization and death and included elder age (>80 years old) (odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-6.9), old cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (OR=4.1, 95% CI: 1.3-9.9), the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-9.1) and chronic respiratory diseases (OR=2.4, 95% (CI): 1.3-8.1). Limitations: This is an observational study, neither randomized study nor control group study. Conclusion: Initial treatment with MOL has the treatment benefits and is well tolerated for patients with COVID-19 in healthcare facilities. Older age, old CVA, DM, and chronic respiratory diseases were independent risk factors for hospitalization and mortality. The results demonstrate there are important clinical benefits of MOL beyond the reduction in hospitalization or death for these patients with more comorbidities in Taiwan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Delivery of Health Care , Retrospective Studies
15.
Journal of Organizational Change Management ; 35(7):984-999, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2152404

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Drawing upon the literature on person-leader supplementary fit literature, this study aims to positions dissatisfaction with organizational performance as a difficult condition that moderates the relationship between leader-employee congruence/incongruence in creativity goal and employee innovative performance.Design/methodology/approach>In this paper data were collected from 226 leader-employee dyads from several information technology companies in China. Polynomial regression combined with the response surface methodology was used to test the hypotheses.Findings>Three conclusions were drawn. First, employee innovative performance was maximized when leaders and employees were congruence in creativity goal. Second, in the case of congruence, employee had higher innovative performance when a leader's and an employee's creativity goal matched at high levels. Third, dissatisfaction with organizational performance moderated the effect of leader – employee congruence in creativity goal on employee innovative performance.Originality/value>This study enhanced theoretical developments by considering the importance of leaders' congruence with employees in creativity goal for the first time. Additionally, the research results provided better practical guidance for how to help employees recover from difficult condition and continue to participate in innovation.

16.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147718

ABSTRACT

Introduction Job insecurity such as loss of jobs or reduced wages has become a serious social problem in the US since COVID-19 started. Combined with psychological distress and experience of COVID-19 symptoms, the changes of people’s protective behaviors vary across states in the US. Methods This research investigated racial differences in the COVID-19 related factors among White, Black, and other minorities in the US, and examined how mental health mediated the impact of job insecurity on protective behaviors, and how the COVID-19 symptoms moderated the mediation effect of mental health. The 731 valid responses in a cross-sectional survey from May 23 to 27, 2020, in the US were analyzed with independent sample t-tests, Pearson’s chi-square tests, and path analysis. Results The findings showed that there were significant differences in job insecurity and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) practice among White, Black, and other minorities. Job insecurity was significantly negatively associated with NPIs practice and was significantly positively associated with mental health. Mental health significantly partially mediated the effect of job insecurity on NPIs practice, in that job insecurity is a better predictor of NPIs practice for individuals with worse mental health than that for individuals with better mental health. Experience of COVID-19 symptoms moderates the mediation effect of mental health on the relationship between job insecurity and NPIs practice, in that mental health is a better predictor of NPIs practice for individuals with a higher experience of COVID-19 symptoms than for individuals with a lower experience of COVID-19 symptoms. Discussion The findings in this study shed lights on psychological and behavioral studies of people’s behavior changes during a pandemic. The study indicates the importance of treating mental health to promote protective behaviors during a pandemic, as well as advocating for employees by identifying the needs for those whose jobs were negatively impacted the most.

17.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(2):151-153, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1849846

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in February 2022.

18.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(2): 155-162, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Accumulating studies demonstrated that patients with coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) could develop a variety of neurological manifestations and long-term neurological sequelae, which may be different from the strains. At the peak of the Omicron variant outbreak in Shanghai, China, no relevant epidemiological data about neurological manifestations associated with this strain was reported. OBJECTIVE: To investigate neurological manifestations and related clinical features in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 patients with Omicron variant. METHODS: A self-designed clinical information registration form was used to gather the neurological manifestations of mild to moderate COVID-19 patients admitted to a designated hospital in Shanghai from April 18, 2022 to June 1, 2022. Demographics, clinical presentations, laboratory findings, treatments and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without neurological manifestations. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine(48.1 %) of 351 patients diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19 exhibited neurological manifestations, the most common of which were fatigue/weakness(25.1 %) and myalgia(20.7 %), whereas acute cerebrovascular disease(0.9 %), impaired consciousness(0.6 %) and seizure(0.6 %) were rare. Younger age(p = 0.001), female gender(p = 0.026) and without anticoagulant medication(p = 0.042) were associated with increasing proportions of neurological manifestations as revealed by multivariate logistic regressions. Patients with neurological manifestations had lower creatine kinase and myoglobin levels, as well as higher proportion of patchy shadowing on chest scan. Vaccination status, clinical classification of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the involved patients have neurological manifestations which were relatively subjective and closely associated with younger age, female gender and without anticoagulation. Patients with neurologic manifestations may be accompanied by increased lung patchy shadowing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Female , China/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Patients
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(24)2022 12 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163414

ABSTRACT

To overcome the spread of the severe COVID-19 outbreak, various lockdown measures have been taken worldwide. China imposed the strictest home-quarantine measures during the COVID-19 outbreak in the year 2020. This provides a valuable opportunity to study the impact of anthropogenic emission reductions on air quality. Based on the GEE platform and satellite imagery, this study analyzed the changes in the concentrations of NO2, O3, CO, and SO2 in the same season (1 February-1 May) before and after the epidemic control (2019-2021) for 16 typical representative cities of China. The results showed that NO2 concentrations significantly decreased by around 20-24% for different types of metropolises, whereas O3 increased for most of the studied metropolises, including approximately 7% in megacities and other major cities. Additionally, the concentrations of CO and SO2 showed no statistically significant changes during the study intervals. The study also indicated strong variations in air pollutants among different geographic regions. In addition to the methods in this study, it is essential to include the differences in meteorological impact factors in the study to identify future references for air pollution reduction measures.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Search Engine , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , China/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1006610, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142341

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Medical workers are prone to psychological and sleep disturbances during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Little is known about the varying degrees of influence among vaccinated medical staff working in different positions. The current study is aimed to evaluate and compare depression, anxiety and sleep disturbances among first-line, second-line and at home vaccinated medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic in Shanghai, China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in May 2022. In addition to demographic data, levels of depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and insomnia were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Results: A total of 236 vaccinated medical workers completed the questionnaires, including 85 first-line medical staff (FMS), 82 second-line medical staff (SMS) and 69 at home medical staff (HMS). The proportions of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, poor sleep quality, and insomnia were 52.1, 44.1, 55.9, and 49.2%, respectively. Compared with HMS, medical staff at work (FMS and SMS) got significantly higher frequency of poor sleep quality (both p < 0.001), insomnia (both p < 0.001), depressive (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003, respectively) and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Compared with SMS, FMS were more likely to have poor sleep quality (p = 0.020). Besides, nurses got significantly higher percentage of poor sleep quality (OR = 1.352, p = 0.016) and insomnia (OR = 1.243, p = 0.041) than doctors. Whereas, the proportion of anxiety symptoms was increased in females than in males (OR = 2.772, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Psychological and sleep disturbances are common among medical staff at work during the COVID-19 pandemic. More psychological intervention should be administrated for FMS, especially for nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Sleep Wake Disorders , Female , Male , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , China/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Medical Staff , Sleep Quality
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