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1.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599363

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019, has spread rapidly around the world and has become a serious public health event endangering human life. With regard to COVID-19, there are still many unknowns, such as the exact case fatality rate. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to explore the value of the discharged case fatality rate (DCFR) to make more accurate forecasts of epidemic trends the of COVID-19 in Italy. METHODS: We retrieved the epidemiological data of COVID-19 in Italy published by the John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. We then used the proportion of daily deaths and total deaths to calculate the discharged case fatality rate (tDCFR), monthly discharged case fatality rate (mDCFR), and stage discharged case fatality rate (sDCFR). Furthermore, we analyzed the trend in mDCFR between January and December 2020 using Joinpoint Regression Analysis and used the ArcGIS version 10.7 software to visualize the spatial distribution of epidemic case fatality rate and assigned different colors to each province based on the CFR or tDCFR. RESULTS: We calculate the number and obtain the new index tDCFR and mDCFR for calculating the fatality rate. The results show that the overall trend of tDCFR and mDCFR fluctuates greatly from January to May. After reaching the peak, it first rises rapidly, then falls rapidly, and finally stabilizes. The map shows that the provinces with high tDCFR were Emilia-Romagna, Puglia and Lombardia. The change trend of mDCFR over time was divided into two stages, the first stage (from January to May) and the second stage (from June to December). Among the six selected countries, the United States has the highest tDCFR (4.26%), while the tDCFR of the remaining countries is between 0.98% and 2.72%. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a new perspective for assessing the mortality of COVID-19 in Italy,which can use these ever-changing data to calculate a more accurate case fatality rate and scientifically predict the development trend of the epidemic.

3.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110205, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588142

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous mutations introduce uncertainty into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control procedures and vaccine development. Here, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis on intra-host single-nucleotide variants (iSNVs) in 402 clinical samples from 170 affected individuals, which reveals an increase in genetic diversity over time after symptom onset in individuals. Nonsynonymous mutations are overrepresented in the pool of iSNVs but underrepresented at the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, suggesting a two-step fitness selection process: a large number of nonsynonymous substitutions are generated in the host (positive selection), and these substitutions tend to be unfixed as SNPs in the population (negative selection). Dynamic iSNV changes in subpopulations with different gender, age, illness severity, and viral shedding time displayed a varied fitness selection process among populations. Our study highlights that iSNVs provide a mutational pool shaping the rapid global evolution of the virus.

4.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 123, 2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585872

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is urgently needed to tackle the COVID-19 global pandemic. Here, we describe the development of chimpanzee adenovirus serotypes 6 and 68 (AdC6 and AdC68) vector-based vaccine candidates expressing the full-length transmembrane spike glycoprotein. We assessed the vaccine immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and immune cell profiles using single-cell RNA sequencing in mice. Mice were vaccinated via the intramuscular route with the two vaccine candidates using prime-only regimens or heterologous prime-boost regimens. Both chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccines elicited strong and long-term antibody and T cell responses, balanced Th1/Th2 cell responses, robust germinal center responses, and provided effective protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in mouse lungs. Strikingly, we found that heterologous prime-boost immunization induced higher titers of protective antibodies, and more spike-specific memory CD8+ T cells in mice. Potent neutralizing antibodies produced against the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 lineage (also known as N501Y.V1) and B.1.351 lineage (also known as N501Y.V2) were detectable in mouse sera over 6 months after prime immunization. Our results demonstrate that the heterologous prime-boost strategy with chimpanzee adenovirus-based vaccines is promising for further development to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe disease of COVID-19 and mortality occur more frequently in male patients than that in female patients may be related to testosterone level. However, the diagnostic value of changes in the level of testosterone in predicting severe disease of male COVID-19 patients has not been determined yet. METHODS: Sixty-one male COVID-19 patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were enrolled. Serum samples at different stages of the patients after admission were collected and testosterone levels were detected to analyze the correlation between testosterone level and disease severity. Transcriptome analysis of PBMC was performed in 34 patients. RESULTS: Testosterone levels at admission in male non-ICU COVID-19 patients (3.7 nmol/L, IQR: 1.5 âˆ¼ 4.7) were significantly lower than those in male ICU COVID-19 patients (6.7 nmol/L, IQR: 4.2 âˆ¼ 8.7). Testosterone levels in the non-ICU group increased gradually during the progression of the disease, while those in the ICU group remained low. In addition, testosterone level of enrolled patients in the second week after onset was significantly correlated with the severity of pneumonia, and ROC curve showed that testosterone level in the second week after onset was highly effective in predicting the severity of COVID-19. Transcriptome studies have found that testosterone levels of COVID-19 patients were associated with immune response, including T cell activation and regulation of lymphocyte activation. In addition, CD28 and Inositol Polyphosphate-4-Phosphatase Type II B (INPP4B) were found positively correlated with testosterone. CONCLUSIONS: Serum testosterone is an independent risk factor for predicting the severity of COVID-19 in male patients, and the level of serum testosterone in the second week after onset is valuable for evaluating the severity of COVID-19. Testosterone level is associated with T cell immune activation. The monitoring of serum testosterone should be highlighted in clinical treatment and the related mechanism should be further studied.

6.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572660

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 generally raise antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following infection, and the antibody level is positively correlated to the severity of disease. Whether the viral antibodies exacerbate COVID-19 through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is still not fully understood. Here, we conducted in vitro assessment of whether convalescent serum enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection or induced excessive immune responses in immune cells. Our data revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary B cells, macrophages and monocytes, which express variable levels of FcγR, could be enhanced by convalescent serum from COVID-19 patients. We also determined the factors associated with ADE, and found which showed a time-dependent but not viral-dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the ADE effect is not associated with the neutralizing titer or RBD antibody level when testing serum samples collected from different patients. However, it is higher in a medium level than low or high dilutions in a given sample that showed ADE effect, which is similar to dengue. Finally, we demonstrated more viral genes or dysregulated host immune gene expression under ADE conditions compared to the no-serum infection group. Collectively, our study provides insight into the understanding of an association of high viral antibody titer and severe lung pathology in severe patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Leukocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555027

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has caused giant influences on people's life, and China's communities play an important role in dealing with these major public health events (MPHEs). Community as the grassroots autonomous organization has various significant functions in intervening in MPHEs. The community intervention follows a system which directly influences the anti-epidemic effectiveness. To explore the mechanism, we devise a theoretical system for community intervention, mainly consisting of "organizational structure", "functional performance" and "internal and external connections". Questionnaire surveys, the chi-square test, the independent sample T-test, and principal component analysis are used to identify the characteristics of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's (Inner Mongolia) community intervention. Through the empirical research, it is verified that the community intervention in MPHEs is the combination of "the structural response of the organization", "the performance of the community's own function", and "the establishment of internal and external connections". The central Inner Mongolia delivers the best performance in community intervention compared to eastern Inner Mongolia and western Inner Mongolia. The urban communities commonly perform better than that in the agricultural and pastoral areas. The built system and findings could provide a guidance for future community to improve its intervention capability.

8.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295296

ABSTRACT

Background More than ten novel COVID-19 vaccines have been approved with protections against SARS-CoV-2 infections ranges between 52-95%. It is of great interest to the vaccinees who have received the COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine developers and authorities to identify the non-responders in a timely manner so intervention can take place by either giving additional boosts of the same vaccine or switching to a different vaccine to improve the protection against the SARS-CoV-2 infections. A robust correlation was seen between binding antibody titer and efficacy (p=0.93) in the clinic studies of 7 COVID-19 vaccines, so it is of urgency to develop a simple POCT for vaccinees to self-assess their immune response at home. Methods Using CHO cell-expressed full length SARS-CoV2 S1 protein as coating antigen on colloidal gold particles, a SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG-IgM antibody lateral flow test kit (POCT) was developed. The test was validated with negative human sera collected prior to the COVID-19 outbreaks, and blood samples from human subjects prior, during, and post-immunization of COVID-19 vaccines. Results The specificity of the POCT was 99.0%, as examined against 947 normal human sera and 20 whole blood samples collected pre-immunization. The limit of detection was 50 IU/mL of pseudovirus neutralizing titer (PVNT) using human anti-SARS-2 neutralizing standards from convalescent sera. The sensitivity of POCT for SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein antibody IgG-IgM was compared with SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibody ELISA and determined to be 100% using 23 blood samples from vaccinated human subjects and 10 samples from non-vaccinated ones. Whole blood samples were collected from 119 human subjects (ages between 22-61 years) prior to, during, and post-vaccination of five different COVID-19 vaccines. Among them, 115 people tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 S1 antibodies (showing positive at least once) and 4 people tested negative (tested negative at least twice on different days), demonstrating 96.64% of seroconversion after full-vaccination. 92.3% (36/39) of the human subjects who were younger than 45 achieved seroconversion within 2 weeks while only 57.1% (4/7) of subjects older than 45 tested positive for S1 antibodies, suggesting that younger people develop protection much faster than older ones. Even though the S1 antibody level in 88% of human subjects vaccinated with inactivated virus dropped below 50 IU/mL two months later, one boost could quickly raise the S1 antibody titer above 50 IU/mL of PVNT, indicates that the initial vaccination was successful and immunization memory was developed. Conclusion Using the lateral flow tests of SARS-CoV2 S1 IgG+IgM, vaccinated human subjects can easily self-assess the efficacy of their vaccination at home. The vaccine developer could quickly identify those non-responders and give them an additional boost to improve the efficacy of their vaccines. Vaccinees who failed in response could switch to different types of COVID-19 vaccines since there are more than 10 COVID-19 vaccines approved using three different platform technologies. Highlights More than ten novel COVID-19 vaccines have been approved with protections against SARS-CoV-2 infections ranges between 52-95%. It is of great interest to the vaccinees who have received the COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine developers and authorities to identify the non-responders in a timely manner. A highly specific and very simple lateral flow test kit for measurement of SARS-CoV-2 S1IgG+IgM antibodies post-immunization of COVID-19 vaccine using peripheral blood was developed as a home-test assay with a limit of detection (LOD) at 50 IU/mL of pseudovirus neutralizing titer (PVNT). After full vaccinations with COVID-19 vaccines, 96.6% of the volunteers successfully achieved the seroconversion of SARS-CoV-2 S1 IgG+IgM antibody. 92.3% (36/39) of the human subjects who were younger than 45 achieved seroconversion within 2 weeks while only 57.1% (4/7) of subjects older than 45 tested positive for S1 antibodies, suggesting that younger peopl develop protection much faster than older ones. Even though the S1 antibody level in 88% of human subjects vaccinated with inactivated virus dropped below the detection 2-6 months later, one boost could quickly raise the S1 antibody titer above 50 IU/mL of PVNT, indicating that the initial vaccination was successful and immunization memory was developed.

9.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537240
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 744706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528872

ABSTRACT

The special vulnerability of people with disability (PWD) in the COIVD-19 pandemic has been confirmed by many studies, but data shows that the infection rate of PWD in China is lower than for non-disabled people. We believe that this difference can be attributed to the Chinese government's targeted safeguards for the disabled community during the pandemic, including support for disability empowerment, the establishment of a remote interactive decision-making system, fair vaccine distribution and economic protection for PWD. The professionalism of decision-makers and the maintenance of channels of interaction with PWD are also important. All of these changes have benefitted China's public health policy and legal framework. This system, which has six components (governance, prevention, response, knowledge, coordination, and people), enables the country to quickly formulate a series of safeguards for PWD that have a sufficient legal basis. We believe that China's rapidly improving public health policy and legal framework will make a hugely significant impact by alleviating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the PWD community. Countries should pay more attention to discovering the special needs and obstacles of PWD in the COIVD-19 pandemic: in referring to China's experience, they should explore the protection framework for persons with disabilities and adjust it to their own needs on the basis of national conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210116, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528255

ABSTRACT

Percolation theory is essential for understanding disease transmission patterns on the temporal mobility networks. However, the traditional approach of the percolation process can be inefficient when analysing a large-scale, dynamic network for an extended period. Not only is it time-consuming but it is also hard to identify the connected components. Recent studies demonstrate that spatial containers restrict mobility behaviour, described by a hierarchical topology of mobility networks. Here, we leverage crowd-sourced, large-scale human mobility data to construct temporal hierarchical networks composed of over 175 000 block groups in the USA. Each daily network contains mobility between block groups within a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), and long-distance travels across the MSAs. We examine percolation on both levels and demonstrate the changes of network metrics and the connected components under the influence of COVID-19. The research reveals the presence of functional subunits even with high thresholds of mobility. Finally, we locate a set of recurrent critical links that divide components resulting in the separation of core MSAs. Our findings provide novel insights into understanding the dynamical community structure of mobility networks during disruptions and could contribute to more effective infectious disease control at multiple scales. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approaches to infectious disease surveillance'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Creativity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750482

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked an urgent need to uncover the underlying biology of this devastating disease. Though RNA viruses mutate more rapidly than DNA viruses, there are a relatively small number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that differentiate the main SARS-CoV-2 clades that have spread throughout the world. In this study, we investigated over 7,000 SARS-CoV-2 datasets to unveil both intrahost and interhost diversity. Our intrahost and interhost diversity analyses yielded three major observations. First, the mutational profile of SARS-CoV-2 highlights iSNV and SNP similarity, albeit with high variability in C>T changes. Second, iSNV and SNP patterns in SARS-CoV-2 are more similar to MERS-CoV than SARS-CoV-1. Third, a significant fraction of small indels fuel the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2. Altogether, our findings provide insight into SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, inform the design of detection tests, and highlight the potential of iSNVs for tracking the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Preprint in English | PMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292083

ABSTRACT

Human mobility is crucial to understand the transmission pattern of COVID-19 on spatially embedded geographic networks. This pattern seems unpredictable, and the propagation appears unstoppable, resulting in over 350,000 death tolls in the U.S. by the end of 2020. Here, we create the spatiotemporal inter-county mobility network using 10 TB (Terabytes) trajectory data of 30 million smart devices in the U.S. in the first six months of 2020. We investigate the bond percolation process by removing the weakly connected edges. As we increase the threshold, the mobility network nodes become less interconnected and thus experience surprisingly abrupt phase transitions. Despite the complex behaviors of the mobility network, we devised a novel approach to identify a small, manageable set of recurrent critical bridges, connecting the giant component and the second-largest component. These adaptive links, located across the United States, played a key role as valves connecting components in divisions and regions during the pandemic. Beyond, our numerical results unveil that network characteristics determine the critical thresholds and the bridge locations. The findings provide new insights into managing and controlling the connectivity of mobility networks during unprecedented disruptions. The work can also potentially offer practical future infectious diseases both globally and locally.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coccidia/classification , Coccidia/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/physiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505861

ABSTRACT

Human mobility is crucial to understand the transmission pattern of COVID-19 on spatially embedded geographic networks. This pattern seems unpredictable, and the propagation appears unstoppable, resulting in over 350,000 death tolls in the U.S. by the end of 2020. Here, we create the spatiotemporal inter-county mobility network using 10 TB (Terabytes) trajectory data of 30 million smart devices in the U.S. in the first six months of 2020. We investigate the bond percolation process by removing the weakly connected edges. As we increase the threshold, the mobility network nodes become less interconnected and thus experience surprisingly abrupt phase transitions. Despite the complex behaviors of the mobility network, we devised a novel approach to identify a small, manageable set of recurrent critical bridges, connecting the giant component and the second-largest component. These adaptive links, located across the United States, played a key role as valves connecting components in divisions and regions during the pandemic. Beyond, our numerical results unveil that network characteristics determine the critical thresholds and the bridge locations. The findings provide new insights into managing and controlling the connectivity of mobility networks during unprecedented disruptions. The work can also potentially offer practical future infectious diseases both globally and locally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases/mortality , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Computer Simulation , Humans , Phase Transition , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 48-70, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501336

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a pandemic with serious clinical manifestations including death. A pandemic at the large-scale like COVID-19 places extraordinary demands on the world's health systems, dramatically devastates vulnerable populations, and critically threatens the global communities in an unprecedented way. While tremendous efforts at the frontline are placed on detecting the virus, providing treatments and developing vaccines, it is also critically important to examine the technologies and systems for tackling disease emergence, arresting its spread and especially the strategy for diseases prevention. The objective of this article is to review enabling technologies and systems with various application scenarios for handling the COVID-19 crisis. The article will focus specifically on 1) wearable devices suitable for monitoring the populations at risk and those in quarantine, both for evaluating the health status of caregivers and management personnel, and for facilitating triage processes for admission to hospitals; 2) unobtrusive sensing systems for detecting the disease and for monitoring patients with relatively mild symptoms whose clinical situation could suddenly worsen in improvised hospitals; and 3) telehealth technologies for the remote monitoring and diagnosis of COVID-19 and related diseases. Finally, further challenges and opportunities for future directions of development are highlighted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Wearable Electronic Devices
17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(10): e29727, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For women with pre-existing and gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy involves specialized and intensive medical care to improve maternal and infant outcomes. Medical management for patients with diabetes in pregnancy typically occurs via frequent face-to-face outpatient appointments. Barriers to face-to-face care during the COVID-19 pandemic have signaled the need for high-quality, patient-centered virtual health care modalities, such as mobile health (mHealth). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the proposed scoping review is to identify the patient-reported benefits and limitations of mHealth technology among women with diabetes in pregnancy. We also aim to determine how the women's experiences align with the best practice standards for patient-centered communication. METHODS: Arksey and O'Malley's framework for conducting scoping reviews with refinements by Levac et al will be used to guide the conduct of this scoping review. Relevant studies will be identified through comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Emcare, and PsycINFO. Following database searches, studies will be screened for eligibility at the title, abstract, and full-text level by two independent reviewers, with the inclusion of a third reviewer if required to reach consensus. Data charting of included studies will be conducted by one reviewer using a standardized data extraction form and verified independently by a second reviewer. Synthesis of results will be guided by Thomas and Harden's "Methods for the Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research in Systematic Reviews." RESULTS: As of August 2020, we have carried out the qualitative searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, Emcare, and PsycINFO (Ovid interface) for a combined total of 8207 articles. Next, we plan to conduct the quantitative searches in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and Emcare (Ovid interface). We also plan to review the reference lists of relevant studies to identify additional eligible studies. CONCLUSIONS: With the results of this review, we hope to describe the patient-reported benefits and limitations of mHealth technology for women with diabetes in pregnancy. Furthermore, we aim to determine how women's experiences align with the best practice standards for patient-centered communication. Ultimately, our review can provide valuable information for guideline developers, policy makers, and clinicians related to mobile technologies to support virtual care delivery for women with diabetes in pregnancy. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/29727.

18.
mBio ; 12(5): e0234221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494971

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence and spread of zoonotic viruses highlights that animal-sourced viruses are the biggest threat to global public health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is an HKU2-related bat coronavirus that was spilled over from Rhinolophus bats to swine, causing large-scale outbreaks of severe diarrhea disease in piglets in China. Unlike other porcine coronaviruses, SADS-CoV possesses broad species tissue tropism, including primary human cells, implying a significant risk of cross-species spillover. To explore host dependency factors for SADS-CoV as therapeutic targets, we employed genome-wide CRISPR knockout library screening in HeLa cells. Consistent with two independent screens, we identified the zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 (ZDHHC17 or ZD17) as an important host factor for SADS-CoV infection. Through truncation mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the DHHC domain of ZD17 that is involved in palmitoylation is important for SADS-CoV infection. Mechanistic studies revealed that ZD17 is required for SADS-CoV genomic RNA replication. Treatment of infected cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) significantly suppressed SADS-CoV infection. Our findings provide insight on SADS-CoV-host interactions and a potential therapeutic application. IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of deadly zoonotic viral diseases, including Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2, emphasizes the importance of pandemic preparedness for the animal-sourced viruses with potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. Over the last 2 decades, three significant coronaviruses of bat origin, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have caused millions of deaths with significant economy and public health impacts. Lack of effective therapeutics against these coronaviruses was one of the contributing factors to such losses. Although SADS-CoV, another coronavirus of bat origin, was only known to cause fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, the ability to infect cells derived from multiple species, including human, highlights the potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. As part of our effort in pandemic preparedness, we explore SADS-CoV host dependency factors as targets for host-directed therapeutic development and found zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 is a promising drug target against SADS-CoV replication. We also demonstrated that a palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), can be used as an inhibitor for SADS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Acyltransferases/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Palmitates/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(11): 1821-1839, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Bronchi , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5117-5122, 2021 Oct.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485611

ABSTRACT

In order to standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment decision-making with traditional Chinese medicine for pa-tients of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and put the latest clinical study evidence into clinical practice, the international trust-worthy traditional Chinese medicine recommendations( TCM Recs) working group started the compilation of Living Evidence-based Guideline for Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Treatment of COVID-19 on the basis of the standards and re-quirements of WHO handbook, GRADE and RIGHT. This proposal mainly introduces the formulation methods and processes of the living guidelines in details, such as the composition of the working group, the collection and identification of clinical issues and out-comes, the production of the living systematic review and the consensus of recommendations. The guidelines will continue to monitor the clinical study evidences of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, and conduct regular evidence updating, retrieval and screening. When there is new study evidence, the steering committee will evaluate the possibility of the evidence to change clinical practice or previous recommendations, so as to decide whether the recommendations for the guidelines shall be implemented or upda-ted. The main criteria considered in the guideline updating are as follows:(1) There are new high-quality randomized controlled trial(RCT) evidences for TCM uninvolved in the previous edition of the guidelines;(2) as for the TCM involved in the guidelines, living sys-tematic review shows that new evidence may change the direction or strength of the existing recommendations. The specific implementation of the living evidence-based guidelines will take this proposal as the study basis and framework, in order to ensure the standardization of the formulation process and methods. This will be the first exploration of the methodology for living guidelines in the field of TCM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , China , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
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