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1.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; : 100845-100845, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1796859
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 749388, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775929

ABSTRACT

Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis and asthma in plain lands and hilly areas of Shenmu City in China, and analyze the differences between regions. Methods: The multi-stage stratified random sampling was applied in a cross-sectional survey of adult residents in Shenmu City, from September to December 2019. The unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to screen the influence factors of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Results: 4,706 adults participated in the survey, and 99% (4,655 in 4,706) completed the questionnaires. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 25.4%, and the prevalence of asthma was 9.4%. The prevalence of the allergic rhinitis without asthma, asthma without allergic rhinitis, and the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma were 18.9, 2.9, and 6.5%, respectively. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed regional differences. The prevalence of adult self-reported allergic rhinitis was 41.5% in plain lands areas and 22.1% in hilly areas. The prevalence of adult self-reported asthma was 12.8% in plain lands and 8.8% in hilly areas. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma existed seasonal differences, with the highest prevalence from July to September. The analysis of risk factors showed that higher education [middle and high school (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.42-2.07); college and above (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.99-3.59)], comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 3.90, 95%CI 3.23-4.70), family history of allergies (OR 2.89, 95%CI 2.36-3.53), and plain lands areas (OR 2.51, 95%CI 2.06-3.05) were the risk factors for the allergic rhinitis without asthma. Aging [40-49 years old (OR 4.29, 95%CI 1.02-18.13); 50-59 years old (OR 5.89, 95%CI 1.40-24.76); ≥60 years old: (OR 6.14, 95%CI 1.41-26.71)], never-smokers (OR 1.66, 95%CI 0.99-2.80), comorbidities of other allergic disorders (OR 2.17, 95%CI 1.42-3.32), and family history of allergies (OR 2.20, 95%CI 1.40-3.47) were the risk factors for the asthma without allergic rhinitis. Advanced age [30-39 years (OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.23-3.82); 40-49 years (OR 2.86, 95%CI 1.56 to 5.25); 50-59 years (OR 2.95, 95%CI 1.58-5.51); ≥60 years old (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.09-4.72)], higher education [middle and high school (OR 2.23, 95%CI 1.62-3.07); college and above (OR 4.28, 95%CI 2.72-6.74)], non-agricultural workers (OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.18-2.43),never-smokers (OR 2.26, 95%CI 1.51-3.39), comorbidities of other allergic diseases (OR 4.45, 95%CI 3.37-5.88), family history of allergies (OR 5.27, 95%CI 3.98-6.97), and plain lands areas (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51-2.86) were the risk factors for the combined allergic rhinitis with asthma. Conclusions: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma in Shenmu City was relatively high, with regional differences. Genetic and environmental factors were the important risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis and asthma. Our research would provide data support for preventing and controlling allergic rhinitis and asthma in this region in the future, and appropriate prevention and control programs should be formulated according to the characteristics of different regions.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Rhinitis, Allergic , Adult , Asthma/complications , Asthma/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic/complications , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Self Report
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 297-306, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the transmissibility and pathogenicity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for control policies, but evidence remains limited. METHODS: We presented a systematic and meta-analytic summary concerning the transmissibility and pathogenicity of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 105 studies were identified, with 35042 infected cases and 897912 close contacts. 48.6% (51/105) of studies on secondary transmissions were from China. We estimated a total SIR of 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.8%-8.8%), SAR of 6.6% (95% CI, 5.7%-7.5%), and symptomatic infection ratio of 86.9% (95%CI, 83.9%-89.9%) with a disease series interval of 5.84 (95%CI, 4.92-6.94) days. Household contacts had a higher risk of both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection, and transmission was driven between index cases and second-generation cases, with little transmission occurring in second-to-later-generation cases (SIR, 12.4% vs. 3.6%). The symptomatic infection ratio was not significantly different in terms of infection time, generation, type of contact, and index cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a higher risk of infection among household contacts. Transmissibility decreased with generations during the intervention. Pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 varied among territories, but didn't change over time. Strict isolation and medical observation measures should be implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , Incidence , Virulence
4.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 983(1):012013, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730606

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic has led to a decline in electricity consumption in the United States, the world’s second largest consumer of electricity. Based on the monthly data of the United States from August 2015 to July 2020, this paper uses the ARIMA model and the ARIMA-BP model to forecast the power consumption of the United States in the next 17 months. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is 5.6% and 4.5% respectively. It shows that the prediction results have high reliability. The results of prediction research will provide a scientific basis for the normal adjustment of electricity supply and demand in the United States, and the method used in this study can be used as a reference for the study of electricity consumption in other countries.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 808189, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731834

ABSTRACT

In the context of coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), the face-recognition-based access control system (FACS) has been intensively adopted to protect students' and teachers' health and safety in school. However, the impact of FACS, as a new technology, on students' attitude toward accepting FACS has remained unknown from the psychological halo effect. Drawn on "halo effect" theory where psychological effects affect the sense of social identity and belonging, the present study explored college students' sense of school identity and belonging in using FACS during COVID-19 based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Data collected from 391 college students was analyzed using SEM to verify the relationship among perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), intention to use (IU), school identity, and school belonging. The results show that PU and PEU can positively predict IU, and consequentially can positively predict school identity and school belonging. Our study expands the application of halo effect theory to study FACS acceptance based on TAM, and provides strong evidence to support the effect of school FACS during the pandemic. The findings of this study also suggest that FACS acceptance can enhance students' sense of school identity and belonging.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729154

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression, but laboratory evidence is still lacking. This study established a multicenter retrospective cohort of 966 COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Wuhan, China. We found that male (62.8% vs. 46.5%), old age [72 (17) vs. 60.5 (21)], and coexisting chronic diseases (88.5% vs. 60.0%) were associated with poor clinical prognosis in COVID-19. Furthermore, the deteriorated patients exhibited more severe multiorgan damage, coagulation dysfunction, and extensive inflammation. Additionally, a cross-sectional study including 41 non-COVID-19 controls and 39 COVID-19 patients assayed endothelial function parameters in plasma and showed that COVID-19 patients exhibited elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (median [IQR]: 0.32 [0.27] vs. 0.17 [0.11] µg/ml, p < 0.001), E-selectin (21.06 [12.60] vs. 11.01 [4.63] ng/ml, p < 0.001), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) (0.22 [0.12] vs. 0.09 [0.04] ng/ml, p < 0.001), and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (0.75 [1.31] vs 6.20 [5.34] ng/ml, p < 0.001), as compared to normal controls. Moreover, VCAM-1 was positively correlated with d-dimer (R = 0.544, p < 0.001); tPA was positively correlated with d-dimer (R = 0.800, p < 0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (R = 0.638, p < 0.001). Our findings further confirm the strong association between endothelial dysfunction and poor prognosis of COVID-19, which offers a rationale for targeting endothelial dysfunction as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.

7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(2): 685-695, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721854

ABSTRACT

3CLpro is the main protease of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) responsible for their intracellular duplication. Based on virtual screening technology and molecular dynamics simulation, we found 23 approved clinical drugs such as Viomycin, Capastat, Carfilzomib and Saquinavir, which showed high affinity with the 3CLpro active sites. These findings showed that there were potential drugs that inhibit SARS-Cov-2's 3CLpro in the current clinical drug library, and these drugs can be further tested or chemically modified for the treatment of COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; 40:100825, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1712598

ABSTRACT

This work is aimed to explore the indirect impact of the EU's COVID-19 economic recession on global renewable energy consumption from the perspective of spillover effect. To this end, a global vector autoregressive (GVAR)-energy model was constructed based on the data of 33 major economies. After unit root test, cointegration test, weak exogeneity and structural stability test, the simulation results show that the spillover effects of the EU economic recession do not lead to a decline in the renewable energy consumption in all other countries. In fact, the spillover effect of the EU economic recession leads to an increase in renewable energy consumption in a small number of other countries, such as India. However, the spillover effect of the EU economic recession leads to a decline in renewable energy consumption in most other countries in the long run. Especially, the spillover effect of a 1% decline in the EU economy causes renewable energy consumption in the United States and China to fall by approximately 0.1% and 0.8%, respectively. Targeted renewable energy development policies should be developed to reduce the negative spillover effects of EU COVID-19 economic recession on renewable energy development.

9.
Journal of Hydrology ; : 127613, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1693270

ABSTRACT

Lake eutrophication has become a critical environmental issue due to the global effects of anthropogenic activities and climate change, and has been comprehensively studied for many years. A series of models and indicators have been proposed to assess the trophic state of lakes. The trophic state index (TSI) is a synthetic index that integrates chlorophyll-a, water clarity, and total phosphorus and is widely used to evaluate the trophic state of aquatic environments. In this study, we collected in situ lake samples (N=431) from typical lakes to match Sentinel-2 MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) imagery data using the Case 2 Regional Coast Color processor. Then we developed a new empirical model, TSI = –34.04 × (band 4/band 5) – 1.114 × (band 1/band 4) + 97.376). This model is valid for all of China, with good performance and few errors (RMSE=7.36;MAE=6.25) for the validation dataset. Recognizing that over 94% of the Chinese population located along eastern watersheds and large lakes have competing water uses, and given the TSI model on the seasonal scales, we further estimated the mean TSI and trophic state in eastern Chinese lakes (> 100 km2) from 2019 to 2020. The results revealed that more lakes were eutrophic in autumn (94.28%) than in spring (> 77.14%), indicating a serious eutrophication of eastern lakes. Although the eastern lakes have been studied in more detail, this study found that eutrophication still has markedly negative impacts on lake ecosystems. In addition, no significant improvement was observed in spring, most likely due to the months of curfew/lockdown from January 2020 onwards due to COVID-19. This may be due to the enrichment of nutrients deposited in sediment or watershed soil, which can be characterized as “autochthonous sources” of lake eutrophication, over decades with high rates of economic development. This study demonstrates the applicability of Sentinel-2 MSI data to monitor lake eutrophication as well as the feasibility of blue/red and red/red edge combinations. The framework and TSI model used bands available on MSI sensors to develop a novel approach for generating historical eutrophication data for large-scale evaluation of and decision-making related aquatic environmental changes, even in poorly studied areas.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325032

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China and even the world. We sought to analyse the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of some cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia . Methods: : In this retrospective study, we extracted the data on 95 patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan Xinzhou District People's Hospital from January 16 th to February 25 th , 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and abnormal radiologic findings. Outcomes were followed up until March 2 th , 2020. Results: : Higher temperature, blood leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level, alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity, α - hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and creatine kinase activity were related to severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and composite endpoint, and so were lower lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and total protein level. Age below 40 or above 60 years old, male, higher Creatinine level, and lower platelet count also seemed related to severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and composite endpoint, however the P values were greater than 0.05, which mean under the same condition studies of larger samples are needed in the future. Conclusion: Multiple factors were related to severe 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia and composite endpoint, and more related studies are needed in the future.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324521

ABSTRACT

The game-based learning supported by mobile intelligence technology has promoted the renewal of teaching and learning model. Therefore, a model of Question-Observation-Doing-Explanation (QODE) based on smart phones was constructed and applied to the science learning during school disruption in COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, from the theoretical perspective of Cognitive-affective Theory of Learning with Media, Bandura’s Motivation Theory and Community of Inquiry model, self-report measure was used to verify the effect of students’ scientific self-efficacy and cognitive anxiety on science engagement. 357 valid questionnaires were used for structural equation model research. The results of this study indicated that two types of scientific self-efficacy as indicated by scientific leaning ability and scientific learning behavior was negatively associated with cognitive anxiety. In addition, cognitive anxiety was also negatively correlated to four types of science engagement as indicated by cognitive engagement, emotional engagement, behavioral engagement and social engagement through smartphone interactions. These findings provide further evidence for game-based learning promoted by smart phones, contributing to deeper understanding of the associations between scientific self-efficacy, cognitive anxiety and science engagement. The implication of this study pointed out that the QODE model is suitable for implementing at a smart mobile device to students’ science learning.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315884

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been largely controlled in China, to the point where case fatality rate (CFR) data can be comprehensively evaluated. Methods: Data on confirmed patients, with a final outcome reported as of 29 March 2020, were obtained from official websites and other internet sources. The hospitalized CFR (HCFR) was estimated, epidemiological features described, and risk factors for a fatal outcome identified. Findings: The overall CFR in China was estimated to be 4.6% (95% CI 4.5%-4.8%). It increased with age and was higher in males than females. The highest CFR observed was in male patients ≥70 years old. Although the outcome of infection is generally worse for males, this adverse effect from male sex decreased as people get old. Differential age/sex CFR patterns across geographical regions were found: the age effect on CFR was greater in other provinces outside Hubei than in Wuhan. An effect of longer interval from symptom onset to admission was only observed outside Hubei, not in Wuhan. By performing multivariate analysis and survival analysis, the higher CFR was associated with older age, and male sex. Only in regions outside Hubei, longer interval from symptom onset to admission, were associated with higher CFR. Interpretation: This up-to-date and comprehensive picture of COVID-19 CFR and its drivers will help healthcare givers target limited medical resources to patients with high risk of fatality.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315578

ABSTRACT

Background: Until 24:00 of April 26th 2020, 2,918,268 laboratory-confirmed cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported worldwide, including 203,528 deaths. Bacterial infection is the main cause of sepsis, however, sepsis caused by virus is often ignored. Increased awareness, early recognition of viral sepsis, rapid administration of appropriate antiviral drugs, and urgent treatment can significantly reduce deaths of viral sepsis. Objectives: Given the rapid global spread of novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), coupled with the high rate of missed diagnosis of viral sepsis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is urgent to evaluate the multiple organ failure score and viral sepsis in COVID-19 patients, so as to determine the clinical characteristics of viral sepsis more accurately and reveal the risk factors related to mortality. Methods: Here we provide a full description of three cases of viral sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection imported to Guiyang from Wuhan. Results: Complete laboratory examination, imaging data and treatment methods for the patients are analyzed. Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA score) and Multiple organ dysfunction scores (MOD score) were daily assessed, aim to elucidate the clinical feature of viral sepsis and MODS and to attract enough attention by clinicians. Conclusions: Therefore, we strongly suggest to daily evaluate SOFA score and MOD score in severe and critically-ill COVID-19 patients, so as to early diagnose and prevention of sepsis and MODS.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315067

ABSTRACT

There have been several false-positive results in the antibody detection of the COVID-19. This study aims to analyze the distribution characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in false-positive results detected using chemiluminescent immunoassay. The characteristics of the false-positive results in SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG testing were retrospectively analyzed. The dynamic changes in the results of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were observed. The false-positive proportion of the single SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive results was 95.88%, which was significantly higher than those of the single SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive results (67.50%) ( P  < 0.001) and SARS-CoV-2 IgM & IgG positive results (29.55%) ( P  < 0.001). The S/CO of the SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in false-positive results ranged from 1.0 to 50.0. The false-positive probability of SARS-CoV-2 IgM in the S/CO range (1.0 ~ 3.0) was 91.73% (77/84), and the probability of false-positive of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the S/CO range (1.0 ~ 2.0) was 85.71% (24/28). Dynamic monitoring showed that the S/CO values of IgM in false-positive results decreased or remained unchanged, whereas the S/CO values of IgG in false-positive results only decreased. The possibility of false-positive of the single SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive and single SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive results was high. As the value of S/CO decreased, the probability of false-positive consequently increased, especially among the single SARS-CoV-2 IgM positive results.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312189

ABSTRACT

Objective: : To explore the value of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lymphocyte (L) in the assessment of disease severity and prognosis of elderly COVID-19 patients. Methods: : A total of 194 positive COVID-19 patients were collected from Tianyou Hospital and Puren Hospital, affiliated hospital of Wuhan University of Science and Technology. Their demographic characteristics were analyzed. The dynamic changes of CRP and L in peripheral blood were retrospectively studied. Results: : (1) There were significant statistical differences in CRP, L in clinical typing and clinical outcome in patients over 60 years old compared with those under 60 years old. Survival analysis showed that the risk of death was greater in patients over 60 than in those under 60.(2)In 125 patients over 60 years old, the hospitalized patients with severe or critical types of disease had significantly higher CRP than those with moderate type (p<0.01). In the outcome of the elderly patients, the CRP of the patients with the outcomes of discharge, improvement, aggravation and death increased successively (p<0.01). According to the analysis of Logistic regression model, the increase of CRP constitutes a risk factor for death in elderly patients. (3) In the ROC curve analysis to distinguish the death outcome and non-death outcome of COVID-19 patients, the area under the curve (AUC) of CRP and L was 0.751 and 0.720 respectively. CRP and L had good diagnostic accuracy for the death outcome of patients. (4) Changes in CRP were correlated with changes in CT imaging and were consistent with changes in the course of the disease. Conclusions: : (1) The data collected in this research showed that the cumulative survival rate of patients over 60 years old was lower than that of patients under 60 years old. With the increase of age, the CRP of patients showed an increasing trend, and the L of patients showed a characteristic lower than the normal reference interval. (2) CRP and L are important monitoring indicators of COVID-19 in elderly patients. Combined with CT examination and observation of their dynamic changes, CRP and L are of important clinical guiding value for the judgment of disease severity and the evaluation of prognosis.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311982

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus emerging in china and spread rapidly globally. Early identification and effective quarantine are essential to reduce the spread of the disease. However, the presence of false-negative makes the diagnosis difficult, especially in the early stages of the disease. Case presentation: A 34-year-old man who had an epidemiological link to Wuhan, presenting with intermittent fever and cough, with chest computed tomography showing ground-glass opacity, and repeated detection of negative 2019 novel coronavirus(2019-nCoV) nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, which was eventually diagnosed as coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19). Conclusions: : This case highlights that a single negative result of the test, particularly if it is based on an upper respiratory tract specimen, in highly suspected cases, does not exclude COVID-19. Repeat and multiple-site sampling and testing in combination with dynamic imaging changes in the chest are strongly recommended in progressive disease.

17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2026136, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy was listed as one of the top 10 issues threatening global health in 2019. The objectives of this study were to (a) use an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) with an added trust component to identify predictors of vaccine hesitancy and (b) explore the predictive ability of vaccine hesitancy on vaccination behavior. METHODS: We conducted an online questionnaire from February 9 to April 9, 2021, in China. The target population was Chinese residents aged 18 and over. A total of 14,236 responses were received. Structural equation modeling was used to test the extended PMT model hypotheses. RESULTS: A total of 10,379 participants were finally included in this study, of whom 52.0% showed hesitancy toward vaccination. 2854 (27.5%) participants reported that they got flu shots in the past year, and 2561 (24.7%) participants were vaccinated against COVID-19. 2857 (27.5%) participants engaged in healthcare occupation. The model explained 85.7% variance of vaccine hesitancy. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor, negatively associated with vaccine hesitancy (ß = -0.584; p < .001). Response efficacy had a negative effect on vaccine hesitancy (ß = -0.372; p < .001), while threat appraisal showed a positive effect (ß = 0.104; p < .001). Compared with non-health workers, health workers showed more vaccine hesitancy, and response efficacy was the strongest predictor (ß = -0.560; p < .001). Vaccine hesitancy had a negative effect on vaccination behavior (ß = -0.483; p < .001), and the model explained 23.4% variance of vaccination behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the extended PMT model is efficient in explaining vaccine hesitancy. However, the predictive ability of vaccine hesitancy on vaccination behavior is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Motivation , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 726690, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643551

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of various public health measures in dealing with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. A stochastic agent-based model was used to simulate the progress of the COVID-19 outbreak in scenario I (imported one case) and scenario II (imported four cases) with a series of public health measures. The main outcomes included the avoided infections and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess uncertainty. The results indicated that isolation-and-quarantine averted the COVID-19 outbreak at the lowest ICERs. The joint strategy of personal protection and isolation-and-quarantine averted one more case than only isolation-and-quarantine with additional costs. The effectiveness of isolation-and-quarantine decreased with lowering quarantine probability and increasing delay time. The strategy that included community containment would be cost-effective when the number of imported cases was >65, or the delay time of the quarantine was more than 5 days, or the quarantine probability was below 25%, based on current assumptions. In conclusion, isolation-and-quarantine was the most cost-effective intervention. However, personal protection combined with isolation-and-quarantine was the optimal strategy for averting more cases. The community containment could be more cost-effective as the efficiency of isolation-and-quarantine drops and the imported cases increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cereb Cortex ; 2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642319

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) and measures to curb it created population-level changes in male-dominant impulsive and risky behaviors such as violent crimes and gambling. One possible explanation for this is that the pandemic has been stressful, and males, more so than females, tend to respond to stress by altering their focus on immediate versus delayed rewards, as reflected in their delay discounting rates. Delay discounting rates from healthy undergraduate students were collected twice during the pandemic. Discounting rates of males (n=190) but not of females (n=493) increased during the pandemic. Using machine learning, we show that prepandemic functional connectome predict increased discounting rates in males (n=88). Moreover, considering that delay discounting is associated with multiple psychiatric disorders, we found the same neural pattern that predicted increased discounting rates in this study, in secondary datasets of patients with major depression and schizophrenia. The findings point to sex-based differences in maladaptive delay discounting under real-world stress events, and to connectome-based neuromarkers of such effects. They can explain why there was a population-level increase in several impulsive and risky behaviors during the pandemic and point to intriguing questions about the shared underlying mechanisms of stress responses, psychiatric disorders and delay discounting.

20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1282, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The temporal relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and antibody production and clinical progression remained obscure. The aim of this study was to describe the viral kinetics of symptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify factors that might contribute to prolonged viral shedding. METHODS: Symptomatic COVID-19 patients were enrolled in two hospitals in Wuhan, China, from whom the respiratory samples were collected and measured for viral loads consecutively by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay. The viral shedding pattern was delineated in relate to the epidemiologic and clinical information. RESULTS: Totally 2726 respiratory samples collected from 703 patients were quantified. The SARS-CoV-2 viral loads were at the highest level during the initial stage after symptom onset, which subsequently declined with time. The median time to SARS-CoV-2 negativity of nasopharyngeal test was 28 days, significantly longer in patients with older age (> 60 years old), female gender and those having longer interval from symptom onset to hospital admission (> 10 days). The multivariate Cox regression model revealed significant effect from older age (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.96), female gender (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.96) and longer interval from symptom onset to admission (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.59) on longer time to SARS-CoV-2 negativity. The IgM antibody titer was significantly higher in the low viral loads group at 41-60 days after symptom onset. At the population level, the average viral loads were higher in early than in late outbreak periods. CONCLUSIONS: The prolonged viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 was observed in COVID-19 patients, particularly in older, female and those with longer interval from symptom onset to admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Virus Shedding
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