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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729079

ABSTRACT

Importance: Determining the long-term impact of COVID-19 on cognition is important to inform immediate steps in COVID-19 research and health policy. Objective: To investigate the 1-year trajectory of cognitive changes in older COVID-19 survivors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study recruited 3233 COVID-19 survivors 60 years and older who were discharged from 3 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. Their uninfected spouses (N = 466) were recruited as a control population. Participants with preinfection cognitive impairment, a concomitant neurological disorder, or a family history of dementia were excluded, as well as those with severe cardiac, hepatic, or kidney disease or any kind of tumor. Follow-up monitoring cognitive functioning and decline took place at 6 and 12 months. A total of 1438 COVID-19 survivors and 438 control individuals were included in the final follow-up. COVID-19 was categorized as severe or nonsevere following the American Thoracic Society guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was change in cognition 1 year after patient discharge. Cognitive changes during the first and second 6-month follow-up periods were assessed using the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40, respectively. Based on the cognitive changes observed during the 2 periods, cognitive trajectories were classified into 4 categories: stable cognition, early-onset cognitive decline, late-onset cognitive decline, and progressive cognitive decline. Multinomial and conditional logistical regression models were used to identify factors associated with risk of cognitive decline. Results: Among the 3233 COVID-19 survivors and 1317 uninfected spouses screened, 1438 participants who were treated for COVID-19 (691 male [48.05%] and 747 female [51.95%]; median [IQR] age, 69 [66-74] years) and 438 uninfected control individuals (222 male [50.68%] and 216 female [49.32%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [66-74] years) completed the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of cognitive impairment in survivors 12 months after discharge was 12.45%. Individuals with severe cases had lower Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 scores than those with nonsevere cases and control individuals at 12 months (median [IQR]: severe, 22.50 [16.00-28.00]; nonsevere, 30.00 [26.00-33.00]; control, 31.00 [26.00-33.00]). Severe COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (odds ratio [OR], 4.87; 95% CI, 3.30-7.20), late-onset cognitive decline (OR, 7.58; 95% CI, 3.58-16.03), and progressive cognitive decline (OR, 19.00; 95% CI, 9.14-39.51), while nonsevere COVID-19 was associated with a higher risk of early-onset cognitive decline (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.30-2.27) when adjusting for age, sex, education level, body mass index, and comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 survival was associated with an increase in risk of longitudinal cognitive decline, highlighting the importance of immediate measures to deal with this challenge.

2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 299, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted an unprecedented and universal impact on global health system, resulting in noticeable challenges in traditional chronic disease care, of which diabetes was reported to be most influenced by the reduction in healthcare resources in the pandemic. China has the world's largest diabetes population, and current diabetes management in China is unsatisfactory, particularly in rural areas. Studies in developed countries have demonstrated that physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics are efficient and cost-effective for diabetes management, but little is known if this mode could be adapted in primary hospitals in China. The aim of this proposed study is to develop and evaluate physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in primary hospitals in Hunan province. METHODS: A multi-site randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics compared with usual care for Chinese patients with T2DM. Six primary hospitals will participate in the study, which will recruit 600 eligible patients. Patients in the intervention group will receive services from both physicians and pharmacists in the collaborative clinics, while the control group will receive usual care from physicians. Patients will be followed up at the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th month. Comparison between the two groups will be conducted by assessing the clinical parameters, process indicators and costs on diabetes. A satisfaction survey will also be carried out at the end of the study. DISCUSSION: If effective, the physician-pharmacist collaborative clinics can be adapted and used in primary hospitals of China to improve glycemic control, enhance medication adherence, decrease incidence of complications and reduce patients' dependence on physicians. Findings from the present study are meaningful for developing evidence-based diabetes care policy in rural China, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic era. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031839 , Registered 12 April 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Interprofessional Relations , Pharmacists , Physicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325210

ABSTRACT

Objective: 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) has become a global health emergency. However, the clinical presentations are not well characterized. The study aimed to describe clinical characteristics of 2019-nCov pneumonia with meta-analytic approach, and to identify risk factors for developing severe cases. Methods: : The electronic databases of PubMed, Google Scholar and MedRxiv were searched from December 2019 to February 2020. Records were included if they reported clinical characteristics of 2019-nCov pneumonia. Studies using crowd sourcing data for mathematical modeling but not reporting clinical data were excluded. The study was reported according to the PRISMA guideline. Data were extracted by independent reviewers. Proportions and mean values were pooled across component studies by using the meta-analytic approach. Data were pooled with fixed or random-effects model as appropriate. Clinical characteristics such as age, gender, symptoms, treatment and mortality outcome were pooled across studies if appropriate. Risk factors for development of severe cases were reported. Results: : A total of 13 studies involving 5,729 patients were included for quantitative analysis. The mean age of the study population was 50 years (95% CI: 47 to 53). The most common initial symptoms were cough (68.0%;95% CI: 65.6 to 70.4%), followed by fever (56.5%;95% CI: 53.9 to 58.9%), fatigue (42.5%;95% CI: 39.9 to 45.1%) and anorexia (31.7%;95% CI: 26.5 to 38.4%). The severe cases accounts for 22.5% of the whole population (95% CI: 21.4 to 23.6%). The overall mortality rate was 1.8% (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.2%), which was consistent with the real time epidemic tracking data. There was substantial heterogeneity across included studies (O = 0.84;p < 0.001). A number of comorbidities and symptoms such as hypertension, COPD, dyspnea, elevated C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were found to be associated with increased risk of developing severe cases. Conclusions: : Our study described clinical characteristics of the 2019-nCov pneumonia in a systematic way. Multiple risk factors were identified for severe cases.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315710

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for the prevention of cognitive decline in elderly population. This study aims to assess cognitive status and longitudinal decline at 6 months post-infection in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19.Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 1013 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to March 13, 2020. In total, 262 uninfected living spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. Subjects were examined for their current cognitive status using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and longitudinal cognitive decline using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge.Findings: COVID-19 patients had significantly lower TICS-40 scores (patients: 29.73±6.13;controls: 30.74±5.95, p=0.016) and higher IQCODE scores (patients: 3.40±0.81;controls: 3.15±0.39, p<0.001) than the controls. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.46±5.53, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.33±0.68, p<0.001) and controls (TICS-40: 22.98±7.12 vs. 30.74±5.95, p<0.001;IQCODE: 4.06±1.39 vs. 3.15±0.39, p<0.001). Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with a current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients and controls. COVID-19 severity (OR: 8.142, 95% CI: 5.007-13.239) was associated with worse current cognitive function. Older age (OR: 1.024, 95% CI: 1.003 to 1.046), COVID-19 severity (OR: 2.277, 95% CI: 1.308 to 3.964), mechanical ventilation (OR: 5.388, 95% CI: 3.007 to 9.656), and hypertension (OR: 1.866, 95% CI: 1.376 to 2.531) were associated with an increased risk of longitudinal cognitive decline.Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with delayed cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients with risk factors, including severe disease, older age, mechanical ventilation, and hypertension, should be intensively monitored for delayed cognitive decline. Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.Conflict of Interest: We declared no conflict of interests.Ethical Approval: The study protocols were approved by the institutional review boards of the hospitals. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the survey.

5.
Front Genet ; 12: 819493, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674328

ABSTRACT

The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) is a small carnivore with distinct biological characteristics, that likes an omnivorous diet and also serves as a vector of pathogens. Although this species is not an endangered animal, its population is reportedly declining. Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the public has been particularly concerned about this species. Here, we present the first genome of the P. larvata, comprising 22 chromosomes assembled using single-tube long fragment read (stLFR) and Hi-C technologies. The genome length is 2.41 Gb with a scaffold N50 of 105.6 Mb. We identified the 107.13 Mb X chromosome and one 1.34 Mb Y-linked scaffold and validated them by resequencing 45 P. larvata individuals. We predicted 18,340 protein-coding genes, among which 18,333 genes were functionally annotated. Interestingly, several biological pathways related to immune defenses were found to be significantly expanded. Also, more than 40% of the enriched pathways on the positively selected genes (PSGs) were identified to be closely related to immunity and survival. These enriched gene families were inferred to be essential for the P. larvata for defense against the pathogens. However, we did not find a direct genomic basis for its adaptation to omnivorous diet despite multiple attempts of comparative genomic analysis. In addition, we evaluated the susceptibility of the P. larvata to the SARS-CoV-2 by screening the RNA expression of the ACE2 and TMPRSS2/TMPRSS4 genes in 16 organs. Finally, we explored the genome-wide heterozygosity and compared it with other animals to evaluate the population status of this species. Taken together, this chromosome-scale genome of the P. larvata provides a necessary resource and insights for understanding the genetic basis of its biological characteristics, evolution, and disease transmission control.

6.
Journal of Molecular Structure ; : 132588, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1670923

ABSTRACT

Cocktail therapy is one of the leading approaches for treating some complex diseases. Herein, a pH-triggered supramolecular cocktail drug delivery system assembled by the medium-strength complexes of pillar[5]arene-based schiff base (P5SB) with methylene blue (MB). Molecular modeling suggest that noncovalent interactions between schiff base side chain of P5SB and MB were mainly responsible for the stability of the complex. The amphiphilic P5SB⊃MB complex assembled into stable vesicles with an average diameter of 244.1 nm in conventional physiological environment (pH=7.4). Drug loading experiments demonstrated that doxorubicin (DOX) could be efficiently encapsulated into the hollow vesicles, and the drug would be rapidly released under acidic environment (pH=6.0). Moreover, the anti-cancer efficiency of DOX-loaded P5SB⊃MB vesicles was significantly enhanced because of the synergistic effect of P5SB, MB and DOX. Nonetheless, the live-cell imaging property of DOX was maintained after encapsulation.

7.
Frontiers in psychology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652369

ABSTRACT

This study adopted a positive psychology perspective to investigate positive emotion and foreign language enjoyment among Chinese as a second language (CSL) learners in an emergency remote teaching (ERT) context amid the COVID-19 pandemic. A set of 90 preparatory Chinese language students (40 males and 50 females) was assessed for their level of foreign language enjoyment using the Foreign Language Enjoyment Scale (FLES). Participles' scores on self-perceived language achievement and actual test scores were adopted as the measurement of their Chinese language proficiency. The results revealed that: (1) CSL learners experienced high level of FL enjoyment in an online learning context, (2) no significant correlation was found between FLE and leaners' actual language achievement nor between FLE and their self-perceived achievement, (3) female learners showed higher FLE than male learners and gender was found to have a significant effect on FLE-Private, (4) participants' geological location, i.e., whether in China or at home countries, significantly influenced their FLE, (5) participants' regional group was not a significant predictor of FLE, and (6) teacher-related variables and learner self-perceptions of achievement were strong predictors of FLE among CSL learners. The findings highlight the importance of teacher's role in an online learning environment and suggest that FLE may not boost performance in the short term for language beginners but is still conducive in the long run. Implications for both teachers and learners, and suggestions for future researches are provided.

8.
J Virol Methods ; 301: 114441, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634654

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to estimate the PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 testing in 32 participating laboratories in a localized small-scale external quality assessment (EQA) scheme. EQA samples were distributed to the participants and detected immediately on the day of delivery. Qualitative results were submitted to the EQA provider, including negative or positive results along with cycle threshold (Ct) values for different target genes. Although the variability of Ct values differed among the laboratories in the EQA, a total of 32 (100 %) participants reported correct qualitative results. The study showed that the mean loads of N or E gene were higher than those of ORF1ab in SARS-CoV-2 RNA samples. Regardless of the analyzed gene target, the mean Ct values for weak positive and positive samples varied by fewer than 1.74 and 1.91 cycles, respectively. Less than 12 % of reported Ct values for ORF1ab and N genes deviated by more than ±4 cycles (maximum: -9.92 cycles), while none deviated by more than ±4 cycles for the E gene. The current EQA program can provide a robust practical basis for follow-up planning to conduct evaluations for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing and other novel emerging pathogens in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Laboratories , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics
9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 5048-5062, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608704

ABSTRACT

The factors that lead to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy among health-care workers (HCWs) are unclear. We aimed to identify the factors that influence HCWs' hesitancy, especially the influence of their social network. Using an online platform, we surveyed HCWs in Chongqing, China, in January 2021 to understand the factors that influence the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. Proportional allocation stratified sampling method was used to recruit respondents. Multivariable logistic regression and social network analysis (SNA) were used to analyze the influence factors. A total of 5247 HCWs were included and 23.3% of them were vaccine-hesitant. Participants were more hesitant if they had chronic diseases (OR = 1.411, 95% CI: 1.146-1.738), worked in tertiary hospitals (OR = 1.546, 95% CI: 1.231-1.942), and reported a history of vaccine hesitancy (OR = 1.637, 95% CI: 1.395-1.920) and refusal toward other vaccines (OR = 2.433, 95% CI: 2.067-2.863). The participants with a social network to communicate COVID-19 immunization were less hesitant (OR = 0.850, 95% CI: 0.728-0.993). Several influential members with social networks were found in SNA. Most of these influential members in the networks were department leaders who were willing to get COVID-19 vaccines (P < .05). Hesitant subgroups among Chinese HCWs were linked to the lack of a social network to communicate COVID-19 immunization. Our findings may lead to tailored interventions to enhance COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HCWs by targeting key members in social network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Networking
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296366

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessing the humoral immunity of patients with underlying diseases after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for determining effective prevention and control strategies. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether underlying disease is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection, reveal the seroprevalence of people with underlying disease and the characteristics of dynamic changes in anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and provide evidence for the scientific formulation of COVID-19 vaccination strategies. Methods: : The probability ratio sampling method was adopted to systematically select 100 communities from 13 districts in Wuhan, China, followed by a random selection of households from 100 communities according to a list provided by the local government. Individuals who have lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since December 2019 and were ≥40 years old were included. Individuals with other serious diseases besides COVID-19, from whom a sample could not be obtained or refused to participate, were excluded. All eligible subjects signed a written informed consent form and completed a standardized electronic questionnaire before being enrolled in the group. From April 9–13, 2020, venous blood samples were collected from all individuals;from June 11–13, 2020, and from October 9–December 5, 2020, all positive and matched negative families were followed up. Results: : The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in people with underlying diseases was 6.30% (95% CI [5.09-7.52]), and that of people without underlying diseases was 6.12% (95% CI [5.33-6.91]). Among people with underlying diseases, retirees, health workers, and people who have been exposed to fever or respiratory symptoms since December 2019 were more likely to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. The IgG titer of people with underlying disease decreased significantly over time (P <0.05), but the neutralizing antibody titer remained relatively stable throughout the follow-up period. There was no significant difference between the IgG titer decline rate of people with underlying disease and those without. The IgG titer of people with underlying disease and asymptomatic infection was lower than that in symptomatic infection. Conclusion: These findings imply that vaccination strategies for people with and without underlying diseases may not require special adjustments.

11.
Clin Lab ; 67(12)2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urgent clinical and public health have the challenge of massive testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 to provide the information about individual infection status and patient management. All these efforts are significant for government officials to evaluate the spread of a new disease and trace the contacts of infected persons. METHODS: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has heightened the need for healthcare systems to set up new clinical laboratories for the rapid and effective diagnosis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to prevent further transmission. RESULTS: With regard to the antibody testing, the molecular assay for COVID-19 in proper respiratory specimens becomes an especially important tool in the setting of an acute illness [1,2]. Because of the strong demand for improving molecular testing capability in urgent clinical and public health within a short time, the molecular laboratories (including the mobile cabin PCR laboratories) have sprung up across the world. CONCLUSIONS: Though a long way from curbing the pandemic, the appearance of experienced PCR laboratories armed with most sensitive and specific molecular assays will reduce SARS-CoV-2 spread in human population. We believe the article will provide some reference opinions on the forthcoming new PCR laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Laboratories , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6103, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475296

ABSTRACT

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have been emerging and some have been linked to an increase in case numbers globally. However, there is yet a lack of understanding of the molecular basis for the interactions between the human ACE2 (hACE2) receptor and these VOCs. Here we examined several VOCs including Alpha, Beta, and Gamma, and demonstrate that five variants receptor-binding domain (RBD) increased binding affinity for hACE2, and four variants pseudoviruses increased entry into susceptible cells. Crystal structures of hACE2-RBD complexes help identify the key residues facilitating changes in hACE2 binding affinity. Additionally, soluble hACE2 protein efficiently prevent most of the variants pseudoviruses. Our findings provide important molecular information and may help the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic agents targeting these emerging mutants.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/ultrastructure , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Crystallography, X-Ray , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/ultrastructure , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sf9 Cells , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Spodoptera , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization
13.
Conserv Biol ; 36(1): e13837, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443241

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the inadequacy of China's legal protection of wildlife. Long-standing illegal wildlife trade in China and worldwide increases the risk of zoonotic infectious diseases. We sought to improve the understanding of China' legal system for the protection of wildlife, which has at its core the wildlife protection law, by systematically evaluating the laws and regulations of China's Wildlife Protection Framework. We examined how existing legal documents (e.g., the Wildlife Protection Law 2018) are directly or indirectly related to wildlife conservation. The inherent defects of wildlife protection legislation include a narrow scope of protection, insufficient public participation, and inconsistent enforcement among responsible agencies. Solutions to improve China's Wildlife Protection Law include expanding the legal protection of wildlife, and improving monitoring of wildlife protection. Strengthening legislation will be the basis for effective regulation of the use of wild animals. We advocate the establishment of a sound wildlife protection legal system for resolving conflicts between humans and wild animals and preventing zoonotic disease, such a system will have a profound impact on the sustainable development of China's wildlife resources.


Cambios en el Pensamiento Legislativo en China para Mejorar la Protección a los Animales Silvestres y la Salud Humana Resumen La pandemia de COVID-19 ha expuesto la insuficiencia de la protección legal de la fauna en China. El prolongado mercado ilegal de fauna en China y en todo el mundo incrementa el riesgo de enfermedades zoonóticas infecciosas. Buscamos mejorar el entendimiento del sistema legal de China para la protección de la fauna, el cual tiene como núcleo la ley de protección de fauna, mediante la evaluación sistemática de las leyes y regulaciones del Marco de Protección a la Fauna de China. Examinamos cómo los documentos legales existentes (p. ej.: la Ley de Protección de Fauna 2018) están relacionados directa o indirectamente con la conservación de la fauna. Los defectos inherentes de la legislación para la protección de fauna incluyen una visión reducida de la protección, una participación pública insuficiente y el cumplimiento inconsistente entre las agencias responsables. Las soluciones para mejorar la Ley de Protección de Fauna incluyen la expansión de la protección legal de fauna y el aumento al monitoreo de la protección de fauna. El fortalecimiento de la legislación será la base para la regulación efectiva del uso de animales silvestres. Abogamos por el establecimiento de un firme sistema legal de protección a la fauna para resolver los conflictos entre los humanos y los animales silvestres y también para prevenir las enfermedades zoonóticas. Dicho sistema tendrá un impacto profundo sobre el desarrollo sustentable de los recursos faunísticos de China.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Journal of Building Engineering ; : 103246, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1433566

ABSTRACT

According to the discussion of the design method and operational effect for Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, this paper summarized the design control points of indoor and outdoor environment of COVID-19 emergency hospital. Based on the design of Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital, this paper analyzed and discussed the site design, building layout, three-zones and two-passages, the design scheme of the ventilation and air conditioning system for negative pressure ward and negative pressure isolation ward, air distribution, as well as some other key designs for COVID-19 emergency hospital. The design points were summarized and refined. The design methods and technology requirements of the COVID-19 emergency hospital were provided in this study, such as ventilation and air conditioning system setting, ventilation quantity of wards, pressure gradient control measures among different areas, upper and lower air distribution, filter setting mode and distance of air inlet and outlet, which could benefit to provide references for the design of similar projects in the future.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 677082, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403511

ABSTRACT

Background: Far from being a clinical disease, the COVID-19 pandemic has become a threatening social event worldwide exerting long-term impacts on human beings. Objective: This study was designed to determine if and to what extent psychiatric inpatients during the remission phase of the pandemic suffered from vicarious traumatization. Method: Totally 266 eligible participants from psychiatric and psychological wards in a hospital were recruited during October 26th, 2020 to February 4th, 2021 to finish a self-made online questionnaire consisting of Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Revised (PSQI-R), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Beck Suicide Ideation Scale (SSI), 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Meanwhile, some socio-demographics and information related to the pandemic were also recorded. Results: The detection rate of vicarious traumatic symptoms (VTS) was 80.83%, including 40.98% for mild ones, 25.56% for moderate ones, and 14.29% for severe ones, among whom 98.14% possessed all three phenotypes. 27.07% of the sample were considered possible vicarious traumatization (pVT). Having acquaintances infected with or died from COVID-19, worries on re-outbreak of COVID-19, a higher score of OCI-R or lower score of SF-12, and long latency of VTS were independent risk factors of pVT. Conclusion: Our study showed that COVID-19 could have profound mental influences on psychiatric inpatients. It is high time we did some screening in the wards to seek for patients at risk.

16.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(2): 117-121, 2020 Apr 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389772

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) has raised concerns among dentists to develop strategies to prevent infection of dental equipment, materials, and patients during an epidemic period. Strategies following the National Laws and Standards of China and local standards of several provinces for controlling cross-infection and instituting protective measures for medical staff in dental clinics during an epidemic period are discussed. A proposal is put forth for dental clinics that will face similar situations in the future. Further research is warranted to address potential problems that will be encountered under such dire circumstances.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Dental Clinics , Infection Control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Dental Equipment , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 1-7, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331526

ABSTRACT

It is important to understand the cognition, willingness, and psychological anxiety state of Chinese guardians toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children to predict the future vaccination rate and to help the design of policies that aim to expand the population with immunity against COVID-19. This study collected data with a professional vaccination registration platform for children named "Xiao Dou Miao" in February 2021. The psychological anxiety state of the guardians was self-evaluated using the psychological anxiety scale. Factors that might influence the willingness of guardians to vaccinate their children were identified using logistic regression analysis. This study included 12,872 questionnaires with 70.9% of guardians showing willingness to vaccinate their children. Guardians who were male, aged 40-49 and from rural area were more willing to vaccinate their children. Fathers, guardians with higher education and income, whose children have a history of adverse vaccine reactions and allergies were less willing to vaccinate their children (p < .001). More than 80% of the guardians expressed a high level of trust for vaccine information released by official and health-related agencies. Guardians who were not vaccinated were more anxious than those who were vaccinated (χ2 = 27.99, p < .001). To protect children from COVID-19, vaccine coverage in children should be expanded rapidly and public awareness on vaccine safety and effectiveness should be improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , China/epidemiology , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/psychology
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(27): 4358-4370, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328147

ABSTRACT

Since it was first reported in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread rapidly around the world to cause the ongoing pandemic. Although the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are predominantly in the respiratory system, liver enzyme abnormalities exist in around half of the cases, which indicate liver injury, and raise clinical concern. At present, there is no consensus whether the liver injury is directly caused by viral replication in the liver tissue or indirectly by the systemic inflammatory response. This review aims to summarize the clinical manifestations and to explore the underlying mechanisms of liver dysfunction in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Liver , Pandemics , Virus Replication
19.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 48, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on cognitive function is essential for monitoring the cognitive decline in the elderly population. This study aims to assess the current cognitive status and the longitudinal cognitive decline in elderly patients recovered from COVID-19. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited 1539 COVID-19 inpatients aged over 60 years who were discharged from three COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 10 to April 10, 2020. In total, 466 uninfected spouses of COVID-19 patients were selected as controls. The current cognitive status was assessed using a Chinese version of the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-40 (TICS-40) and the longitudinal cognitive decline was assessed using an Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Cognitive assessments were performed 6 months after patient discharge. RESULTS: Compared with controls, COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores [TICS-40 median (IQR): 29 (25 to 32) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.19 (3.00 to 3.63) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had lower TICS-40 scores and higher IQCODE scores than non-severe COVID-19 patients [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR): 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.13 (3.00 to 3.56), p < 0.001] and controls [TICS-40 median (IQR): 24 (18 to 28) vs. 30 (26 to 33), p < 0.001; IQCODE median (IQR) 3.63 (3.13 to 4.31) vs. 3.06 (3.00 to 3.38), p < 0.001]. Severe COVID-19 patients had a higher proportion of cases with current cognitive impairment and longitudinal cognitive decline than non-severe COVID-19 patients [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 9 (0.69 %), p < 0.001; Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): 60 (25.21 %) vs. 63 (4.84 %), p < 0.001] and controls [dementia: 25 (10.50 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p < 0.001; MCI: 60 (25.21 %) vs. 20 (4.29 %), p < 0.001)]. COVID-19 severity, delirium and COPD were risk factors of current cognitive impairment. Low education level, severe COVID-19, delirium, hypertension and COPD were risk factors of longitudinal cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with an increased risk of long-term cognitive decline in elderly population. COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, should be intensively monitored for post-infection cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 679475, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259413

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the drivers of the Standard & Poor's (S&P) 500 equity returns during the COVID-19 crisis era. The paper considers various determinants of the equity returns from December 31, 2019, to February 19, 2021. It is observed that the United States Dollar (USD) and the volatility indices (VIX) negatively affect the S&P 500 equity returns. However, the newspaper-based infectious disease "equity market volatility tracker" is positively associated with the stock market returns. These results are robust to consider both the ordinary least squares (OLS) and the least angle regression (LARS) estimators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Investments , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Volatilization
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