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1.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 15: 1667-1676, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978917

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of hospice care for terminally ill emergency patients in the COVID-19 context. Methods: A total of 86 terminally ill emergency patients at the authors' hospital from February 2020 to October 2020 were included in this study, they were randomly allocated into a control (n = 42) and an intervention (n = 44) group, respectively. The control group received routine nursing care, and the intervention group received hospice care. Results: Following treatment, the survival time (as the primary outcome) in the intervention group was longer than in the control group (P < 0.05). Distress thermometer and psychological pain-related factor scores for the intervention group were lower than those of the control group (P < 0.001 for both). The comfort scores of all dimensions in the intervention group were higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The scores for survival puzzle, symptom distress, independence, and mental well-being in all dimensions related to a sense of dignity were lower in the intervention than in the control group (P < 0.05 for all). The intervention group's yield, avoidance, and total scores were lower than in the control group, whereas the face score was higher than in the control group (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: In the current COVID-19 context, the telehealth (psychological, physical, online remote support, critical illness communication, and death education) approach adopted by the Anning care team for terminally ill emergency patients and other aspects of peace care could help improve the physical and mental health of patients. Hospice care can minimise the physical and psychological pain of terminally ill patients in the emergency department and assist them in their final stage of life by providing a calming and comfortable environment.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325218

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can infect many domestic animals, including dogs. Herein, we show that dog angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (dACE2) can bind to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding region (RBD), and that both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 can infect dACE2-expressing cells. we solved the crystal structure of RBD in complex with dACE2 and found that the total numbers of contact residues, contact atoms, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the binding interface in this complex are slightly fewer than those in the complex of the RBD and human ACE2 (hACE2). This result is consistent with the fact that the binding affinity of RBD to dACE2 is lower than that to hACE2. We further show that a few important mutations in the RBD binding interface play a pivotal role in the binding affinity of RBD to both dACE2 and hACE2, and need intense monitoring and controlling.

3.
mBio ; 12(5): e0222021, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440803

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused huge deaths and economic losses worldwide in the current pandemic. The main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is thought to be an ideal drug target for treating COVID-19. Leupeptin, a broad-spectrum covalent inhibitor of serine, cysteine, and threonine proteases, showed inhibitory activity against Mpro, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 127.2 µM in vitro in our study here. In addition, leupeptin can also inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells, with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 42.34 µM. More importantly, various strains of streptomyces that have a broad symbiotic relationship with medicinal plants can produce leupeptin and leupeptin analogs to regulate autogenous proteases. Fingerprinting and structure elucidation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), respectively, further proved that the Qing-Fei-Pai-Du (QFPD) decoction, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the effective treatment of COVID-19 during the period of the Wuhan outbreak, contains leupeptin. All these results indicate that leupeptin at least contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This also reminds us to pay attention to the microbiomes in TCM herbs as streptomyces in the soil might produce leupeptin that will later infiltrate the medicinal plant. We propose that plants, microbiome, and microbial metabolites form an ecosystem for the effective components of TCM herbs. IMPORTANCE A TCM formula has played an important role in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, the mechanism of TCM action is still unclear. In this study, we identified leupeptin, a metabolite produced by plant-symbiotic actinomyces (PSA), which showed antiviral activity in both cell culture and enzyme assays. Moreover, leupeptin found in the QFPD decoction was confirmed by both HPLC fingerprinting and HRMS. These results suggest that leupeptin likely contributes to the antiviral activity of the QFPD decoction against SARS-CoV-2. This result gives us important insight into further studies of the PSA metabolite and medicinal plant ecosystem for future TCM modernization research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Leupeptins/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ecosystem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4195, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301166

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can infect many domestic animals, including dogs. Herein, we show that dog angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (dACE2) can bind to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein receptor binding domain (RBD), and that both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2 can infect dACE2-expressing cells. We solved the crystal structure of RBD in complex with dACE2 and found that the total number of contact residues, contact atoms, hydrogen bonds and salt bridges at the binding interface in this complex are slightly fewer than those in the complex of the RBD and human ACE2 (hACE2). This result is consistent with the fact that the binding affinity of RBD to dACE2 is lower than that of hACE2. We further show that a few important mutations in the RBD binding interface play a pivotal role in the binding affinity of RBD to both dACE2 and hACE2. Our work reveals a molecular basis for cross-species transmission and potential animal spread of SARS-CoV-2, and provides new clues to block the potential transmission chains of this virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dogs , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
5.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 46(10): 848-860, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260872

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invades host cells by interacting with receptors/coreceptors, as well as with other cofactors, via its spike (S) protein that further mediates fusion between viral and cellular membranes. The host membrane protein, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is the major receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and is a crucial determinant for cross-species transmission. In addition, some auxiliary receptors and cofactors are also involved that expand the host/tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2. After receptor engagement, specific proteases are required that cleave the S protein and trigger its fusogenic activity. Here we discuss the recent advances in understanding the molecular events during SARS-CoV-2 entry which will contribute to developing vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(11): e1008949, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922716

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 has emerged as an epidemic, causing severe pneumonia with a high infection rate globally. To better understand the pathogenesis caused by SARS-CoV-2, we developed a rhesus macaque model to mimic natural infection via the nasal route, resulting in the SARS-CoV-2 virus shedding in the nose and stool up to 27 days. Importantly, we observed the pathological progression of marked interstitial pneumonia in the infected animals on 5-7 dpi, with virus dissemination widely occurring in the lower respiratory tract and lymph nodes, and viral RNA was consistently detected from 5 to 21 dpi. During the infection period, the kinetics response of T cells was revealed to contribute to COVID-19 progression. Our findings implied that the antiviral response of T cells was suppressed after 3 days post infection, which might be related to increases in the Treg cell population in PBMCs. Moreover, two waves of the enhanced production of cytokines (TGF-α, IL-4, IL-6, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-15, IL-1ß), chemokines (MCP-1/CCL2, IL-8/CXCL8, and MIP-1ß/CCL4) were detected in lung tissue. Our data collected from this model suggested that T cell response and cytokine/chemokine changes in lung should be considered as evaluation parameters for COVID-19 treatment and vaccine development, besides of observation of virus shedding and pathological analysis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Macaca mulatta , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/methods , Virulence , Virus Shedding
7.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7415-7420, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-786676

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the world at an unprecedented rate. In the present study, 4 marine sulfated polysaccharides were screened for their inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2, including sea cucumber sulfated polysaccharide (SCSP), fucoidan from brown algae, iota-carrageenan from red algae, and chondroitin sulfate C from sharks (CS). Of them, SCSP, fucoidan, and carrageenan showed significant antiviral activities at concentrations of 3.90-500 µg mL-1. SCSP exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity with IC50 of 9.10 µg mL-1. Furthermore, a test using pseudotype virus with S glycoprotein confirmed that SCSP could bind to the S glycoprotein to prevent SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry. The three antiviral polysaccharides could be employed to treat and prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Phaeophyta/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Rhodophyta/chemistry , Sea Cucumbers/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Sharks , Sulfates/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects
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