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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 895741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952425

ABSTRACT

Deltacoronavirus (DCoV) is a genus of coronavirus (CoV) commonly found in avian and swine, but some DCoVs are capable of infecting humans, which causes the concern about interspecies transmission of DCoVs. Thus, monitoring the existence of DCoVs in animals near communities is of great importance for epidemic prevention. Black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) are common migratory birds inhabiting in most urban and rural wetlands of Yunnan Province, China, which is a typical habitat for black-headed gulls to overwinter. Whether Yunnan black-headed gulls carry CoV has never been determined. In this study, we identified three strains of DCoVs in fecal samples of Yunnan black-headed gulls by reverse-transcriptional PCR and sequenced their whole genomes. Genomic analysis revealed that these three strains shared genomic identity of more than 99%, thus named DCoV HNU4-1, HNU4-2, and HNU4-3; their NSP12 showed high similarity of amino acid sequence to the homologs of falcon coronavirus UAE-HKU27 (HKU27), houbara coronavirus UAE-HKU28 (HKU28), and pigeon coronavirus UAE-HKU29 (HKU29). Since both HKU28 and HKU29 were found in Dubai, there might be cross-border transmission of these avian DCoVs through specific routes. Further coevolutionary analysis supported this speculation that HNU4 (or its ancestors) in black-headed gulls originated from HKU28 (or its homologous strain) in houbara, which was interspecies transmission between two different avian orders. In addition, interspecies transmission of DCoV, from houbara to falcon, pigeon and white-eye, from sparrow to common-magpie, and quail and mammal including porcine and Asian leopard cat, from munia to magpie-robin, was predicted. This is the first report of black-headed gull DCoV in Asia which was highly homolog to other avian DCoVs, and the very "active" host-switching events in DCoV were predicted, which provides important reference for the study of spread and transmission of DCoVs.

2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 917907, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952248

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus represents an ongoing threat to human health and well-being. Notably, many COVID-19 patients suffer from complications consistent with osteoporosis (OP) following disease resolution yet the mechanistic links between SARS-CoV-2 infection and OP remain to be clarified. The present study was thus developed to explore the potential basis for this link by employing transcriptomic analyses to identify signaling pathways and biomarkers associated with OP and SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, a previously published RNA-sequencing dataset (GSE152418) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in OP patients and individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 as a means of exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms linking these two conditions. In total, 2,885 DEGs were identified by analyzing the COVID-19 patient dataset, with shared DEGs then being identified by comparison of these DEGs with those derived from an OP patient dataset. Hub genes were identified through a series of bioinformatics approaches and protein-protein interaction analyses. Predictive analyses of transcription factor/gene interactions, protein/drug interactions, and DEG/miRNA networks associated with these DEGs were also conducted. Together, these data highlight promising candidate drugs with the potential to treat both COVID-19 and OP.

3.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(10):5819, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871070

ABSTRACT

In this study, we explored the cross-sectional associations between living and built environments and depression among older Chinese adults. Data from 5822 participants were obtained. Depression symptoms were evaluated through the use of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), with a score higher than 4 categorized as having depression symptoms. The living environment was assessed by asking about dust in the environment and barrier-free facilities. We considered the presence of amenities within a 10 min walking distance and the proportion of green space within an 800 m distance from participants’ dwellings to reflect the built environment. Data were analyzed by multilevel logistic regression. Participants living in a non-dusty environment with proximity to green space had a lower risk of depression (non-dusty environment: OR = 0.784, 95% CI = 0.642, 0.956;green space: OR = 0.834, 95% CI = 0.697, 0.998). However, having no access to barrier-free facilities and hospital proximity increased the depression risk (barrier-free facilities: OR = 1.253, 95% CI = 1.078, 1.457;hospital: OR = 1.318, 95% CI = 1.104, 1.574). Dusty environments, access to barrier-free facilities and proximity to hospitals and green spaces were associated with depression symptoms among older Chinese adults.

4.
Pharmazie ; 77(3): 125-130, 2022 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808671

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders such as stress, anxiety, depression and insomnia caused by COVID-19 have attracted worldwide attention. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been proven to be a safe and effective option for treating mental health disorders. Recently, after assessing its efficacy and safety fully, the Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board approved XiaoYao Tablets as a traditional herbal medicinal product (THMP), indicated for an alternative self-care for patients in Europe to relieve the symptoms of mental stress and exhaustion. Despite the fact that TCMs have gradually become one of the therapeutic choices worldwide, to-date, only a few TCMs have been successfully registered in the European Union (EU) as THMPs, and XiaoYao Tablets is the first successfully registered combination TCM from China. In this article, traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets in the treatment of mental health disorders were summarized and analyzed from the perspective of traditional use registration (TUR). Additionally a safety evolution pathway of combination TCMs was established. This article will not only seek to enhance our understanding about traditional use efficacy and clinical safety of XiaoYao Tablets, but also summarize the experience of XiaoYao Tablets as the first successfully registered combination TCM from China, which could serve as role model for the others to overcome registration difficulties in the EU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Tablets
5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333118

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence supports inter-species transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variants from human to domestic or wild animals during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, which is posing great challenges to epidemic control. Clarifying the host range of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants will provide instructive information for the containment of viral spillover. The spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV-2 is the key determinant of receptor utilization, and therefore amino acid mutations on S will probably alter viral host range. Here, in order to evaluate the impact of S mutations, we constructed 20 Hela cell lines stably expressing ACE2 orthologs from different animals, and prepared 27 pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 carrying different spike mutants, among which 20 bear single mutation and the other 7 were cloned from emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, including D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.135), Lambda (B.1.429) and Mu (B.1.525). Using pseudoviral reporter assay, we identified that the substitutions of T478I and N501Y enabled the pseudovirus to utilize chicken ACE2, indicating potential infectivity to avian species. Furthermore, the S mutants of real SARS-CoV-2 variants comprising N501Y showed significantly acquired abilities to infect cells expressing mouse ACE2, indicating a critical role of N501Y in expanding SARS-CoV-2 host range. In addition, A262S and T478I significantly enhanced the utilization of various mammals ACE2. In summary, our results indicated that T478I and N501Y substitutions were two S mutations important for receptor adaption of SARS-CoV-2, potentially contributing to spillover of the virus to many other animal hosts. Therefore, more attention should be paid to SARS-CoV-2 variants with these two mutations.

7.
Am J Pathol ; 192(4): 595-603, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734138

ABSTRACT

While the human placenta may be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the rate of fetal transmission is low, suggesting a barrier at the maternal-fetal interface. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2, the main receptor for SARS-CoV-2, is regulated by a metalloprotease cleavage enzyme, a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain 17 (ADAM17). ACE2 is expressed in the human placenta, but its regulation in relation to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is not well understood. This study evaluated ACE2 expression, ADAM17 activity, and serum ACE2 abundance in a cohort of matched villous placental and maternal serum samples from control pregnancies (SARS-CoV-2 negative, n = 8) and pregnancies affected by symptomatic maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections in the second trimester [2nd Tri coronavirus disease (COVID), n = 8] and third trimester (3rd Tri COVID, n = 8). In 3rd Tri COVID compared with control and 2nd Tri COVID villous placental tissues, ACE2 mRNA expression was remarkably elevated; however, ACE2 protein expression was significantly decreased with a parallel increase in ADAM17 activity. Soluble ACE2 was also significantly increased in the maternal serum from 3rd Tri COVID infections compared with control and 2nd Tri COVID pregnancies. These data suggest that in acute maternal SARS-CoV-2 infections, decreased placental ACE2 protein may be the result of ACE2 shedding and highlights the importance of ACE2 for studies on SARS-CoV-2 responses at the maternal-fetal interface.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322245

ABSTRACT

Background: Much remains unknown about COVID-19 onset and rehabilitation's symptomatic features, especially the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from the hospital. Methods: In this cohort study, we collected the first pandemic data of hospitalized patients in Wuhan from February 20 to March 31, 2020. All patients completed a 3-month follow-up after discharge. We carefully analyzed the detailed symptomatic characteristics of severe COVID-19 at illness onset and three months after discharge, compared it with non-severe patients, and used multiple logistic regression to determine potential symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Results: A total of 932 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were enrolled, including 52 severe cases and 880 non-severe cases. Fever (60%), cough (50.8%), and fatigue (36.4%) were the most common symptoms, followed by anorexia (21.8%) and dyspnea (19.2%). The median duration of fever was seven days, which was characterized by persistent low fever. The median duration of cough was 17 days, characterized by dry cough without sputum. Most dyspnea occurred on the fourth day after symptom onset, with a median duration of 16 days. The incidences of taste loss and olfactory disturbance were only 6.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age over 65 years old (OR 6.52, 95% CI 3.27-13.02, P <0.0001), male sex (3.71, 1.90-7.26, P = 0.0001), fever lasting for more than five days (1.90, 1.00-3.62, P =0.0498), anorexia at onset (2.61, 1.26-5.40, P =0.0096), and modified Medical Research Council level above grade 2 when dyspnea occurred (14.19,7.01-28.71, P <0.0001) were symptomatic risk factors for severe COVID-19. Three months after discharge from the hospital, 6.2% of patients still cough, 7.2% of patients still dyspnea, and 1.8% still fatigue, and 1.5% of patients had olfactory or taste disorders. Conclusions: COVID-19 caused clusters of symptoms, with multiple systems involved. Specific symptomatic features at the onset of illness have predictive value for severe COVID-19. Persistent legacy symptoms are more frequent in severe COVID-19 patients.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319520

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the newly identified human coronavirus causing severe pneumonia epidemic, was probably originated from Chinese horseshoe bats. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2, predicting potential intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

11.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(2):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1678877

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667144

ABSTRACT

Many countries adopted lockdown measures to curb the spread of the outbreak in 2020, while information about COVID-19 has dominated various media outlets, which has led to information overload for people. However, previous research has mainly focused on cancer information overload and the corresponding consequence, and failed to examine its adverse effects in the context of major public health events. Based on the Frustrate Aggression Theory and the Scapegoat Theory, the present study established a moderated mediation model to investigate the emotional and behavioral outcomes of COVID-19 information overload. The mediating role of depression/anxiety in the association between COVID-19 information overload and cyber aggression, as well as the moderating role of Confucian responsibility thinking, were tested. This model was examined with 1005 Chinese people (mean age = 26.91 years, SD = 9.94) during the COVID-19 outbreak. Mediation analyses revealed that COVID-19 information overload was positively related to cyber aggression, depression, and anxiety, parallelly and partially mediated this relationship. Moderated mediation analyses further indicated that Confucian responsibility thinking not only moderated the direct link between COVID-19 information overload and cyber aggression, with the effect being significant only for people with a low level of Confucian responsibility thinking, but also moderated the relationship between COVID-19 information overload and depression/anxiety respectively, with the associations being much more potent for individuals with low levels of Confucian responsibility thinking. These findings have the potential to inform the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to reduce the negative emotions and cyber aggression associated with information overload in public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aggression , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Digital Journalism ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1650528
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(2): 557-571, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626785

ABSTRACT

To explore and summarize the association between treatment with tocilizumab and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis (10 RCTs including 3378 patients in the tocilizumab group and 3142 patients in the control group). We systematically searched PubMed and MedRxiv for all RCTs as of June 1, 2021, to assess the benefits and harms of tocilizumab to treat patients with COVID-19. All analyses were carried out using RevMan version 5.4.1. There were nine RCTs published in peer-reviewed journals and one RCTs published as a preprint. The summary RR for all-cause mortality with tocilizumab was 0.89 (95% CI= 0.82-0.96, P= 0.003). There was no significant between-trial heterogeneity (I2= 28%, P= 0.19). However, all peer-reviewed RCTs showed no significant associations between treatment with tocilizumab and reductions in all-cause mortality. We notably found that tocilizumab significantly reduced the rate of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 with 3 RCTs. Across the 8 RCTs, the summary RR for discharge with tocilizumab was 1.10 (95% CI= 1.03-1.16, P< 0.00001). There was no significant association of tocilizumab with harm on other patient-relevant clinical outcomes, including increasing secondary infection risk, patients of adverse events, or patients of serious adverse events. Tocilizumab significantly increased the rate of hospital discharges in COVID-19 patients. Still, it did not decrease all-cause mortality or increase the risk of secondary infections, patients of adverse events, or patients for serious adverse events. Evidence that tocilizumab affects clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 requires further proof.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Humans , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(2): 121, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594196

ABSTRACT

Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents available for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of high-dose ulinastatin for the treatment of patients with Covid-19. A total of 12 patients hospitalized with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were treated with a high dose of ulinastatin alongside standard care. Changes in clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and two patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0±11.9 years (age range, 48-87 years). In total, nine of the 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12) and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70±77.70 mg/l). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP was significantly decreased and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12; mean, 6.87±6.63 mg/l) on day 7 after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not require further oxygen therapy 7 days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. Compared with the standard care group, ulinastatin treatment significantly prevented illness deterioration. In conclusion, these preliminary data revealed that high-dose ulinastatin treatment was safe and exhibited a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 741204, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528830

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients are at a high risk of being infected with COVID-19 and have a poor prognosis after infection. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Since vaccination is an effective measure to prevent the spread of COVID-19, we studied the vaccination rate among breast cancer survivors and analyzed their characteristics to provide evidence for boosting the vaccination rate. The researchers conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study on 747 breast cancer survivors from six hospitals in Wuhan city between June 5, 2021, and June 12, 2021. The self-administrated questionnaires based on relevant studies were distributed. The researchers then compared differences in characteristics among vaccinated patients, hesitant patients, and non-vaccinated patients. Moreover, they performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify potential factors associated with vaccination hesitancy. The researchers assessed a total of 744 breast cancer survivors -94 cases in the vaccinated group, 103 in the planning group, 295 in the hesitancy group, and 252 in the refusal group. The vaccination rate was 12.63% (95% CI 10.25-15.02%) and 37.23% (95% CI 27.48-47.82%) patients reported adverse reactions. The vaccination hesitancy/refusal rate was 73.52% (95% CI 70.19-76.66%), which was independently associated with current endocrine or targeted therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.24), no notification from communities or units (OR = 2.46, 95% CI 1.69-3.59) and self-perceived feel (general vs. good, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13; bad vs. good, OR = 4.75, 95% CI 1.85-12.16). In the hesitancy/refusal group, the primary reason was "I did not know who to ask whether I can get vaccinated" (46.07%), the person who would most influence decisions of patients was the doctor in charge of treatment (35.83%). Effective interaction between doctors and patients, simple and consistent practical guidelines on vaccination, and timely and positive information from authoritative media could combat misinformation and greatly reduce vaccine hesitancy among breast cancer survivors.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 770656, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518506

ABSTRACT

In the past two decades, coronavirus (CoV) has emerged frequently in the population. Three CoVs (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2) have been identified as highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HP-hCoVs). Particularly, the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 warns that HP-hCoVs present a high risk to human health. Like other viruses, HP-hCoVs interact with their host cells in sophisticated manners for infection and pathogenesis. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the interference of HP-hCoVs in multiple cellular processes and their impacts on viral infection. HP-hCoVs employed various strategies to suppress and evade from immune response, including shielding viral RNA from recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), impairing IFN-I production, blocking the downstream pathways of IFN-I, and other evasion strategies. This summary provides a comprehensive view of the interplay between HP-hCoVs and the host cells, which is helpful to understand the mechanism of viral pathogenesis and develop antiviral therapies.

18.
Angiogenesis ; 25(2): 225-240, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491183

ABSTRACT

Severe viral pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by a hyperinflammatory state typified by elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, frequently leading to potentially lethal vascular complications including thromboembolism, disseminated intracellular coagulopathy and vasculitis. Though endothelial infection and subsequent endothelial damage have been described in patients with fatal COVID-19, the mechanism by which this occurs remains elusive, particularly given that, under naïve conditions, pulmonary endothelial cells demonstrate minimal cell surface expression of the SARS-CoV-2 binding receptor ACE2. Herein we describe SARS-CoV-2 infection of the pulmonary endothelium in postmortem lung samples from individuals who died of COVID-19, demonstrating both heterogeneous ACE2 expression and endothelial damage. In primary endothelial cell cultures, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection is dependent on the induction of ACE2 protein expression and that this process is facilitated by type 1 interferon-alpha (IFNα) or -beta(ß)-two of the main anti-viral cytokines induced in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection-but not significantly by other cytokines (including interleukin 6 and interferon γ/λ). Our findings suggest that the stereotypical anti-viral interferon response may paradoxically facilitate the propagation of COVID-19 from the respiratory epithelium to the vasculature, raising concerns regarding the use of exogenous IFNα/ß in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113739, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487616

ABSTRACT

The molecular biomarkers are molecules that are closely related to specific physiological states. Numerous molecular biomarkers have been identified as targets for disease diagnosis and biological research. To date, developing highly efficient probes for the precise detection of biomarkers has become an attractive research field which is very important for biological and biochemical studies. During the past decades, not only the small chemical probe molecules but also the biomacromolecules such as enzymes, antibodies, and nucleic acids have been introduced to construct of biosensor platform to achieve the detection of biomarkers in a highly specific and highly efficient way. Nevertheless, improving the performance of the biosensors, especially in clinical applications, is still in urgent demand in this field. A noteworthy example is the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) that breaks out globally in a short time in 2020. The COVID-19 was caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2. Early diagnosis is very important to block the infection of the virus. Therefore, during these months scientists have developed dozens of methods to achieve rapid and sensitive detection of the virus. Nowadays some of these new methods have been applied for producing the commercial detection kit and help people against the disease worldwide. DNA-based biosensors are useful tools that have been widely applied in the detection of molecular biomarkers. The good stability, high specificity, and excellent biocompatibility make the DNA-based biosensors versatile in application both in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we will review the major methods that emerged in recent years on the design of DNA-based biosensors and their applications. Moreover, we will also briefly discuss the possible future direction of DNA-based biosensors design. We believe this is helpful for people interested in not only the biosensor field but also in the field of analytical chemistry, DNA nanotechnology, biology, and disease diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , DNA/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When COVID-19 emerged in China in late 2019, most Chinese university students were home-quarantined to prevent the spread of the virus, considering the great impact of the lockdown on young people habits and their psychological well-being. This study explored the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its associated factors among Chinese university students who are isolated at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: 4520 participants from five universities in China were surveyed by online questionnaire and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was adopted as a screening instrument. RESULTS: Exposure to virus was significantly related to PTSD outcomes. The most important predictors for PTSD outcomes were parents' relationship and the way parents educated, and university-provided psychological counseling was a protective factor against developing PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had adverse psychological consequences on Chinese university students who were isolated at home due to the relatively high prevalence rate of PTSD which was reported. Adverse parental relationships and the extreme way parents educate their children could be the major risk factors for PTSD outcomes. Psychological interventions need to be made available to home-quarantined university students, and those in the worst-hit and exposed areas to virus should be given priority focus.

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