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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(6): 913-922, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817598

ABSTRACT

We analyzed COVID-19 influences on the design, implementation, and validity of assessing the quality of primary health care using unannounced standardized patients (USPs) in China. Because of the pandemic, we crowdsourced our funding, removed tuberculosis from the USP case roster, adjusted common cold and asthma cases, used hybrid online-offline training for USPs, shared USPs across provinces, and strengthened ethical considerations. With those changes, we were able to conduct fieldwork despite frequent COVID-19 interruptions. Furthermore, the USP assessment tool maintained high validity in the quality checklist (criteria), USP role fidelity, checklist completion, and physician detection of USPs. Our experiences suggest that the pandemic created not only barriers but also opportunities to innovate ways to build a resilient data collection system. To build data system reliance, we recommend harnessing the power of technology for a hybrid model of remote and in-person work, learning from the sharing economy to pool strengths and optimize resources, and dedicating individual and group leadership to problem-solving and results. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(6):913-922. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306779).


Subject(s)
Acacia , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315495

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. This study aims to explore the relationship between key natural and social factors and the transmission of COVID-19 in China. Methods This study collected the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in 21 provinces and cities in China as of February 28, 2020. Three provinces were included in the sample: Hainan, Guizhou, and Qinghai. The 18 cities included Shanghai, Tianjin and so on. Key natural factors comprised monthly average temperatures in the January and February 2020 and spatial location as determined by longitude and latitude. Social factors were population density, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), number of medical institutions and health practitioners;as well as the per capita values for GDP, medical institutions, and health practitioners. Excel was used to collate the data and draw the temporal and spatial distribution map of the prevalence rate (PR) and the proportion of local infection (PLI). The influencing factors were analyzed by SPSS 21.0 statistical software, and the relationship between the dependent and independent variables was simulated by 11 models. Finally, we choose the exponential model according to the value of R 2 and the applicability of the model. Results The temporal and spatial distribution of the PR varies across the 21 provinces and cities identified. The PR generally decreases with distance from Hubei, except in the case of Shenzhen City, where the converse is observed. The results of the exponential model simulation show that the monthly minimum, median, and maximum average temperatures in January and February, and the latitude and population density are significant and thus will affect the PLI. The corresponding values of R 2 are 0.297, 0.322, 0.349, 0.290, 0.314, 0.339, 0.344, and 0.301. The effects of other factors were not statistically significant. Conclusions Among the selected key natural and social factors, higher temperatures may decrease the transmission of COVID-19. From this analysis, it is evident that if the temperature decreases by 1℃, the average PLI increases by 0.01. Further, it was established that locations at more northern latitudes had a higher PLI, and population density showed an inverse relationship with PLI.

3.
Nano Today ; 43: 101393, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616674

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to develop new vaccination strategies to elevate the cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains. In this study, we construct the spherical amantadine-assembled nanostimulator (AAS). Amantadine as immunostimulating molecules are displayed on the outermost layer of AAS. Molecular mechanism analysis reveals that AAS can activate RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway to increase the expression of type I interferons in vivo. AAS-mediated activation of RLR signaling pathway further promotes the maturation and proliferation of dendritic cells (DCs) and T helper cells (Ths), finally activating B cells to produce potent antibody responses. In performance evaluation experiments, the mixture of AAS and dimeric RBD significantly enhances RBD-specific humoral responses (4-fold IgG, 3.5-fold IgG2a, 3.3-fold IgG2b, 3.8-fold IgG3 and 1.3-fold IgM), in comparison to aluminum adjuvant-assistant dimeric RBD. Importantly, AAS dramatically elevates dimeric RBD-elicited cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains such as Wuhan-Hu-1 (9-fold), B.1.1.7 (UK variant, 15-fold), B.1.351 (South African variant, 4-fold) and B.1.617.2 (India variant, 7-fold). Our study verifies the mechanism of AAS in activating RLR signaling pathway in host immune system and highlights the power of AAS in improving antigen-elicited cross-neutralization against different SARS-CoV-2 strains.

4.
Nano Today ; 38: 101139, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142163

ABSTRACT

Effective vaccines are vital to fight against the COVID-19 global pandemic. As a critical component of a subunit vaccine, the adjuvant is responsible for strengthening the antigen-induced immune responses. Here, we present a new nanovaccine that comprising the Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) of spike protein and the manganese nanoadjuvant (MnARK), which induces humoral and cellular responses. Notably, even at a 5-fold lower antigen dose and with fewer injections, the MnARK vaccine immunized mice showed stronger neutralizing abilities against the infection of the pseudovirus (~270-fold) and live coronavirus (>8-fold) in vitro than that of Alum-adsorbed RBD vaccine (Alu-RBD). Furthermore, we found that the effective co-delivery of RBD antigen and MnARK to lymph nodes (LNs) elicited an increased cellular internalization and the activation of immune cells, including DCs, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Our findings highlight the importance of MnARK adjuvant in the design of novel coronavirus vaccines and provide a rationale strategy to design protective vaccines through promoting cellular internalization and the activation of immune-related pathways.

5.
China Economic Review ; : 101607, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1103778

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the short-term and mid-term impact of COVID-19 restrictions on SMEs, based on two waves of phone interviews with a previously surveyed large SME sample in China. The outbreak of COVID-19 and the resultant lockdowns took a heavy toll on SMEs. Afflicted by problems of logistics blocks, labor shortages, and drops in demand, 80% of SMEs were temporarily closed at the time of the first wave of interviews in February 2020. After reining in COVID-19, authorities largely eased lockdown restrictions in April. Consequently, most SMEs had reopened by the time of the second round of surveys in May. However, many firms, particularly export firms, were running at partial capacity, primarily due to inadequate demand. Moreover, around 19% of incorporated enterprises and 25% of self-employed businesses had permanently closed between the two waves of surveys.

6.
Non-conventional | Homeland Security Digital Library, Grey literature | ID: grc-741324
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