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1.
Virol J ; 20(1): 112, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is one of the best policies to control COVID-19 pandemic. The serological response to COVID-19 vaccination in Taiwanese patients with different comorbidities is elusive. METHODS: Uninfected subjects who received 3 doses of mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT] and mRNA-1273 [Moderna]), viral vector-based vaccines (ChAdOx1-S (AZD1222, AZ) or protein subunit vaccines (Medigen COVID-19 vaccine) were prospectively enrolled. The SARS-CoV-2-IgG spike antibody level was determined within three months after the 3rd dose of vaccination. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was applied to determine the association between vaccine titers and underlying comorbidities. RESULTS: A total of 824 subjects were enrolled in the current study. The proportions of CCI scores of 0-1, 2-3 and > 4 were 52.8% (n = 435), 31.3% (n = 258) and 15.9% (n = 131), respectively. The most commonly used vaccination combination was AZ-AZ-Moderna (39.2%), followed by Moderna-Moderna-Moderna (27.8%). The mean vaccination titer was 3.11 log BAU/mL after a median of 48 days after the 3rd dose. Factors associated with potentially effective neutralization capacity (IgG level ≥ 4160 AU/mL) included age ≥ 60 years (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50/0.34-0.72, P < 0.001), female sex (OR/CI: 1.85/1.30-2.63, P = 0.001), Moderna-Moderna-based vaccination (compared to AZ-AZ-based vaccination, OR/CI: 6.49/3.90-10.83, P < 0.001), BNT-BNT-based vaccination (compared to AZ-AZ-based vaccination, OR/CI: 7.91/1.82-34.3, P = 0.006) and a CCI score ≥ 4 (OR/CI: 0.53/0.34-0.82, P = 0.004). There was a decreasing trend in antibody titers with increasing CCI scores (trend P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that higher CCI scores (ß: - 0.083; 95% CI: - 0.094-0.011, P = 0.014) independently correlated with low IgG spike antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with more comorbidities had a poor serological response to 3 doses of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral , Comorbidity , Immunoglobulin G
2.
Infect Dis Model ; 8(2): 562-573, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328344

ABSTRACT

On December 7, 2022, the Chinese government optimized the current epidemic prevention and control policy, and no longer adopted the zero-COVID policy and mandatory quarantine measures. Based on the above policy changes, this paper establishes a compartment dynamics model considering age distribution, home isolation and vaccinations. Parameter estimation was performed using improved least squares and Nelder-Mead simplex algorithms combined with modified case data. Then, using the estimated parameter values to predict a second wave of the outbreak, the peak of severe cases will reach on 8 May 2023, the number of severe cases will reach 206,000. Next, it is proposed that with the extension of the effective time of antibodies obtained after infection, the peak of severe cases in the second wave of the epidemic will be delayed, and the final scale of the disease will be reduced. When the effectiveness of antibodies is 6 months, the severe cases of the second wave will peak on July 5, 2023, the number of severe cases is 194,000. Finally, the importance of vaccination rates is demonstrated, when the vaccination rate of susceptible people under 60 years old reaches 98%, and the vaccination rate of susceptible people over 60 years old reaches 96%, the peak of severe cases in the second wave of the epidemic will be reached on 13 July 2023, when the number of severe cases is 166,000.

3.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 312, 2023 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Taiwanese government implemented stringent preventative health measures to curb the spread of COVID-19. However, these measures negatively affected the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of individuals. In this study, we investigated the effects of Taiwan's COVID-19 alert-based restrictions on the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, 500 community-dwelling older adults were randomly sampled from a health promotion center in Taiwan. Telephone interviews were conducted between May 11, 2021, and August 17, 2021, which coincided with the Level 3 alert period when group physical activities were prohibited. Telephone interviews were again conducted between June 20, 2022, and July 4, 2022, after the alert level was reduced to Level 2 but group physical activities were prohibited period. Through the telephone interviews, data regarding the participants' physical activity behaviors (type and amount) and 5-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5) scores were collected. Moreover, data regarding physical activity behaviors were collected from the records of our previous health promotion programs, which were conducted before the national alert period. The obtained data were analyzed. RESULTS: The alert levels influenced physical activity behaviors. Because of strict regulations, physical activity amount decreased during the Level 3 alert period and did not recover rapidly during the Level 2 alert period. Instead of engaging in group exercises (e.g., calisthenics and qigong), the older adults chose to exercise alone (e.g., strolling, brisk walking, and biking). Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 alert level has a significant influence on the amount of physical activity for participants (p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.256), with pairwise comparisons showing that the physical activity amount decreased significantly across the three time periods (p < 0.05). The psychological distress of the participants did not appear to change during the regulation period. Although the participants' overall BSRS-5 score was slightly lower during the Level 2 alert period compared to the Level 3 alert period, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.264, Cohen's d = 0.08) based on a paired t-test. However, the levels of anxiety (p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.23) and inferiority (p = 0.034, Cohen's d = 0.159) were considerably higher during the Level 2 alert period than during the Level 3 alert period. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that Taiwan's COVID-19 alert levels influenced the physical activity behaviors and psychological distress of community-dwelling older adults. Time is required for older adults to regain their prior status after their physical activity behaviors and psychological distress were affected by national regulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Independent Living , Taiwan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Exercise/physiology
4.
Anal Chem ; 95(18): 7186-7194, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293260

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted researchers to develop portable biosensing platforms, anticipating to detect the analyte in a label-free, direct, and simple manner, for deploying on site to prevent the spread of the infectious disease. Herein, we developed a facile wavelength-based SPR sensor built with the aid of a 3D printing technology and synthesized air-stable NIR-emitting perovskite nanocomposites as the light source. The simple synthesis processes for the perovskite quantum dots enabled low-cost and large-area production and good emission stability. The integration of the two technologies enabled the proposed SPR sensor to exhibit the characteristics of lightweight, compactness, and being without a plug, just fitting the requirements of on-site detection. Experimentally, the detection limit of the proposed NIR SPR biosensor for refractive index change reached the 10-6 RIU level, comparable with that of state-of-the-art portable SPR sensors. In addition, the bio-applicability of the platform was validated by incorporating a homemade high-affinity polyclonal antibody toward the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The results demonstrated that the proposed system was capable of discriminating between clinical swab samples collected from COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects because the used polyclonal antibody exhibited high specificity against SARS-CoV-2. Most importantly, the whole measurement process not only took less than 15 min but also needed no complex procedures or multiple reagents. We believe that the findings disclosed in this work can open an avenue in the field of on-site detection for highly pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanocomposites , Humans , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Antibodies
5.
HardwareX ; 14: e00420, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305507

ABSTRACT

Lab-on-a-chip technologies and microfluidics have pushed miniaturized liquid handling to unprecedented precision, integration, and automation, which improved the reaction efficiency of immunoassays. However, most microfluidic immunoassay systems still require bulky infrastructures, such as external pressure sources, pneumatic systems, and complex manual tubing and interface connections. Such requirements prevent plug-and-play operation at the point-of-care (POC) settings. Here we present a fully automated handheld general microfluidic liquid handling automation platform with a plug-and-play 'clamshell-style' cartridge socket, a miniature electro-pneumatic controller, and injection-moldable plastic cartridges. The system achieved multi-reagent switching, metering, and timing control on the valveless cartridge using electro-pneumatic pressure control. As a demonstration, a SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody sandwich fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) liquid handling was performed on an acrylic cartridge without human intervention after sample introduction. A fluorescence microscope was used to analyze the result. The assay showed a limit of detection at 31.1 ng/mL, comparable to some previously reported enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In addition to automated liquid handling on the cartridge, the system can operate as a 6-port pressure source for external microfluidic chips. A rechargeable battery with a 12 V 3000 mAh capacity can power the system for 42 h. The footprint of the system is 16.5 × 10.5 × 7 cm, and the weight is 801 g, including the battery. The system can find many other POC and research applications requiring complex liquid manipulation, such as molecular diagnostics, cell analysis, and on-demand biomanufacturing.

6.
Tourism in Marine Environments ; 17(4):231-248, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2286136

ABSTRACT

The drastic growth of cruise tourism in the world, while potentially beneficial for economic growth in local communities, also brings concerns regarding environmental impacts. This research used the port of Ísafjörður, Iceland, a growing hotspot destination for cruise ships, as a case study to aid in understanding the potential environmental impacts from cruise ships. The study's aims were: 1) to determine the quantity and type of waste discharged to the shore facilities by cruise ships in Ísafjörður in 2019, and 2) to explore the compliance behavior of the ships in adhering to Icelandic and international environmental regulations. To do this, quantitative and qualitative questions were presented in a survey to officers from 40 cruise ships, accounting for 87% of the total 46 different ships that docked in Ísafjörður in the 2019 cruise ship season. The survey questions were designed based on the MARPOL Convention and the law of Iceland, and these questions were compared with the ship's statutory record or ship's certificates to strengthen the reliability of the data. The questions covered five categories: emissions, waste oil, wastewater, garbage and food waste, and ballast water. Results showed that very little garbage and food waste had been discharged to shore facilities, and this was likely because Ísafjörður is one of several stops for many cruise ships in Iceland and the waste had simply been discharged elsewhere. In assessing the other four categories, 8 out of the 40 cruise ships carried out illegal activities, including 12 specific violation cases. This article discusses three primary reasons for those violations: accessibility, inconsistency, and monitoring. This research was conducted pre-COVID-19;however, by 2022 cruise ship calls in Ísafjörður approached preCOVID-19 numbers. Interested parties such as local communities, national decision makers, tourism boards, municipal planners, and environmental agencies must use the best available knowledge, such as this study, to manage the positive and negative aspects of the growth of cruise ship tourism, and perhaps even more so in a post-COVID-19 phase.

7.
Phytother Res ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256129

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated perturbations of metabolic pathways and modulation of antcin A, a steroid-like compound isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus, are not studied. Here, we investigated the metabolic alteration by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the regulatory effect of antcin A on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced metabolic changes in the Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced human monocytes (THP-1) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) and MetaboAnalyst 5.0 software. The cytotoxic potential of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, antcin A, and dexamethasone was assessed by MTT assay. The metabolomic perturbations and their relation to human coronaviruses' receptors were evaluated by qPCR. This study indicated that the altered metabolites mediated by SARS-CoV-2 protein, such as methionine, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, canadine, glutamine, ethanolamine, and phenylalanine, were significantly reversed by antcin A. In addition, antcin A significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated up-regulation of TLR-4 and ACE2 receptors, while GRP78 inhibition was not statistically significant. This is the first study to use 1 H-NMR to investigate SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced metabolomic changes in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Antcin A significantly reversed metabolomic alters while dexamethasone failed to fix them. Therefore, we believe that antcin A could be a potential candidate for therapeutic agents for viral infections related to a metabolic abnormality.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254740

ABSTRACT

Classified as a class B infectious disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease is an acute, highly contagious disease caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Sporadic endemics of BVDV often lead to huge economic losses to the dairy and beef industries. To shed light on the prevention and control of BVDV, we developed two novel subunit vaccines by expressing bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 fusion recombinant proteins (E2Fc and E2Ft) through suspended HEK293 cells. We also evaluated the immune effects of the vaccines. The results showed that both subunit vaccines induced an intense mucosal immune response in calves. Mechanistically, E2Fc bonded to the Fc γ receptor (FcγRI) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and promoted IgA secretion, leading to a stronger T-cell immune response (Th1 type). The neutralizing antibody titer stimulated by the mucosal-immunized E2Fc subunit vaccine reached 1:64, which was higher than that of the E2Ft subunit vaccine and that of the intramuscular inactivated vaccine. The two novel subunit vaccines for mucosal immunity developed in this study, E2Fc and E2Ft, can be further used as new strategies to control BVDV by enhancing cellular and humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea Virus 2, Bovine Viral , Immunity, Mucosal , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Diarrhea , HEK293 Cells , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Bovine/prevention & control
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1092575, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198921

ABSTRACT

Background: Autophagy refers to the process in which cells wrap their damaged organelles or unwanted proteins into a double-membrane structure and direct them to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy can regulate many lung diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, acute lung injury, and lung cancer. However, few bibliometric studies on autophagy are available. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of autophagy in lung diseases by bibliometric analysis. Methods: Publications were retrieved from the 2012-2021 Science Citation Index Expanded of Web of Science Core Collection on 20 September 2022. Bibliometrix package in R software was used for data retrieval. VOSviewer and CiteSpace were used to visualize the research focus and trend regarding the effect of autophagy on lung disease. Results: A total of 4,522 original articles and reviews on autophagy in lung diseases published between 2012 and 2021 were identified. China had the largest number of published papers and citations, whereas the United States (US) ranked first in the H-index and G-index. Moreover, cooperation network analysis showed close cooperation between the US, China, and some European countries, and the top 10 affiliates were all from these countries and regions. Bibliometric analysis showed that "autophagy" and "apoptosis" were the keywords with the highest frequency. During the past decade, most studies were concerned with basic research on pathways related to the regulatory role of autophagy in the inhibition and attenuation of lung diseases. Conclusion: The study of autophagy in lung diseases is still in the development stage. The information published in these articles has helped researchers understand further the hot spots and development trends in the field more and learn about the collaboration network information regarding authors, countries, and institutions, as well as the paper citation correlation. More studies have been performed to gain deeper insights into the pathogenesis of autophagy by focusing on the links and effects between various diseases. More recently, research in this field has paid increasing attention to the function of autophagy in COVID-19-related lung diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Autophagy , Bibliometrics
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1053658, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198895

ABSTRACT

Background: Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is essential in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a fatal clinical syndrome that deteriorated from acute lung injury (ALI). This bibliometric study aims to offer a thorough insight into the scientific output about NLRP3 inflammasome in ALI/ARDS and explore the intellectual base, developing trajectory and emerging trends. Methods: We retrieved the literature from 2010 to 2021 from Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Bibliometrix (3.1.4) R package and CiteSpace (5.8.R3) were used for further analysis and visualization. Results: A total of 508 English articles and reviews published from 2010 to 2021 were identified. The annual number of publications presented a rapidly developing trend especially in recent years. Among all the 42 countries, China was the most productive and most cited country, while the USA had the greatest impact. Peter A. Ward from the USA was the most productive corresponding author, and 4 of these top 10 corresponding authors were from China. The most cited reference was written by Ahmed (2017) of Zhejiang University in China. The Journal of Immunology had highest citation count and G-index. Furthermore, the major disciplines of research front have drifted from "Medicine, Medical, Clinical" to "Molecular, Biology, Immunology" over the past 12 years. In the co-occurring network, the terms "acute lung injury," "NLRP3 inflammasome," "interleukin-1ß," "NF-κB," and "NLRP3 activation" occurred most frequently, while in burst detection, "oxidative stress" had the highest burst strength. Co-citation network revealed that Cluster 2 "virus infection" was the most active area, including the most citation bursts. Cluster 0 "severe COVID-19" and Cluster 1 "dual inhibitor PTUPB" were emerging themes in recent years, and they involved the largest number of publications. Conclusions: This bibliometric analysis revealed a rapid growth trend of the relatively novel topic: NLRP3 inflammasome in ALI/ARDS. China was the largest contributor, while the USA offered the most landmark papers. The major disciplines of research front drifted from "Medicine, Medical, Clinical" to "Molecular, Biology, Immunology." In recent years, studies about the role of NLRP3 in COVID-19-associated ALI/ARDS and oxidative stress became hot spots.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Bibliometrics
11.
One Health ; 16: 100475, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170617

ABSTRACT

Since Omicron began to spread in China, Shanghai has become one of the cities with more severe outbreaks. Under the comprehensive consideration of the vaccine coverage rate, the number of Fangcang shelter hospital beds and the number of designated hospital beds in Shanghai, this paper established a deterministic compartmental model and used the Nelder-Mead Simplex Direct Search Algorithm and chi-square values to estimate the model parameters. we calculate ℛ0 = 3.6429 when the number of beds in the Fangcang shelter hospital is relatively tight in the second stage and ℛ0 = 0.4974 in the fifth stage when there are enough beds in both Fangcang shelter hospital and designated hospital. Then we perform a sensitivity analysis on ℛ0 by using perturbation of fixed point estimation of model parameters in the fifth stage, and obtain three parameters that are more sensitive to ℛ0, which are transmission rate (ß 1d ), proportion of the infectious (η) and the hospitalization rate of asymptomatic infected cases (δ 1). Through simulation, we obtain that if the hospitalization rate of asymptomatic infections δ 2 > 0.9373 or the transmission rate ß 1b  < 0.0467, the second stage of Omicron transmission in Shanghai can be well controlled. Finally, we find the measure that converting the National Convention and Exhibition Center (NECC) into a Fangcang shelter hospital has played an important role in curbing the epidemic. Whether this temporary Fangcang shelter hospital is not built or delayed, the cumulative number of confirmed cases will both exceed 100,000, and the cumulative asymptomatic infections will both exceed 1 million. In addition, for a city of 10 million people, we obtain that if a permanent Fangcang shelter hospital with 17,784 beds is built ahead of epidemic, there will be no shortage of beds during the outbreak of Omicron. Our findings enrich the content of the impact of Fangcang shelter hospital beds on the spread of Omicron and confirm the correct policy adopted by the Chinese government.

12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7907, 2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185829

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. The full-length membrane form of ACE2 (memACE2) undergoes ectodomain shedding to generate a shed soluble form (solACE2) that mediates SARS-CoV-2 entry via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Currently, it is not known how the physiological regulation of ACE2 shedding contributes to the etiology of COVID-19 in vivo. The present study identifies Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) as a critical host protease for solACE2-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to increased activation of MT1-MMP that is colocalized with ACE2 in human lung epithelium. Mechanistically, MT1-MMP directly cleaves memACE2 at M706-S to release solACE218-706 that binds to the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins (S), thus facilitating cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Human solACE218-706 enables SARS-CoV-2 infection in both non-permissive cells and naturally insusceptible C57BL/6 mice. Inhibition of MT1-MMP activities suppresses solACE2-directed entry of SARS-CoV-2 in human organoids and aged mice. Both solACE2 and circulating MT1-MMP are positively correlated in plasma of aged mice and humans. Our findings provide in vivo evidence demonstrating the contribution of ACE2 shedding to the etiology of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Matrix Metalloproteinase 14 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 146, 2022 12 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants has raised questions regarding resistance to immunity by natural infection or immunization. We examined the sensitivity of Delta and Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4/5, and BA.3) to neutralizing antibodies from BBIBP-CorV-vaccinated and BBIBP-CorV- or ZF2001-boosted individuals, as well as individuals with Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections, and determined their fusogenicity and infectivity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples from two doses of BBIBP-CorV-vaccinated individuals 1 (n = 36), 3 (n = 36), and 7 (n = 37) months after the second dose; BBIBP-CorV- (n = 25) or ZF2001-boosted (n = 30) individuals; and fully vaccinated individuals with Delta (n = 30) or BA.1 (n = 26) infection were collected. The serum-neutralizing reactivity and potency of bebtelovimab were assessed against D614G, Delta, and Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4/5, and BA.3) through a pseudovirus neutralization assay. The fusogenicity and infectivity of D614G, Delta, and Omicron subvariants were determined by cell-cell fusion assay and pseudovirus infection assay, respectively. RESULTS: Omicron subvariants markedly escaped vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies after two doses of BBIBP-CorV with comparable efficiency. A third dose vaccination of BBIBP-CorV or ZF2001 increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against Delta and three Omicron subvariants. Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections induced comparable neutralizing antibody titers against D614G and Delta variants, whereas BA.1 breakthrough infections elicited a stronger and broader antibody response against three Omicron subvariants than Delta breakthrough infections. BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/5 are more resistant to immunity induced by breakthrough infections. Bebtelovimab had no significant loss of potency against the Delta and Omicron subvariants. Cell culture experiments showed Omicron subvariants to be less fusogenic and have higher infectivity than D614G and Delta with comparable efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important public health implications and highlight the importance of repeated exposure to SARS-CoV-2 antigens to broaden the neutralizing antibody response against Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Breakthrough Infections , Antibodies, Viral
14.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047148

ABSTRACT

Hoarding behavior can effectively improve people's ability to resist risks, so as to reduce the negative effects of risks. However, excessive hoarding behavior will seriously reduce people's quality of life. The COVID-19 pandemic can cause excessive hoarding in a large number of people in a short period of time, and also cause a series of economic problems such as social material shortage. It is unclear how hoarding levels are linked to fear and negative emotions caused by COVID-19 among people of different educational backgrounds and social status. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and hoarding behavior in different populations in school and social contexts, as well as the mediating role of negative emotions and the moderating role of subjective/objective social status and education level in this process. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in various provinces in China in January 2022. Demographic information, the MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status, the Fear of COVID-19 scale, the Depression Anxiety Stress-21, and the Saving Inventory-Revised were used to evaluate the severity of individual hoarding symptoms, the frequency of hoarding, the degree of fear, and the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, stress) caused by COVID-19. Research data showed that fear of COVID-19 was significantly correlated with hoarding behavior (p < 0.05). Fear of COVID-19 was significantly lower in the student sample than in the nonstudent sample (p < 0.05). Negative emotions played a mediating role in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and hoarding behavior (p < 0.05). Educational and economic levels moderated this process, but social status did not. Compared with the student sample, educational background and income had less of a moderating effect on the depression, anxiety, and stress caused by fear of COVID-19 in the nonstudent sample. However, these factors had a more regulative effect on the clutter and excessive acquisition behavior caused by depression, anxiety, and stress, although not on difficulty discarding. These findings suggest that reduce negative emotions in the population, improve cognitive levels, and provide financial support from governments may be effective ways to reduce hoarding symptoms.

15.
Bioeng Transl Med ; : e10410, 2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034725

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus emerged in late 2019 leading to the COVID-19 disease pandemic that triggered socioeconomic turmoil worldwide. A precise, prompt, and affordable diagnostic assay is essential for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 as well as its variants. Antibody against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein was reported as a suitable strategy for therapy and diagnosis of COVID-19. We, therefore, developed a quick and precise phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (PS-SPR) biosensor integrated with a novel generated anti-S monoclonal antibody (S-mAb). Our results indicated that the newly generated S-mAb could detect the original SARS-CoV-2 strain along with its variants. In addition, a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus, which could be processed in BSL-2 facility was generated for evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the assays including PS-SPR, homemade target-captured ELISA, spike rapid antigen test (SRAT), and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Experimentally, PS-SPR exerted high sensitivity to detect SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus at 589 copies/ml, with 7-fold and 70-fold increase in sensitivity when compared with the two conventional immunoassays, including homemade target-captured ELISA (4 × 103 copies/ml) and SRAT (4 × 104 copies/ml), using the identical antibody. Moreover, the PS-SPR was applied in the measurement of mimic clinical samples containing the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mixed with nasal mucosa. The detection limit of PS-SPR is calculated to be 1725 copies/ml, which has higher accuracy than homemade target-captured ELISA (4 × 104 copies/ml) and SRAT (4 × 105 copies/ml) and is comparable with qRT-PCR (1250 copies/ml). Finally, the ability of PS-SPR to detect SARS-CoV-2 in real clinical specimens was further demonstrated, and the assay time was less than 10 min. Taken together, our results indicate that this novel S-mAb integrated into PS-SPR biosensor demonstrates high sensitivity and is time-saving in SARS-CoV-2 virus detection. This study suggests that incorporation of a high specific recognizer in SPR biosensor is an alternative strategy that could be applied in developing other emerging or re-emerging pathogenic detection platforms.

16.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology ; 87(3):AB76-AB76, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2027018
17.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 932197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987526

ABSTRACT

Background: Gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem that is vital for the development and function of the immune system, is closely associated with host immunity, and affects human health and disease. Therefore, the current progress and trends in this field must be explored. Purpose: No bibliometric analysis has been conducted on gut microbiota and host immune response. This study aimed to analyze the current progress and developing trends in this field through bibliometric and visual analysis. Methods: Global publications on gut microbiota and host immune response from January 2011 to December 2021 were extracted from the Web of Science (WOS) collection database. GraphPad Prism, VOSviewer software, and CiteSpace were employed to perform a bibliometric and visual study. Results: The number of publications has rapidly increased in the last decade but has declined in the most recent year. The Cooperation network shows that the United States, Harvard Medical School, and Frontiers in Immunology were the most active country, institute, and journal in this field, respectively. Co-occurrence analysis divided all keywords into four clusters: people, animals, cells, and diseases. The latest keyword within all clusters was "COVID," and the most frequently occurring keyword was "SCFA." Conclusion: Gut microbiota and host immune response remain a research hotspot, and their relation to cancer, CNS disorders, and autoimmune disease has been explored. However, additional studies on gut microbiota must be performed, particularly its association with bacterial strain screening and personalized therapy.

18.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1950467

ABSTRACT

Purpose. This article aims to study how to analyze and study the numerical value of education management mechanisms based on cloud computing and describe the innovation and entrepreneurship of college students. Methodology. This article addresses the problems of numerical analysis and scientific computing. This problem is based on cloud computing, so it elaborates on the concepts and related algorithms of cloud computing and big data and designs and analyzes cases of numerical analysis and scientific computing of educational management mechanisms. Research Findings. Through the research of different kernel functions, the IG_CDmRMR algorithm can obtain relatively high accuracy results for numerical analysis and scientific computing. The IG_CDmRMR algorithm is the closest to expert evaluation. The maximum difference is 0.002, which is consistent in sample three. The maximum difference of the IG algorithm is 0.005, and the minimum difference is 0.002. The evaluation effect of the IG_CDmRMR algorithm is closer to the evaluation effect of experts. Practical Implications. It analyzes the numerical value of the education management mechanism and finds that the accuracy has a certain height. This has certain evaluation significance for the management mechanism of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship education.

19.
Textbook of Zoonoses ; n/a(n/a):192-197, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1913744

ABSTRACT

Summary Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important pathogens for humans and vertebrate animals. These viruses can infect the respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and central nervous system of humans, livestock, birds, bats and other wild animals. The CoVs have frequently crossed species barriers and some have emerged as important human pathogens. Bats are well adapted anatomically and physiologically to CoVs. During the twenty-first century, the world has witnessed two pandemics of coronaviruses (SARSCoV and SARS-CoV-2) and fatal sporadic outbreaks due to the emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV. Most of the coronaviruses are transmitted through respiratory droplets during coughing or sneezing. Transmission through the ocular surface is also possible. Animal CoVs have been known since the late 1930s. Various diagnostic tests are available for the detection of coronaviruses infection which is mainly based on antigen detection or specific antibody detection. During the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, raw materials shortages, including chromatography resins, necessitated the determination of a cleaning in place (CIP) strategy for a multimodal core-shell resin both rapidly and efficiently. Here, we describe the deployment of high throughput (HT) techniques to screen CIP conditions for cleaning Capto? Core 700 resin exposed to clarified cell culture harvest of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate produced in Vero adherent cell culture. The best performing conditions, comprised of 30% n-propanol and ≥0.75 N NaOH, were deployed in cycling experiments, completed with miniature chromatography columns, to demonstrate their effectiveness. The success of the CIP strategy was ultimately verified at the laboratory scale. Here, its impact was assessed across the entire purification process which also included an ultrafiltration/diafiltration step. It is shown that the implementation of the CIP strategy enabled the re-use of the Capto Core 700 resin for up to ten cycles without any negative impact on the purified product. Hence, the strategic combination of HT and laboratory-scale experiments can lead rapidly to robust CIP procedures, even for a challenging to clean resin, and thus help to overcome supply shortages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

20.
Biotechnol J ; 17(10): e2200191, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905797

ABSTRACT

During the development of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, raw materials shortages, including chromatography resins, necessitated the determination of a cleaning in place (CIP) strategy for a multimodal core-shell resin both rapidly and efficiently. Here, the deployment of high throughput (HT) techniques to screen CIP conditions for cleaning Capto Core 700 resin exposed to clarified cell culture harvest (CCCH) of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate produced in Vero adherent cell culture are described. The best performing conditions, comprised of 30% n-propanol and ≥0.75 N NaOH, were deployed in cycling experiments, completed with miniature chromatography columns, to demonstrate their effectiveness. The success of the CIP strategy was ultimately verified at the laboratory scale. Here, its impact was assessed across the entire purification process which also included an ultrafiltration/diafiltration step. It is shown that the implementation of the CIP strategy enabled the re-use of the Capto Core 700 resin for up to 10 cycles without any negative impact on the purified product. Hence, the strategic combination of HT and laboratory-scale experiments can lead rapidly to robust CIP procedures, even for a challenging to clean resin, and thus help to overcome supply shortages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 1-Propanol , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Regeneration , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hydroxide
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