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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337692

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), especially the latest Omicron, have exhibited severe antibody evasion. Broadly neutralizing antibodies with high potency against Omicron are urgently needed for understanding working mechanisms and developing therapeutic agents. In this study, we characterized previously reported F61, which was isolated from convalescent patients infected with prototype SARS-CoV-2, as a broadly neutralizing antibody against all VOCs including Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, BA.3 and BA.4 sublineages by utilizing antigen binding and cell infection assays. We also identified and characterized another broadly neutralizing antibody D2 with epitope distinct from that of F61. More importantly, we showed that a combination of F61 with D2 exhibited synergy in neutralization and protecting mice from SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants. Cryo-EM structures of the spike-F61 and spike-D2 binary complexes revealed the distinct epitopes of F61 and D2 at atomic level and the structural basis for neutralization. Cryo-EM structure of the Omicron-spike-F61-D2 ternary complex provides further structural insights into the synergy between F61 and D2. These results collectively indicated F61 and F61-D2 cocktail as promising therapeutic antibodies for combating SARS-CoV-2 variants including diverse Omicron sublineages.

3.
Virol Sin ; 37(2): 238-247, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692813

ABSTRACT

Multiple new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have constantly emerged, as the delta and omicron variants, which have developed resistance to currently gained neutralizing antibodies. This highlights a critical need to discover new therapeutic agents to overcome the variants mutations. Despite the availability of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies has been considered as an alternative way for the prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 variants infection. Here, we show that the nasal delivery of two previously characterized broadly neutralizing antibodies (F61 and H121) protected K18-hACE2 mice against lethal challenge with SARS-CoV-2 variants. The broadly protective efficacy of the F61 or F61/F121 cocktail antibodies was evaluated by lethal challenge with the wild strain (WIV04) and multiple variants, including beta (B.1.351), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) at 200 or 1000 TCID50, and the minimum antibody administration doses (5-1.25 â€‹mg/kg body weight) were also evaluated with delta and omicron challenge. Fully prophylactic protections were found in all challenged groups with both F61 and F61/H121 combination at the administration dose of 20 â€‹mg/kg body weight, and corresponding mice lung viral RNA showed negative, with almost all alveolar septa and cavities remaining normal. Furthermore, low-dose antibody treatment induced significant prophylactic protection against lethal challenge with delta and omicron variants, whereas the F61/H121 combination showed excellent results against omicron infection. Our findings indicated the potential use of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as prophylactic and therapeutic agent for protection of current emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Body Weight , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335234

ABSTRACT

The development of rapid serological detection methods re urgently needed for determination of neutralizing antibodies in sera. In this study, four rapid methods (ACE2-RBD inhibition assay, S1-IgG detection, RBD-IgG detection, and N-IgG detection) were established and evaluated based on chemiluminescence technology. For the first time, a broadly neutralizing antibody with high affinity was used as a standard for the quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera. Sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients (N = 119), vaccinated donors (N = 86), and healthy donors (N = 299) confirmed by microneutralization test (MNT) were used to evaluate the above methods. The result showed that the ACE2-RBD inhibition assay calculated with either ACE2-RBD binding inhibition percentage rate or ACE2-RBD inhibiting antibody concentration were strongly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.78, p < 0.0001) and also highly consistent with MNT (Kappa Value ≥ 0.94, p < 0.01). There was also a strong correlation between the two evaluation indices (r ≥ 0.99, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, S1-IgG and RBD-IgG quantitative detection were also significantly correlated with MNT (r ≥ 0.73, p < 0.0001), and both methods were highly correlated with each other (r ≥ 0.95, p < 0.0001). However, the concentration of N-IgG antibodies showed a lower correlation with the MNT results (r < 0.49, p < 0.0001). The diagnostic assays presented here could be used for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunization effect and serological diagnosis of COVID-19 patients, and could also have guiding significance for establishing other rapid serological methods to surrogate neutralization tests for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/methods , Luminescent Measurements/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
5.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 934-947, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293454

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has precipitated multiple variants resistant to therapeutic antibodies. In this study, 12 high-affinity antibodies were generated from convalescent donors in early outbreaks using immune antibody phage display libraries. Of them, two RBD-binding antibodies (F61 and H121) showed high-affinity neutralization against SARS-CoV-2, whereas three S2-target antibodies failed to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Following structure analysis, F61 identified a linear epitope located in residues G446-S494, which overlapped with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding sites, while H121 recognized a conformational epitope located on the side face of RBD, outside from ACE2 binding domain. Hence the cocktail of the two antibodies achieved better performance of neutralization to SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, these two antibodies also showed efficient neutralizing activities to the variants including B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, and reacted with mutations of N501Y, E484K, and L452R, indicated that it may also neutralize the recent India endemic strain B.1.617. The unchanged binding activity of F61 and H121 to RBD with multiple mutations revealed a broad neutralizing activity against variants, which mitigated the risk of viral escape. Our findings revealed the therapeutic basis of cocktail antibodies against constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and provided promising candidate antibodies to clinical treatment of COVID-19 patients infected with broad SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6811, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149746

ABSTRACT

High rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been reported among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Importantly, CVD, as one of the comorbidities, could also increase the risks of the severity of COVID-19. Here we identified phospholipase A2 group VII (PLA2G7), a well-studied CVD biomarker, as a hub gene in COVID-19 though an integrated hypothesis-free genomic analysis on nasal swabs (n = 486) from patients with COVID-19. PLA2G7 was further found to be predominantly expressed by proinflammatory macrophages in lungs emerging with progression of COVID-19. In the validation stage, RNA level of PLA2G7 was identified in nasal swabs from both COVID-19 and pneumonia patients, other than health individuals. The positive rate of PLA2G7 were correlated with not only viral loads but also severity of pneumonia in non-COVID-19 patients. Serum protein levels of PLA2G7 were found to be elevated and beyond the normal limit in COVID-19 patients, especially among those re-positive patients. We identified and validated PLA2G7, a biomarker for CVD, was abnormally enhanced in COVID-19 at both nucleotide and protein aspects. These findings provided indications into the prevalence of cardiovascular involvements seen in patients with COVID-19. PLA2G7 could be a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/blood , 1-Alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine Esterase/genetics , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , China/epidemiology , Data Mining/methods , Humans , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transcriptional Activation , Up-Regulation
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