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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 759568, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581292

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a new form of acute infectious respiratory syndrome first reported in 2019, has rapidly spread worldwide and has been recognized as a pandemic by the WHO. It raised widespread concern about the treatment of psoriasis in this COVID-19 pandemic era, especially on the biologics use for patients with psoriasis. This review will summarize key information that is currently known about the relationship between psoriasis, biological treatments, and COVID-19, and vaccination-related issues. We also provide references for dermatologists and patients when they need to make clinical decisions. Currently, there is no consensus on whether biological agents increase the risk of coronavirus infection; however, current research shows that biological agents have no adverse effects on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 with psoriasis. In short, it is not recommended to stop biological treatment in patients with psoriasis to prevent the infection risk, and for those patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, the decision to pause biologic therapy should be considered on a case-by-case basis, and individual risk and benefit should be taken into account. Vaccine immunization against SARS-CoV-2 is strictly recommendable in patients with psoriasis without discontinuation of their biologics but evaluating the risk-benefit ratio of maintaining biologics before vaccination is mandatory at the moment.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103789, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term consequences of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) treatment for COVID-19 patients are yet to be reported. This study assessed the 1-year outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19, who were recruited in our previous UC-MSC clinical trial. METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, cohort study, 100 patients enrolled in our phase 2 trial were prospectively followed up at 3-month intervals for 1 year to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of UC-MSC treatment. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole-lung lesion volumes measured by high-resolution CT. Other imaging outcomes, 6 min walking distance (6-MWD), lung function, plasma biomarkers, and adverse events were also recorded and analyzed. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04288102). FINDINGS: MSC administration improved in whole-lung lesion volume compared with the placebo with a difference of -10.8% (95% CI: -20.7%, -1.5%, p = 0.030) on day 10. MSC also reduced the proportion of solid component lesion volume compared with the placebo at each follow-up point. More interestingly, 17.9% (10/56) of patients in the MSC group had normal CT images at month 12, but none in the placebo group (p = 0.013). The incidence of symptoms was lower in the MSC group than in the placebo group at each follow-up time. Neutralizing antibodies were all positive, with a similar median inhibition rate (61.6% vs. 67.6%) in both groups at month 12. No difference in adverse events at the 1-year follow-up and tumor markers at month 12 were observed between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: UC-MSC administration achieves a long-term benefit in the recovery of lung lesions and symptoms in COVID-19 patients. FUNDING: The National Key R&D Program of China, the Innovation Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and the National Science and Technology Major Project.

3.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 283, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of shared bicycles has increased the demand and sanitary requirements for shared bicycles. Previous studies have identified potentially pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of shared bicycles, but fungal communities have not been investigated. METHODS: We sampled shared-bicycle handles and saddles from five selected locations in a metropolis (Chengdu, China, n = 98) and used surrounding air deposition samples as controls (n = 12). Full-length ITS sequencing and multiple bioinformatic analyses were utilized to reveal fungal community structures and differences. RESULTS: Aspergillus was dominant on both the handles and saddles of shared bicycles, and Alternaria and Cladosporium were the most abundant families in the air samples. Significant differences in fungal community structures were found among the three groups. The handle samples contained higher abundances of Aureobasidium melanogenum and Filobasidium magnum than the saddle and air samples. The saddle samples had a higher abundance of Cladosporium tenuissimum than the other two sample types (P < 0·05). A higher abundance of fungal animal pathogens on shared-bicycle surfaces than in air by FUNGuild (P < 0·05). Moreover, the co-occurrence network of fungi on handles was more stable than that on saddles. CONCLUSION: There were more potential pathogens, including Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Aureobasidium melanogenum, Kazachstania pintolopesii, Filobasidium magnum, Candida tropicalis, and Malassezia globose were found on shared bicycles than in air, suggesting that hands should not contact mucous membrane after cycling, especially in susceptible individuals, and hygiene management of shared bicycles should be given more attention by relevant organizations worldwide.

4.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(10): e2021GL093668, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272831

ABSTRACT

Economic activities and the associated emissions have significantly declined during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which has created a natural experiment to assess the impact of the emitted precursor control policy on ozone (O3) pollution. In this study, we utilized comprehensive satellite, ground-level observations, and source-oriented chemical transport modeling to investigate the O3 variations during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Here, we found that the significant elevated O3 in the North China Plain (40%) and Yangtze River Delta (35%) were mainly attributed to the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) in these regions, associated with the meteorology and emission reduction during lockdown. Besides, O3 formation regimes shifted from VOC-limited regimes to NOx-limited and transition regimes with the decline of NOx during lockdown. We suggest that future O3 control policies should comprehensively consider the effects of AOC on the O3 elevation and coordinated regulations of the O3 precursor emissions.

5.
Geophys Res Lett ; 48(10): e2021GL093668, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223064

ABSTRACT

Economic activities and the associated emissions have significantly declined during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which has created a natural experiment to assess the impact of the emitted precursor control policy on ozone (O3) pollution. In this study, we utilized comprehensive satellite, ground-level observations, and source-oriented chemical transport modeling to investigate the O3 variations during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Here, we found that the significant elevated O3 in the North China Plain (40%) and Yangtze River Delta (35%) were mainly attributed to the enhanced atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) in these regions, associated with the meteorology and emission reduction during lockdown. Besides, O3 formation regimes shifted from VOC-limited regimes to NOx-limited and transition regimes with the decline of NOx during lockdown. We suggest that future O3 control policies should comprehensively consider the effects of AOC on the O3 elevation and coordinated regulations of the O3 precursor emissions.

6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5635-5637, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208550

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had emerged in 2019 and rapidly posed a global epidemic. Here, we report the breadth of concomitant virological features of a family cluster with COVID-19. The period of virus shedding is significantly different between upper respiratory and feces samples. Even the SARS-CoV-2 virus titers were undetectable in feces, it could be positive again soon and likely related to fluctuated inflammation levels (interleukin-6, etc.) and lowered immune responses (CD4 + T lymphocyte, etc.). Our findings expand the novel understanding of the breadth of concomitant virological features during a non-severe family cluster of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Feces/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , China , Disease Outbreaks , Family , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 58, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078577

ABSTRACT

Treatment of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is challenging. We performed a phase 2 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) to treat severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage, based on our phase 1 data. In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, we recruited 101 severe COVID-19 patients with lung damage. They were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive either UC-MSCs (4 × 107 cells per infusion) or placebo on day 0, 3, and 6. The primary endpoint was an altered proportion of whole lung lesion volumes from baseline to day 28. Other imaging outcomes, 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), maximum vital capacity, diffusing capacity, and adverse events were recorded and analyzed. In all, 100 COVID-19 patients were finally received either UC-MSCs (n = 65) or placebo (n = 35). UC-MSCs administration exerted numerical improvement in whole lung lesion volume from baseline to day 28 compared with the placebo (the median difference was -13.31%, 95% CI -29.14%, 2.13%, P = 0.080). UC-MSCs significantly reduced the proportions of solid component lesion volume compared with the placebo (median difference: -15.45%; 95% CI -30.82%, -0.39%; P = 0.043). The 6-MWT showed an increased distance in patients treated with UC-MSCs (difference: 27.00 m; 95% CI 0.00, 57.00; P = 0.057). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that UC-MSCs treatment is a safe and potentially effective therapeutic approach for COVID-19 patients with lung damage. A phase 3 trial is required to evaluate effects on reducing mortality and preventing long-term pulmonary disability. (Funded by The National Key R&D Program of China and others. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04288102.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Umbilical Cord , Aged , Allografts , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 756: 143868, 2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-943596

ABSTRACT

The Guangdong government implemented lockdown measures on January 23, 2020, to ease the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These measures prohibit a series of human activities and lead to a great reduction in anthropogenic emissions. Starting on February 20, all companies resumed work and production, and emissions gradually recovered. To investigate the response of air pollutants in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to the emission reduction and recovery related to COVID-19 lockdown, we used the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to estimate the changes in air pollutants, including three periods: Period I (January 10 to January 22, 2020), Period II (January 23 to February 19, 2020), Period III (February 20 to March 9, 2020). During Period II, under the concurrent influence of emissions and meteorology, air quality improved significantly with PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 decreased by 52%, 67%, and 25%, respectively. O3 had no obvious changes in most cities, which mainly due to the synergetic effects of emissions and meteorology. In Period III, with the recovery of emissions and the changes in meteorology, the increase of secondary components was faster than that of primary PM2.5 (PPM), which indicated that changes in PPM concentration were more sensitive to emissions reduction. O3 concentration increased as emission and temperature rising. Our findings elucidate that more effective emission control strategies should be implemented in PRD to alleviate the increasingly serious pollution situation.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , Rivers , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 172, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733534

ABSTRACT

No effective drug treatments are available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Host-directed therapies targeting the underlying aberrant immune responses leading to pulmonary tissue damage, death, or long-term functional disability in survivors require clinical evaluation. We performed a parallel assigned controlled, non-randomized, phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) infusions in the treatment of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 pulmonary disease. The study enrolled 18 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 9 for each group). The treatment group received three cycles of intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs (3 × 107 cells per infusion) on days 0, 3, and 6. Both groups received standard COVID-treatment regimens. Adverse events, duration of clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters, length of hospitalization, serial chest computed tomography (CT) images, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio, dynamics of cytokines, and IgG and IgM anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed. No serious UC-MSCs infusion-associated adverse events were observed. Two patients receiving UC-MSCs developed transient facial flushing and fever, and one patient developed transient hypoxia at 12 h post UC-MSCs transfusion. Mechanical ventilation was required in one patient in the treatment group compared with four in the control group. All patients recovered and were discharged. Our data show that intravenous UC-MSCs infusion in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 is safe and well tolerated. Phase 2/3 randomized, controlled, double-blinded trials with long-term follow-up are needed to evaluate the therapeutic use of UC-MSCs to reduce deaths and improve long-term treatment outcomes in patients with serious COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Combinations , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/drug effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Ritonavir , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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