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1.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878703

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is closely related to various cellular aspects associated with autophagy. However, how SARS-CoV-2 mediates the subversion of the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway remains largely unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a protein activates LC3-II and leads to the accumulation of autophagosomes in multiple cell lines, while knockdown of the viral ORF7a gene via shRNAs targeting ORF7a sgRNA during SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased autophagy levels. Mechanistically, the ORF7a protein initiates autophagy via the AKT-MTOR-ULK1-mediated pathway, but ORF7a limits the progression of autophagic flux by activating CASP3 (caspase 3) to cleave the SNAP29 protein at aspartic acid residue 30 (D30), ultimately impairing complete autophagy. Importantly, SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced accumulated autophagosomes promote progeny virus production, whereby ORF7a downregulates SNAP29, ultimately resulting in failure of autophagosome fusion with lysosomes to promote viral replication. Taken together, our study reveals a mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the autophagic machinery to facilitate its own propagation via ORF7a.

2.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(6): e37042, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internet-based online virtual health services were originally an important way for the Chinese government to resolve unmet medical service needs due to inadequate medical institutions. Its initial development was not well received. Then, the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic produced a tremendous demand for telehealth in a short time, which stimulated the explosive development of internet hospitals. The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University (SAHZU) has taken a leading role in the construction of internet hospitals in China. The pandemic triggered the hospital to develop unique research on health service capacity under strict quarantine policies and to predict long-term trends. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide policy enlightenment for the construction of internet-based health services to better fight against COVID-19 and to elucidate future directions through an in-depth analysis of 2 years of online health service data gleaned from SAHZU's experiences and lessons learned. METHODS: We collected data from SAHZU Internet Hospital from November 1, 2019, to September 16, 2021. Data from over 900,000 users were analyzed with respect to demographic characteristics, demands placed on departments by user needs, new registrations, and consultation behaviors. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was adopted to evaluate the impact of this momentous emergency event and its long-term trends. With theme analysis and a defined 2D model, 3 investigations were conducted synchronously to determine users' authentic demands on online hospitals. RESULTS: The general profile of internet hospital users is young or middle-aged women who live in Zhejiang and surrounding provinces. The ITS model indicated that, after the intervention (the strict quarantine policies) was implemented during the outbreak, the number of internet hospital users significantly increased (ß_2=105.736, P<.001). Further, long-term waves of COVID-19 led to an increasing number of users following the outbreak (ß_3=0.167, P<.001). In theme analysis, we summarized 8 major demands by users of the SAHZU internet hospital during the national shutdown period and afterwards. Online consultations and information services were persistent and universal demands, followed by concerns about medical safety and quality, time, and cost. Users' medical behavior patterns changed from onsite to online as internet hospital demands increased. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has spawned the explosive growth of telehealth; as a public tertiary internet hospital, the SAHZU internet hospital is partially and irreversibly integrated into the traditional medical system. As we shared the practical examples of 1 public internet hospital in China, we put forward suggestions about the future direction of telehealth. Vital experience in the construction of internet hospitals was provided in the normalization of COVID-19 prevention and control, which can be demonstrated as a model of internet hospital management practice for other medical institutions.

3.
Microb Pathog ; 165: 105498, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in determining coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). METHODS: As of January 31, 2022, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, Wiley and Springer Link were searched. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio (LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic (AUC) curve were used to assess the accuracy of CRISPR. RESULTS: According to the inclusion criteria, 5857 patients from 54 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0.98, 1.00 and 1.00, respectively. For CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins-12, the sensitivity, specificity was 0.96, 1.00, respectively. For Cas-13, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.99 and 0.99. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis showed that the diagnostic performance of CRISPR is close to the gold standard, and it is expected to meet the Point of care requirements in resource poor areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Humans
4.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115156, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814699

ABSTRACT

We are not on track to meet the SDGs by 2030 despite considerable efforts. Sino-US trade war and the COVID-19 pandemic raise the tide of trade protection that may also go against SDGs. To explore how international trade affects SDGs, this study quantifies the impacts of international trade on global energy and water inequality by constructing resource-Gini-coefficients in terms of reserve, production, and consumption. We find that international trade alleviates global inequality in energy use, in which direct energy trade reduces the inequality significantly while nonenergy commodity trade aggravates it slightly. However, international trade has a pretty minor impact on improving global water inequality. The developing economies suffer a large amount of embodied energy and water outflows. For example, BRICS exported 712.3 Mtoe of embodied energy and 130.5 billion m3 of virtual water to the rest of the world, exceeding the sum of energy/water use in Germany and France. The developed economies, especially the USA and EU, outsource energy- and water-intensive commodities to reduce domestic energy shortage and water stress, roughly corresponding to India's energy use and two times of water use of South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , France , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics
5.
Neuroimage ; 255: 119185, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778386

ABSTRACT

As characterized by repeated exposure of others' trauma, vicarious traumatization is a common negative psychological reaction during the COVID-19 pandemic and plays a crucial role in the development of general mental distress. This study aims to identify functional connectome that encodes individual variations of pandemic-related vicarious traumatization and reveal the underlying brain-vicarious traumatization mechanism in predicting general distress. The eligible subjects were 105 general university students (60 females, aged from 19 to 27 years) undergoing brain MRI scanning and baseline behavioral tests (October 2019 to January 2020), whom were re-contacted for COVID-related vicarious traumatization measurement (February to April 2020) and follow-up general distress evaluation (March to April 2021). We applied a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach to identify the functional connectome supporting vicarious traumatization based on a 268-region-parcellation assigned to network memberships. The CPM analyses showed that only the negative network model stably predicted individuals' vicarious traumatization scores (q2 = -0.18, MSE = 617, r [predicted, actual] = 0.18, p = 0.024), with the contributing functional connectivity primarily distributed in the fronto-parietal, default mode, medial frontal, salience, and motor network. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that vicarious traumatization mediated the influence of brain functional connectome on general distress. Importantly, our results were independent of baseline family socioeconomic status, other stressful life events and general mental health as well as age, sex and head motion. Our study is the first to provide evidence for the functional neural markers of vicarious traumatization and reveal an underlying neuropsychological pathway to predict distress symptoms in which brain functional connectome affects general distress via vicarious traumatization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Connectome , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Compassion Fatigue/psychology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mental Health , Pandemics
6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315443

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan quickly spread to 34 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in the country and 184 countries and regions around the world. It has drawn great attention from the International Health Organization and was declared an international public health emergency on January 31, 2020. Because the population is generally susceptible to the virus, there are no effective drugs and vaccines, and active participation of the entire population in self-protection and self-isolation has become the key to cutting off transmission routes and effectively controlling the epidemic. China has vast land and a vast area with a large population. Although the agricultural population has decreased this year with the acceleration of urbanization, according to national demographics, 40% of China's rural population is still living in remote areas. This population is relatively lacking in material and economic conditions and has limited access to medical services and education. Influencing factors such as traditional health habits and consciousness should not be underestimated in rural areas. In addition, the COVID-19 outbreak coincided with the Chinese New Year, and people’s return and post-holiday resumption of work greatly increased the chance of transmission of the virus. Rural residents accounted for 60% of the people returning to the Spring Festival. They are the most mobile and susceptible group and are at high risk of viral transmission. The knowledge, consciousness, attitude and behavior of rural residents with regard to COVID-19 control are related to the success or failure of epidemic prevention and control. To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to the prevention and control of COVID-19 among rural residents, to analyze the influencing factors, difficulties and challenges of prevention and control in this population, and to develop a plan to improve rural residents' awareness of COVID-19 prevention and control. Targeted interventions for prevention and control capabilities provide scientific evidence.Methods: A self-designed questionnaire to assess residents’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19 prevention and control was borrowed from the Questionnaire Star service platform, and snowball sampling was used to invite rural residents to complete the questionnaire on WeChat. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 22.0 statistical software.Results: A total of 554 valid questionnaires were collected. Rural residents’ average score of knowledge about the prevention and control of new coronary pneumonia was 39.75 ± 6.703, the average score of prevention and control attitude was 45.40 ± 3.341, and the average score of prevention and control behavior was 104.69 ± 12.167. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that male residents’ scores for knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to SARS were significantly higher than those of women who had not experienced SARS (P <0.01);the scores of attitudes and behaviors of rural residents aged 30 and under were significantly higher than those of other age groups (P <0.01) 0.01);residents with an education level of junior high school or below and those who worked as farmers had significantly lower scores in knowledge, attitude, and behavior than those with other education levels (P <0.05);the knowledge and behavior scores of respondents with poor family economic conditions were significantly lower than those with good and moderate family economic conditions (P <0.05);and residents with chronic diseases and those living in areas with confirmed cases had significantly higher knowledge and behavior scores than those without chronic diseases and no or unknown living cases (P <0.05). Rural residents’ scores for knowledge and attitudes, attitudes and behaviors, and knowledge and behavior were positively correlated with new coronary pneumonia control (P <0.05). The difficulties and challenges they perceived during the epidemic were a ack of protective equipment and travel difficulties (lack of transportation) and weak awareness of prevention and control.Conclusions: Rural residents have a good grasp of COVID-19 and a positive attitude toward the need for prevention and control by individuals, communities, and the government during the epidemic. They use common chopsticks or split meals and take Chinese herbal medicines that nourish yin, invigorate the spleen, and nourish the lungs. Protective measures such as cleaning furniture with alcohol or chlorine disinfectant, returning home, and handwashing with soap before and after meals and after contact with pollutants need to be further strengthened. A lack of protective materials and weak awareness of prevention and control are the greatest difficulties and challenges experienced by rural residents during the epidemic.Trial registration:“Not applicable” in this section

7.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2038-2046, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263879

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA could be detected in the blood of infected cases. From February 9, all blood establishments in Hubei province, China, implemented nucleic acid testing (NAT) for SARS-CoV-2 RNA among blood donors to ensure blood safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Nucleic acid test screening individually (ID) or by minipool (MP) testing was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Inactivated culture supernatant of SARS-CoV-2-infected Vero cells was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and series diluted with negative plasma to evaluate the assay's performance. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the kit for MP testing was 62.94 and 33.14 copies/mL for N and ORF1ab region, respectively. ID testing could achieve 3.87 and 4.85 copies/mL for two regions using 1600 µL of plasma. Coefficients of variations of two different concentrations of reference samples were all less than 5% in MP testing. As of April 30, 2020, a total of 98,342 blood donations including 87,095 whole blood donations and 11,247 platelet donations were tested by ID or MP testing, and no RNAemia was found. In addition, Hubei province suffered precipitously decreased blood supply, especially in February: 86% reduction compared with the same period of 2019. CONCLUSION: Nucleic acid test screening of SARS-CoV-2 on blood donations is suitable in blood establishments using the commercial real-time PCR detection kit based on available instruments. The negative result indicated that SARS-CoV-2 appears to be no direct threat to blood safety but raises some serious issues for general blood supply.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viremia/diagnosis , Animals , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/supply & distribution , COVID-19/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Virus Cultivation
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11591, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253986

ABSTRACT

Making timely assessments of disease progression in patients with COVID-19 could help offer the best personalized treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore an effective model to predict the outcome of patients with COVID-19. We retrospectively included 188 patients (124 in the training set and 64 in the test set) diagnosed with COVID-19. Patients were divided into aggravation and improvement groups according to the disease progression. Three kinds of models were established, including the radiomics, clinical, and combined model. Receiver operating characteristic curves, decision curves, and Delong's test were used to evaluate and compare the models. Our analysis showed that all the established prediction models had good predictive performance in predicting the progress and outcome of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Aged , COVID-19/etiology , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Prognosis , ROC Curve
9.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 751-756, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mental illness and correlated factors of primary medical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hefei city, China. METHODS: A total of 180 primary medical staff were randomly selected from seven community hospitals in Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone as a study group. One hundred and eighty-two health people were recruited as the control group. The self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Psychological questionnaire of public health emergencies were distributed to them for evaluation. RESULTS: The score of SAS, SDS in study group was higher than that in control group [(35.57±10.39) vs (31.31±7.98); (44.16±8.46) vs (41.47±9.47)] (t=4.371, P< 0.001; t=2.849, P=0.005). The fear subscale and total score in the psychological questionnaire of sudden public health events were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.216, P=0.004; r=-0.154, P=0.039). Marriage was negatively correlated with depression subscales in psychological questionnaires of SAS, SDS and sudden public health events (r=-0.184, P=0.013; r=-0.298, P<0.001; r=-0.161, P=0.031; r=-0.147, P=0.049). Education level was positively correlated with the total score of a psychological questionnaire for sudden public health events (r=0.151, P=0.043); Logistic regression analysis showed that marital status was a protective factor of psychological abnormality. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to pay attention to the psychological status of primary medical staff, especially the young unmarried medical staff.

10.
ACS Nano ; 15(4): 6340-6351, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139707

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide necessitates the development of therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and mediates viral entry into host cells. Herein, membrane nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from ACE2-rich cells were discovered to have potent capacity to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. The membranes of human embryonic kidney-239T cells highly expressing ACE2 were applied to prepare NPs using an extrusion method. The nanomaterials, termed ACE2-NPs, contained 265.1 ng mg-1 ACE2 on the surface and acted as baits to trap S1 in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in reduced recruitment of the viral ligand to HK-2 human renal tubular epithelial cells. Aside from affecting receptor recongnition, S1 translocated to the cytoplasm and induced apoptosis by reducing optic atrophy 1 expression and increasing cytochrome c release, which was also inhibited by ACE2-NPs. Further investigations revealed that ACE2-NPs efficiently suppressed SARS-CoV-2 S pseudovirions entry into host cells and blocked viral infection in vitro and in vivo. This study characterizes easy-to-produce memrbane nanoantagonists of SARS-CoV-2 that enrich the existing antiviral arsenal and provide possibilities for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(4): 1839-1855, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951220

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To explore the status quo and the influencing factors of residents' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the difficulties or challenges perceived by residents in their preventive practice. DESIGN: An online questionnaire survey. METHODS: The self-designed questionnaire was distributed among residents online in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, two independent samples t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, multivariate linear regression and content analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 919 valid questionnaires were collected. The scoring rates of residents' KAP were 85.2%, 92.9% and 84.4% respectively. Main factors influencing residents' knowledge included gender and occupation; while those influencing attitude were occupation, family economic level and knowledge; and those influencing practice included place of residence, occupation, with or without chronic disease, knowledge and attitude. Mass media was the primary approach for people to learn the knowledge and information of COVID-19. Difficulties or challenges faced were mainly lack of protective equipments, concerns about the risk of prevention and control, impact on daily life, work and study, lack of knowledge and consensus, psychological problems and information problems. CONCLUSION: The attitude of residents towards COVID-19 prevention and control is generally positive. The knowledge and practice have been popularized to a certain extent, but there are still deviations or deficiencies in residents' understanding of certain important knowledge and the adoption of relevant preventive measures. Evidence-based tailored public education initiatives are indicated. IMPACT: Findings of this study add important knowledge about residents' understanding, attitude, practice and the influencing factors on COVID-19 prevention and control, which serves as a scientific foundation for optimizing the pandemic public education and decision-making.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Disease Management , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2357-2367, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895565

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 quickly spread to 184 countries and regions around the world. It has drawn great attention from the WHO and was declared an international public health emergency on January 31, 2020. Because the population is generally susceptible to the virus, there are no effective drugs and vaccines, and active participation of the entire population in self-protection and self-isolation has become the key to cutting off transmission routes and effectively controlling the epidemic. A self-designed questionnaire to assess residents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to COVID-19 prevention and control used the Questionnaire Star service platform, and snowball sampling was used to invite rural residents to complete the questionnaire on WeChat. A total of 554 valid questionnaires were collected. Rural residents' average scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding prevention and control were 40 ± 7 (total of 50 points), 45 ± 3 (total of 52 points), and 92 ± 12 (total of 127 points), respectively. A lack of protective materials and weak awareness of prevention and control are the greatest difficulties and challenges experienced by rural residents during the epidemic. Accordingly, social support services, such as public transportation plans, supply chains for living materials, and orderly returns to work, need to be strengthened. Moreover, new infectious disease control is not only a task for individuals but also a global issue. It is of great significance to guarantee information transparency and enhance health risk communication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Disinfection/methods , Female , Health Communication , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods , Rural Population , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18629, 2020 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894416

ABSTRACT

Recurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive detection in infected but recovered individuals has been reported. Patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could profoundly impact the health care system. We sought to define the kinetics and relevance of PCR-positive recurrence during recovery from acute COVID-19 to better understand risks for prolonged infectivity and reinfection. A series of 414 patients with confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection, at The Second Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen, China from January 11 to April 23, 2020. Statistical analyses were performed of the clinical, laboratory, radiologic image, medical treatment, and clinical course of admission/quarantine/readmission data, and a recurrence predictive algorithm was developed. 16.7% recovered patients with PCR positive recurring one to three times, despite being in strict quarantine. Younger patients with mild pulmonary respiratory syndrome had higher risk of PCR positivity recurrence. The recurrence prediction model had an area under the ROC curve of 0.786. This case series provides characteristics of patients with recurrent SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Use of a prediction algorithm may identify patients at high risk of recurrent SARS-CoV-2 positivity and help to establish protocols for health policy.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome
14.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833482

ABSTRACT

A highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) appeared in China and spread rapidly to neighbor countries, which have led to great economic losses to the pig industry. In the present study, we isolated a PEDV using Vero cells and serially propagated 100 passages. PEDV SDSX16 was characterized in vitro and in vivo. The viral titers increased to 107.6 TCID50/mL (100th) by serial passages. The spike (S) gene and the whole gene of the SDSX16 virus was fully sequenced to assess the genetic stability and relatedness to previously identified PEDV. Along with successive passage in vitro, there were 18 nucleotides (nt) deletion occurred in the spike (S) gene resulting in a deletion of six amino acids when the SDSX16 strain was passaged to the 64th generation, and this deletion was stable until the P100. However, the ORF1a/b, M, N, E, and ORF3 genes had only a few point mutations in amino acids and no deletions. According to growth kinetics experiments, the SDSX16 deletion strain significantly enhanced its replication in Vero cells since it was passaged to the 64th generation. The animal studies showed that PEDV SDSX16-P10 caused more severe diarrhea and vomiting, fecal shedding, and acute atrophic enteritis than SDSX16-P75, indicating that SDSX16-P10 is enteropathogenic in the natural host, and the pathogenicity of SDSX16 decreased with successive passage in vitro. However, SDSX16-P10 was found to cause lower levels of cytokine expression than SDSX16-P75 using real-time PCR and flow cytometry, such as IL1ß, IL6, IFN-ß, TNF-α, indicating that SDSX16-P10 might inhibit the expression of cytokines. Our data indicated that successive passage in vitro resulted in virulent attenuation in vivo of the PEDV variant strain SDSX16.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Load , Animals , Biomarkers , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytokines , Immunohistochemistry , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/classification , Swine , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/pathology , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virulence
15.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 642-645, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696904

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 infection status of hospitalized children was surveyed in the department of pediatric hematology and oncology in three different hospitals of epidemic areas in Hubei, China. A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics, lung CT scan, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and serum antibodies of hospitalized children with hemato-oncological diseases from January 23 to April 24, 2020. 299 children were enrolled in this study, including 176 males (58.9%) and 123 females (41.1%), aged from 2 months to 16 years. 255 cases (85.3%) received chemotherapy or other immunosuppressive therapies, and there were 44 cases (14.7%) of other benign diseases. Nucleic acid test was performed on 258 children (86.3%) and one case was positive. 163 cases (54.5%) were tested for serum antibodies, and all of them were negative. Lung CT scan was performed on 247 children (82.6%), and 107 of them showed infectious changes. Only one case (0.33%) of COVID-19 was diagnosed in the group. The prevalence rate of COVID-19 in enrolled children with hemato-oncological diseases in Hubei was 0.33%. Immunosuppressed patients are not prone to produce related antibodies. Comprehensive protective measures and ward management can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the group patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematologic Diseases/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infection Control , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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