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1.
Sustainability ; 12(13), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-707511

ABSTRACT

Tourism risk perception is proven to have significant influence on tourists' decision-making behaviors, however, the impact of the place image depicted in the cultural media of destinations on it needs to be further studied The study explores the mechanism of potential tourists' risk perception in severe COVID-19 epidemics with the antecedent effects of the place image depicted in anti-epidemic music videos, and the impact of risk perception on potential tourists' place attachment and travel intention, based on the risk perception theory This study also explores the moderating effect of the visiting history on balancing risk perception, place attachment, and travel intention With empirical research, the study result indicates that in severe epidemics: (1) The place image depicted in anti-epidemic music videos has a significant negative effect on tourism risk perception;tourism risk perception has a significant negative effect on potential tourists' place attachment and travel intention;(2) The tourism risk perception mediates between the place image depicted in the music videos and potential tourists' place attachment and travel intention;(3) Visiting history modulates the influence of tourism risk perception, potential tourists' place attachment, and travel intention This research would be helpful if it enriches the theoretical content of risk perception, expands the theoretical foundation of tourists' decision making, promotes the application of music videos in tourism research, and proposes empirical risk management countermeasures of tourism destination

3.
Gastroenterology Report ; 8(3):167-174, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-632301

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing public-health pandemic worldwide Although SARS-CoV-2 has been known to spread primarily through respiratory droplets, recent evidence also supports fecal/oral as an additional route of transmission, raising concerns over gastrointestinal (GI) transmission of the infection Herein, we, as the front-line Chinese GI surgeons, would like to share our experience and lessons in the combat against COVID-19 It is essential to create science-based, rational, and practical strategies during the outbreak of COVID-19 Here, we provide multi-institutional consensus on minimizing disease transmission while continuing to provide care from all aspects for patients in GI surgery, including outpatient clinics, inpatient units, gastrointestinal endoscopy centers, and adjustments in perioperative care Our experiences and recommendations are worth sharing and may help to establish specific infection-control and outcome measures

4.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624245

ABSTRACT

We conducted this systemic review and meta-analysis in an attempt to evaluate the efficacy and safety of umifenovir in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and medRxiv database. We included both retrospective and prospective studies. The mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were applied to assess the effectiveness of umifenovir for COVID-19. A total of 12 studies with 1052 patients were included in our final studies. Compared with control group, umifenovir was associated with higher negative rate of PCR on day 14 (RR:1.27; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.55). However, umifenovir is not related to nucleus acid negative conversion time (MD: 0.09; 95% CI: -1.48 to 1.65), negative rate on day 7 (RR:1.09; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.31), incidence of composite endpoint (RR:1.20; 95% CI: 0.61 to 2.37), rate of fever alleviation on day 7 (RR:1.00; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.10), rate of cough alleviation on day 7 (RR:1.00; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.18), or hospital length of stay (MD: 1.34; 95% CI: -2.08 to 4.76). Additionally, umifenovir was safe in COVID-19 patients (RR for incidence of adverse events: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.92). The results of sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were similar to pooled results. There is no evidence to support the use of umifenovir for improving patient-important outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

5.
Liver Int ; 2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611716

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has attracted increasing worldwide attention. While metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) affects a quarter of world population, its impact on COVID-19 severity has not been characterized. We identified 55 MAFLD patients with COVID-19, who were 1:1 matched by age, sex and obesity status to non-aged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients without MAFLD. Our results demonstrate that in patients aged less than 60 years with COVID-19, MAFLD is associated with an approximately fourfold increase (adjusted odds ratio 4.07, 95% confidence interval 1.20-13.79, P = .02) in the probability for severe disease, after adjusting for confounders. Healthcare professionals caring for patients with COVID-19 need to be aware that there is a positive association between MAFLD and severe illness with COVID-19.

7.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; : 101782, 2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595825

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are currently no satisfactory methods for predicting the outcome of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study is to establish a model for predicting the prognosis of the disease. METHODS: The laboratory results were collected from 54 deceased COVID-19 patients on admission and before death. Another 54 recovered COVID-19 patients were enrolled as control cases. RESULTS: Many laboratory indicators, such as neutrophils, AST, γ-GT, ALP, LDH, NT-proBNP, Hs-cTnT, PT, APTT, D-dimer, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, CRP, ferritin and procalcitonin, were all significantly increased in deceased patients compared with recovered patients on admission. In contrast, other indicators such as lymphocytes, platelets, total protein and albumin were significantly decreased in deceased patients on admission. Some indicators such as neutrophils and procalcitonin, others such as lymphocytes and platelets, continuously increased or decreased from admission to death in deceased patients respectively. Using these indicators alone had moderate performance in differentiating between recovered and deceased COVID-19 patients. A model based on combination of four indicators (P = 1/[1 + e-(-2.658+0.587×neutrophils - 2.087×lymphocytes - 0.01×platelets+0.004×IL-2R)]) showed good performance in predicting the death of COVID-19 patients. When cutoff value of 0.572 was used, the sensitivity and specificity of the prediction model were 90.74% and 94.44%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using the current indicators alone is of modest value in differentiating between recovered and deceased COVID-19 patients. A prediction model based on combination of neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets and IL-2R shows good performance in predicting the outcome of COVID-19.

9.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574628

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to explore a novel risk score to predict diagnosis with COVID-19 among all suspected patients at admission. This was a retrospective, multicenter, and observational study. The clinical data of all suspected patients were analyzed. Independent risk factors were identified via multivariate logistic regression analysis. Finally, 336 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 139 control patients were included. We found nine independent risk factors for diagnosis with COVID-19 at admission to hospital: epidemiological exposure histories (OR:13.32; 95%CI, 6.39-27.75), weakness/fatigue (OR:4.51, 95%CI, 1.70-11.96), heart rate less than 100 beat/minutes (OR:3.80, 95%CI, 2.00-7.22), bilateral pneumonia (OR:3.60, 95%CI, 1.83-7.10), neutrophil count less than equal to 6.3 × 109 /L (OR: 6.77, 95%CI, 2.52-18.19), eosinophil count less than equal to 0.02 × 109 /L (OR:3.14, 95%CI, 1.58-6.22), glucose more than equal to 6 mmol/L (OR:2.43, 95%CI, 1.04-5.66), D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L (OR:3.49, 95%CI, 1.22-9.96), and C-reactive protein less than 5 mg/L (OR:3.83, 95%CI, 1.86-7.92). As for the performance of this risk score, a cut-off value of 20 (specificity: 0.866; sensitivity: 0.813) was identified to predict COVID-19 according to reciever operator characteristic curve and the area under the curve was 0.921 (95%CI: 0.896-0.945; P < .01). We designed a novel risk score which might have a promising predictive capacity for diagnosis with COVID-19 among suspected patients.

10.
Sleep Med ; 2020 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has been ongoing in China since January 2020. The threat of infection affects the work and life of most of the population and may also damage sleep. This study aims to examine the subjective sleep status and mental health of the population during the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHOD: The data were collected through an online questionnaire with a sample of 5461 individuals in China from February 5, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Participants were divided into four groups based on their degree of threat from COVID-19: Group 1 was most closely associated with COVID-19, including inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19, first-line hospital workers and first-line management staff; Group 2 included outpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 and patients who developed a fever and visited the hospital; Group 3 included people related to Group 1 or 2, such as their colleagues, relatives, friends and rescuers; and Group 4 was the farthest removed from contact with COVID-19, covering the general public affected by COVID-19 prevention strategies. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Acute Stress Disorder Scale (ASDS) were used. RESULTS: Threat degree of COVID-19 (groups) had significant correlations with insomnia, depression, anxiety, and stress (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Age, gender, and area (Hubei province or other provinces) had significant correlations with insomnia (p < 0.01). A total of 1380 (24.46%) participants were suspected of having major depression based on the PHQ-9. Additionally, 1042 (18.47%) participants were suspected of having generalized anxiety disorder based on the GAD-7. A total of 892 (15.8%) of the participants had Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) according to the ASDS. The prevalence of clinical insomnia during the outbreak was 20.05% (1131) according to the ISI. The factors of satisfaction with the current sleep pattern and how perceptible the symptoms of the current sleep pattern are to other people (p < 0.05) and the middle (difficulty staying asleep) and terminal (waking up too early) (p < 0.01) factors of the ISI were significantly different across groups. A total of 1129 (20.01%) participants spent more than one hour awake in bed. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that insomnia is more severe in people who are female, young, living in the epicenter and experiencing a high degree of threat from COVID-19. As prevention and treatment efforts continue with regard to COVID-19, the general public has developed poor sleep hygiene habits, which deserve attention.

11.
Med Teach ; 42(7): 787-790, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-431956

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak can be seen as a 'big test' for China; a summative assessment of its preparedness on multiple fronts, including medical education. Being intimately involved in the coordinated response, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University has been a first-hand witness to the strengths and weaknesses of the current medical education system in China. On the one hand, we believe that the distinguished contributions in disease containment efforts by healthcare professionals indicated that our medical education system has achieved its intended outcomes and is socially accountable. On the other hand, we have also identified three major issues that need to be addressed from an educational standpoint: insufficient emphasis on public health emergency preparedness; unsophisticated mechanisms for interdisciplinary cooperation; and inadequate guidance in medical ethics. Whilst these reflections might be seen in its summative form, we would suggest changing it to that of a formative process, where we learn from our assessment through observation and feedback of the gaps, upon which improvement of our present situation can be made. We hope that these lessons may be helpful to our colleagues in the rest of China and around the world, who are engaged in medical educational reform.

13.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 6(51): 1412-1426, 20200328.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-380343

ABSTRACT

Recently, the epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in China and other countries in the world is serious. There are at present no effective treatments for COVID-19. The safety and effectiveness of western anti-coronavirus drugs are under investigation. In many places in China, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat COVID-19 with a high clinical cure rate. The treatment economics of TCM is good. The immune-regulating and antiviral TCM can enhance human immunity and exert an antiviral effect. They have been widely used in the anti-COVID-19 treatment. We consulted the database of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP and PubMed for screening the immune-regulating and antiviral TCMs (Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Pogostemonis Herba, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, Bupleuri Radix, Isatidis Radix, Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, and Houttuyniae Herba). This article summarizes the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics, and the clinical application of the effective components of immune-regulating and antiviral TCM in the prescriptions and Chinese patent medicines, in order to provide a better reference for the clinical application of TCM.

14.
J.Transl. Intern. Med. ; 1(8): 9-19, 20200509.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-351635

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is the current public health threat all over the world. Unfortunately, there is no specific prevention and treatment strategy for this disease. We aim to explore the potential role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in this regard through this literature review. As a crucial enzyme of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), ACE2 not only mediates the virus entry but also affects the pathophysiological process of virus-induced acute lung injury (ALI), as well as other organs' damage. As interaction of COVID-19 virus spike and ACE2 is essential for virus infection, COVID-19-specific vaccine based on spike protein, small molecule compound interrupting their interaction, human monoclonal antibody based on receptor-binding domain, and recombinant human ACE2 protein (rhuACE2) have aroused the interests of researchers. Meanwhile, ACE2 could catalyze angiotensin II (Ang II) to form angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), thus alleviates the harmful effect of Ang II and amplifies the protection effect of Ang1-7. ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) have been shown to increase the level of expression of ACE2 and could be potential strategies in protecting lungs, heart, and kidneys. ACE2 plays a very important role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection. Strategies targeting ACE2 and its ligand, COVID-19 virus spike protein, may provide novel method in the prevention and management of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

15.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted increasing worldwide attention. While diabetes is known to aggravate COVID-19 severity, it is not known whether nondiabetic patients with metabolic dysfunction are also more prone to more severe disease. The association of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) with COVID-19 severity in nondiabetic patients was investigated here. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 65 patients with (i.e. cases) and 65 patients without MAFLD (i.e. controls). Each case was randomly matched with one control by sex (1:1) and age (±5 years). The association between the presence of MAFLD (as exposure) and COVID-19 severity (as the outcome) was assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: In nondiabetic patients with COVID-19, the presence of MAFLD was associated with a four-fold increased risk of severe COVID-19; the risk increased with increasing numbers of metabolic risk factors. The association with COVID-19 severity persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and coexisting morbid conditions. CONCLUSION: Health-care professionals caring for nondiabetic patients with COVID-19 should be cognizant of the increased likelihood of severe COVID-19 in patients with MAFLD.

16.
Public Libr. Q. ; 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-324609

ABSTRACT

This study synthesizes timely information about the COVID-19 virus and examines how public libraries have responded to the pandemic in real-time through their online announcements to the public. A content analysis of library announcements relating to the COVID-19 pandemic posted during the period of March 14–April 12, 2020, was performed. Over 90 percent of libraries announced a closure due to the pandemic and 98 percent libraries indicated programs were suspended. Over half of libraries posted about COVID-19 and general hygiene practices. Many announcements changed in terms of content from March 14 to April 12, demonstrating the rapidly evolving nature of the pandemic. This study suggests that libraries can and do play an important role in providing reliable information about pandemics like COVID-19 for patrons.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233328, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread across the globe. The objective of this study is to build and validate a practical nomogram for estimating the risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: A cohort of 366 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was used to develop a prediction model using data collected from 47 locations in Sichuan province from January 2020 to February 2020. The primary outcome was the development of severe COVID-19 during hospitalization. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression model was used to reduce data size and select relevant features. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to build a prediction model incorporating the selected features. The performance of the nomogram regarding the C-index, calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness was assessed. Internal validation was assessed by bootstrapping. RESULTS: The median age of the cohort was 43 years. Severe patients were older than mild patients by a median of 6 years. Fever, cough, and dyspnea were more common in severe patients. The individualized prediction nomogram included seven predictors: body temperature at admission, cough, dyspnea, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. The model had good discrimination with an area under the curve of 0.862, C-index of 0.863 (95% confidence interval, 0.801-0.925), and good calibration. A high C-index value of 0.839 was reached in the interval validation. Decision curve analysis showed that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSION: We established an early warning model incorporating clinical characteristics that could be quickly obtained on admission. This model can be used to help predict severe COVID-19 and identify patients at risk of developing severe disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nomograms , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , China , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
19.
Clin. Transl. Immunology ; 5(9)20200501.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-216978

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the IgM and IgG responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with varying illness severities. Methods: IgM and IgG antibody levels were assessed via chemiluminescence immunoassay in 338 COVID-19 patients. Results: IgM levels increased during the first week after SARS-CoV-2 infection, peaked 2 weeks and then reduced to near-background levels in most patients. IgG was detectable after 1 week and was maintained at a high level for a long period. The positive rates of IgM and/or IgG antibody detections were not significantly different among the mild, severe and critical disease groups. Severe and critical cases had higher IgM levels than mild cases, whereas the IgG level in critical cases was lower than those in both mild and severe cases. This might be because of the high disease activity and/or a compromised immune response in critical cases. The IgM antibody levels were slightly higher in deceased patients than recovered patients, but IgG levels in these groups did not significantly differ. A longitudinal detection of antibodies revealed that IgM levels decreased rapidly in recovered patients, whereas in deceased cases, either IgM levels remained high or both IgM and IgG were undetectable during the disease course. Conclusion: Quantitative detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 quantitatively has potential significance for evaluating the severity and prognosis of COVID-19.

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