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1.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 17: 13-24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623677

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A better understanding of new biomarkers for COPD patients and their complex mechanisms in the progression of COPD are needed. Methods: An algorithm was conducted to reveal the proportions of 22 subsets of immune cells in COPD samples. Differentially expressed immune-related genes (DE-IRGs) were obtained based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the GSE57148 dataset, and 1509 immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the ImmPort database. Functional enrichment analyses of DE-IRGs were conducted by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We defined the DE-IRGs that had correlations with immune cells as hub genes. The potential interactions among the hub genes were explored by a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Results: The CIBERSORT results showed that lung tissue of COPD patients contained a greater number of resting NK cells, activated dendritic cells, and neutrophils than normal samples. However, the fractions of follicular helper T cells and resting dendritic cells were relatively lower. Thirty-eight DE-IRGs were obtained for further analysis. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these DE-IRGs were significantly enriched in several immune-related biological processes and pathways. Notably, we also observed that DE-IRGs were associated with the coronavirus disease COVID-19 in the progression of COPD. After correlation analysis, six DE-IRGs associated with immune cells were considered hub genes, including AHNAK, SLIT2 TNFRRSF10C, CXCR1, CXCR2, and FCGR3B. Conclusion: In the present study, we investigated immune-related genes as novel diagnostic biomarkers and explored the potential mechanism for COPD based on CIBERSORT analysis, providing a new understanding for COPD treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Gene Ontology , Humans , Protein Interaction Maps , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ; 17:13-24, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1615270

ABSTRACT

Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and morbidity worldwide. A better understanding of new biomarkers for COPD patients and their complex mechanisms in the progression of COPD are needed. Methods An algorithm was conducted to reveal the proportions of 22 subsets of immune cells in COPD samples. Differentially expressed immune-related genes (DE-IRGs) were obtained based on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the GSE57148 dataset, and 1509 immune-related genes (IRGs) were downloaded from the ImmPort database. Functional enrichment analyses of DE-IRGs were conducted by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). We defined the DE-IRGs that had correlations with immune cells as hub genes. The potential interactions among the hub genes were explored by a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network. Results The CIBERSORT results showed that lung tissue of COPD patients contained a greater number of resting NK cells, activated dendritic cells, and neutrophils than normal samples. However, the fractions of follicular helper T cells and resting dendritic cells were relatively lower. Thirty-eight DE-IRGs were obtained for further analysis. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these DE-IRGs were significantly enriched in several immune-related biological processes and pathways. Notably, we also observed that DE-IRGs were associated with the coronavirus disease COVID-19 in the progression of COPD. After correlation analysis, six DE-IRGs associated with immune cells were considered hub genes, including AHNAK, SLIT2 TNFRRSF10C, CXCR1, CXCR2, and FCGR3B. Conclusion In the present study, we investigated immune-related genes as novel diagnostic biomarkers and explored the potential mechanism for COPD based on CIBERSORT analysis, providing a new understanding for COPD treatment.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 773126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566658

ABSTRACT

The global epidemic outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which exhibits high infectivity, resulted in thousands of deaths due to the lack of specific drugs. Certain traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), such as Xiyanping injection (XYPI), have exhibited remarkable benefits against COVID-19. Although TCM combined with Western medicine is considered an effective approach for the treatment of COVID-19, the combination may result in potential herb-drug interactions in the clinical setting. The present study aims to verify the effect of XYPI on the oral pharmacokinetics of lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) using an in vivo rat model and in vitro incubation model of human liver microsomes. After being pretreated with an intravenous dose of XYPI (52.5 mg/kg) for one day and for seven consecutive days, the rats received an oral dose of LPV/RTV (42:10.5 mg/kg). Except for the t1/2 of LPV is significantly prolonged from 4.66 to 7.18 h (p < 0.05) after seven consecutive days pretreatment, the pretreatment resulted in only a slight change in the other pharmacokinetic parameters of LPV. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of RTV were significantly changed after pretreatment with XYPI, particularly in treatment for seven consecutive days, the AUC0-∞ of RTV was significantly shifted from 0.69 to 2.72 h µg/mL (p < 0.05) and the CL exhibited a tendency to decrease from 2.71 L/h to 0.94 L/h (p < 0.05), and the t1/2 of RTV prolonged from 3.70 to 5.51 h (p < 0.05), in comparison with the corresponding parameters in untreated rats. After administration of XYPI, the expression of Cyp3a1 protein was no significant changed in rats. The in vitro incubation study showed XYPI noncompetitively inhibited human CYP3A4 with an apparent Ki value of 0.54 mg/ml in a time-dependent manner. Our study demonstrated that XYPI affects the pharmacokinetics of LPV/RTV by inhibiting CYP3A4 activity. On the basis of this data, patients and clinicians can take precautions to avoid potential drug-interaction risks in COVID-19 treatment.

4.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 20: 15347354211063504, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556291

ABSTRACT

Integrative oncology has developed for about 20 years in some countries; however, integrative oncology is still a relative new term for most China's oncologists. Thus, it is essential to summarize the experience and expertise, share details of differing existing models and discuss future perspectives to help define and guide practice in integrative oncology in China. This study presents a summary of the basic characteristics, status, and challenges of integrative oncology in China, and also reports on China's integrative physicians' service delivery, clinical practice and research patterns of integrative oncology by an online national survey, including 405 oncologists. It is easy for cancer patients to access to integrative therapies in China. Public funding is sufficient for integrative oncology in China, and services are often provided through general hospitals and academic hospitals. Most (95.3%) of oncologists showed a positive attitude toward the development of integrative oncology. More than half (55.6%) of the oncologists worried about the influence on integrative oncology of COVID-19, especially for routine treatment, follow-up and holding seminars. We found that integrative oncology in China has swiftly developed in recent years. However, we suggest that standard diagnosis and treatment patterns and national professional guidelines should be set up as soon as possible.

5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 740879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528857

ABSTRACT

This mixed-methods study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on 1493 Grades 7, 8, and 9 students' self-perceived emotional states in Wuhan, China when it was locked down for the pandemic on January 23, 2020 and when the lockdown was lifted on April 8, 2020, as well as the changes of their emotional states over the 1-year period after the lockdown was lifted. A five-point Likert scale survey was administered to the participants between March 1 and April 1, 2020 when Wuhan was blocked down; and three focus group interviews were conducted between May 1 and May 31, 2021, 1 year after the lockdown was lifted. The results showed that these students in Wuhan experienced feelings of loss of control and negative emotions when the city was locked down and they were home quarantined; furthermore, there were significant differences for their self-perceived feelings of loss of control and negative emotions across demographic variables of gender, grade level, physical activity, social economic status, and family cohesion; finally, their emotional states changed substantially at different time nodes during this pandemic. Implications for students, parents, and schools are discussed.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480800

ABSTRACT

Plenty of research has revealed virus induced alternations in metabolic pathways, which is known as metabolic reprogramming. Studies focusing on COVID-19 have uncovered significant changes in metabolism, resulting in the perspective that COVID-19 is a metabolic disease. Reprogramming of amino acid, glucose, cholesterol and fatty acid is distinctive characteristic of COVID-19 infection. These metabolic changes in COVID-19 have a critical role not only in producing energy and virus constituent elements, but also in regulating immune response, offering new insights into COVID-19 pathophysiology. Remarkably, metabolic reprogramming provides great opportunities for developing novel biomarkers and therapeutic agents for COVID-19 infection. Such novel agents are expected to be effective adjuvant therapies. In this review, we integrate present studies about major metabolic reprogramming in COVID-19, as well as the possibility of targeting reprogrammed metabolism to combat virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Amino Acids/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/metabolism
7.
Drugs and Clinic ; 35(4):607-613, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1374637

ABSTRACT

From the December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was outbreak at home and abroad. Besides antiviral therapy, patients should be treated for complications, therefore a combination of drugs for treatment in Clinic need to be taken. Although recently published guidelines have repeatedly highlighted the drug interactions between the anti-COVID-l 9 medicines, it has not been detailed. The potential drug - drug interactions were reviewed 0f the anti-COVID-19 drugs, and in order to provide references for the clinical safety and rational use of the anti-COVID-19 drugs.

8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4959-4984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334842

ABSTRACT

Antiviral drugs (AvDs) are the primary resource in the global battle against viruses, including the recent fight against corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Most AvDs require multiple medications, and their use frequently leads to drug resistance, since they have poor oral bioavailability and low efficacy due to their low solubility/low permeability. Characterizing the in vivo metabolism and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help to solve the problems associated with AvDs and enhance their efficacy. In this review of AvDs, we systematically investigated their structure-based metabolic reactions and related enzymes, their cellular pharmacology, and the effects of metabolism on AvD pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. We further assessed how delivery systems achieve better metabolism and pharmacology of AvDs. This review suggests that suitable nanosystems may help to achieve better pharmacological activity and pharmacokinetic behavior of AvDs by altering drug metabolism through the utilization of advanced nanotechnology and appropriate administration routes. Notably, such AvDs as ribavirin, remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir have been confirmed to bind to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) receptor and thus may represent anti-COVID-19 treatments. Elucidating the metabolic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AvDs may help pharmacologists to identify new formulations with high bioavailability and efficacy and help physicians to better treat virus-related diseases, including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans
9.
Radiology ; 299(2): E230-E240, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203991

ABSTRACT

Background It is unknown if there are cardiac abnormalities in persons who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) without cardiac symptoms or in those who have normal biomarkers and normal electrocardiograms. Purpose To evaluate cardiac involvement in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 without clinical evidence of cardiac involvement by using cardiac MRI. Materials and Methods This prospective observational cohort study included 40 participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate (n = 24) or severe (n = 16) pneumonia and who had no cardiovascular medical history, were without cardiac symptoms, had normal electrocardiograms, had normal serologic cardiac enzyme levels, and had been discharged for more than 90 days between May and September 2020. Demographic characteristics were recorded, serum cardiac enzyme levels were measured, and cardiac MRI was performed. Cardiac function, native T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and two-dimensional (2D) strain were quantitatively evaluated and compared with values in control subjects (n = 25). Comparisons among the three groups were performed by using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni-corrected post hoc comparisons (for normal distribution) or Kruskal-Wallis tests with post hoc pairwise comparisons (for nonnormal distribution). Results Forty participants (mean age, 54 years ± 12 [standard deviation]; 24 men) were enrolled; participants had a mean time between admission and cardiac MRI of 158 days ± 18 and between discharge and cardiac MRI examination of 124 days ± 17. There were no left or right ventricular size or functional differences between participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and healthy control subjects. Only one (3%) participant had positive late gadolinium enhancement located at the mid inferior wall. Global ECV values were elevated in participants who had recovered from COVID-19 with moderate or severe pneumonia compared with those in healthy control subjects (median ECV, 29.7% vs 31.4% vs 25.0%, respectively; interquartile range, 28.0%-32.9% vs 29.3%-34.0% vs 23.7%-26.0%, respectively; P < .001 for both). The 2D global left ventricular longitudinal strain was reduced in both groups of participants (moderate COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.5% to -10.7%]; severe COVID-19 group, -12.5% [interquartile range, -15.4% to -8.7%]) compared with the healthy control group (-15.4% [interquartile range, -17.6% to -14.6%]) (P = .002 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusion Cardiac MRI myocardial tissue and strain imaging parameters suggest that a proportion of participants who had recovered from COVID-19 had subclinical myocardial abnormalities detectable months after recovery. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
10.
Health Commun ; : 1-9, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072259

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out in China in January 2020 and has been effectively controlled in April 2020 after China's relentless efforts. People's engagement in disease-related preventive behaviors is crucial in containing such infectious disease. Vulnerable populations often have higher chances of developing severe illness from COVID-19 and the mortality rate is also higher. Thus, at-risk populations for COVID-19 request extra attention. The current study conducted a national online survey among vulnerable populations in China in early February 2020 to examine their engagement in coronavirus-related preventive health behaviors (e.g., frequent handwashing) and the potential determinants including factors from the Health Belief Model, trust in different media sources, and health literacy. The results suggested that the vulnerable populations' engagement in coronavirus-related preventive behaviors were significantly associated with barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, trust in doctors' social media, and trust in TV for COVID-19-related information. Besides, barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, trust in doctors' social media, and trust in TV mediated the effects of health literacy on preventive behaviors. Our findings provided directions for future health promotions and interventions targeting vulnerable populations to enhance their preventive behaviors in China.

12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19995, 2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since January 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept over China and then the world, causing a global public health crisis. People's adoption of preventive and intervening behaviors is critical in curbing the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese people's adoption of health behaviors in responding to COVID-19 and to identify key determinants for their engagement. METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed in early February 2020 among Mainland Chinese (18 years or older) to examine their engagement in preventive behaviors (eg, frequent handwashing, wearing masks, staying at home) and intervening behaviors (eg, advising family to wash hands frequently), and to explore potential determinants for their adoption of these health behaviors. RESULTS: Out of 2949 participants, 55.3% (n=1629) reported frequent engagement in preventive health behaviors, and over 84% (n=2493) performed at least one intervening health behavior. Greater engagement in preventive behaviors was found among participants who received higher education, were married, reported fewer barriers and greater benefits of engagement, reported greater self-efficacy and emotional support, had greater patient-centered communication before, had a greater media literacy level, and had greater new media and traditional media use for COVID-19 news. Greater engagement in intervening behaviors was observed among participants who were married, had lower income, reported greater benefits of health behaviors, had greater patient-centered communication before, had a lower media literacy level, and had a greater new media and traditional media use for COVID-19 news. CONCLUSIONS: Participants' engagement in coronavirus-related preventive and intervening behaviors was overall high, and the associations varied across demographic and psychosocial variables. Hence, customized health interventions that address the determinants for health behaviors are needed to improve people's adherence to coronavirus-related behavior guidelines.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Health Behavior/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Media/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): e28-e37, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45870

ABSTRACT

Tracheal intubation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients creates a risk to physiologically compromised patients and to attending healthcare providers. Clinical information on airway management and expert recommendations in these patients are urgently needed. By analysing a two-centre retrospective observational case series from Wuhan, China, a panel of international airway management experts discussed the results and formulated consensus recommendations for the management of tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients. Of 202 COVID-19 patients undergoing emergency tracheal intubation, most were males (n=136; 67.3%) and aged 65 yr or more (n=128; 63.4%). Most patients (n=152; 75.2%) were hypoxaemic (Sao2 <90%) before intubation. Personal protective equipment was worn by all intubating healthcare workers. Rapid sequence induction (RSI) or modified RSI was used with an intubation success rate of 89.1% on the first attempt and 100% overall. Hypoxaemia (Sao2 <90%) was common during intubation (n=148; 73.3%). Hypotension (arterial pressure <90/60 mm Hg) occurred in 36 (17.8%) patients during and 45 (22.3%) after intubation with cardiac arrest in four (2.0%). Pneumothorax occurred in 12 (5.9%) patients and death within 24 h in 21 (10.4%). Up to 14 days post-procedure, there was no evidence of cross infection in the anaesthesiologists who intubated the COVID-19 patients. Based on clinical information and expert recommendation, we propose detailed planning, strategy, and methods for tracheal intubation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Hypoxia/etiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumothorax/etiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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