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1.
International Immunopharmacology ; : 109534, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2131204

ABSTRACT

Background Viral persistence is a crucial factor that influences the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2. However, the impacts of vaccination and physiological variables on viral persistence have not been adequately clarified. Methods We collected the clinical records of 377 COVID-19 patients, which contained unvaccinated patients and patients received two doses of an inactivated vaccine or an mRNA vaccine. The impacts of vaccination on disease severity and viral persistence and the correlations between 49 laboratory variables and viral persistence were analyzed separately. Finally, we established a multivariate regression model to predict the persistence of viral RNA. Results Both inactivated and mRNA vaccines significantly reduced the rate of moderate cases, while the vaccine related shortening of viral RNA persistence was only observed in moderate patients. Correlation analysis showed that 10 significant laboratory variables were shared by the unvaccinated mild patients and mild patients inoculated with an inactivated vaccine, but not by the mild patients inoculated with an mRNA vaccine. A multivariate regression model established based on the variables correlating with viral persistence in unvaccinated mild patients could predict the persistence of viral RNA for all patients except three moderate patients inoculated with an mRNA vaccine. Conclusion Vaccination contributed limitedly to the clearance of viral RNA in COVID-19 patients. While, laboratory variables in early infection could predict the persistence of viral RNA.

2.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2117503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028942

ABSTRACT

The origins of preexisting SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the preexisting S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by preexisting antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we demonstrated that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 reactive monoclonal antibodies were isolated from naïve SPF mice and were proven to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. A variety of cross-reactive microbial proteins were identified using LC-MS, of which E. coli derived HSP60 and HSP70 proteins were confirmed to be able to bind to one of the isolated monoclonal antibodies. Mice with high levels of preexisting S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a SARS-CoV-2 S DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of preexisting S2 and P144-specific antibodies correlated positively with RBD binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Collectively, our study revealed an alternative origin of preexisting S2-targeted antibodies and disclosed a previously neglected aspect of the impact of gut microbiota on host anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Escherichia coli , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 897879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957160

ABSTRACT

A booster vaccination is called for constraining the evolving epidemic of SARS-CoV-2. However, the necessity of a new COVID-19 vaccine is currently unclear. To compare the effect of an Omicron-matched S DNA vaccine and an ancestral S DNA vaccine in boosting cross-reactive immunities, we firstly immunized mice with two-dose of a DNA vaccine encoding the spike protein of the ancestral Wuhan strain. Then the mice were boosted with DNA vaccines encoding spike proteins of either the Wuhan strain or the Omicron variant. Specific antibody and T cell responses were measured at 4 weeks post boost. Our data showed that the Omicron-matched vaccine efficiently boosted RBD binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses against both the Delta and the Omicron variants. Of note, antibody responses against the Omicron variant elicited by the Omicron-matched vaccine were much stronger than those induced by the ancestral S DNA vaccine. Meanwhile, CD8+ T cell responses against both the ancestral Wuhan strain and the Omicron strain also tended to be higher in mice boosted by the Omicron-matched vaccine than those in mice boosted with the ancestral S DNA vaccine, albeit no significant difference was observed. Our findings suggest that an Omicron-matched vaccine is preferred for boosting cross-protective immunities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines, DNA , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 875236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834410

ABSTRACT

A variety of methods have been explored to increase delivery efficiencies for DNA vaccine. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines has not been satisfactorily improved. Unlike most of the previous attempts, we provided evidence suggesting that changing the injection site successively (successively site-translocated inoculation, SSTI) could significantly enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in a previous study. To simplify the strategy and to evaluate its impact on candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, we immunized mice with either a SARS-CoV-2 spike-based DNA vaccine or a spike protein subunit vaccine via three different inoculation strategies. Our data demonstrated that S protein specific antibody responses elicited by the DNA vaccine or the protein subunit vaccine showed no significant difference among different inoculation strategies. Of interest, compared with the conventional site fixed inoculation (SFI), both successive site-translocating inoculation (SSTI) and the simplified translocating inoculation (STI) strategy improved specific T cell responses elicited by the DNA vaccine. More specifically, the SSTI strategy significantly improved both the monofunctional (IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α-CD8+) and the multifunctional (IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α+CD8+, IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α+CD4+, IFN-γ+IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+) T cell responses, while the simplified translocating inoculation (STI) strategy significantly improved the multifunctional CD8+ (IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α+CD8+, IFN-γ+IL-2+TNF-α+CD8+) and CD4+ (IFN-γ+IL-2-TNF-α+CD4+, IFN-γ+IL-2+TNF-α+CD4+) T cell responses. The current study confirmed that changing the site of intra muscular injection can significantly improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Mice , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 43: 101226, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective in the general population with intact immunity. However, their safety and immunogenicity have not been demonstrated in people living with HIV (PLWH). METHODS: 42 HIV-1 infected individuals who were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 28 healthy individuals were enrolled in this open-label two-arm non-randomized study at Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. Two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) were given on April 22, 2021 and May 25, 2021, respectively. The reactogenicity of the vaccine were evaluated by observing clinical adverse events and solicited local and systemic reactions. Humoral responses were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA and surrogate neutralization assays. Cell-mediated immune responses and vaccine induced T cell activation were measured by flow cytometry. FINDINGS: All the HIV-1 infected participants had a CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/µL both at baseline (659·0 ± 221·9 cells/µL) and 4 weeks after vaccination (476·9 ± 150·8 cells/µL). No solicited adverse reaction was observed among all participants. Similar binding antibody, neutralizing antibody and S protein specific T cell responses were elicited in PLWH and healthy individuals. PLWH with low baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (<0·6) generated lower antibody responses after vaccination than PLWH with medium (0·6∼1·0) or high (≥1·0) baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (P<0·01). The CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts of PLWH decreased significantly after vaccination (P<0·0001), but it did not lead to any adverse clinical manifestation. Moreover, we found that the general HIV-1 viral load among the PLWH cohort decreased significantly after vaccination (P=0·0192). The alteration of HIV-1 viral load was not significantly associated with the vaccine induced CD4+ T cell activation (P>0·2). INTERPRETATION: Our data demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was safe, immunogenic in PLWH who are stable on cART with suppressed viral load and CD4+ T cell count > 200 cells/µL. However, the persistence of the vaccine-induced immunities in PLWH need to be further investigated.

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