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1.
Computers in Biology and Medicine ; JOUR: 106288,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104649

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Mpro (Mpro) is the critical cysteine protease in coronavirus viral replication. Tea polyphenols are effective Mpro inhibitors. Therefore, we aim to isolate and synthesize more novel tea polyphenols from Zhenghedabai (ZHDB) white tea methanol-water (MW) extracts that might inhibit COVID-19. Through molecular networking, 33 compounds were identified and divided into 5 clusters. Further, natural products molecular network (MN) analysis showed that MN1 has new phenylpropanoid-substituted ester-catechin (PSEC), and MN5 has the important basic compound type hydroxycinnamoylcatechins (HCCs). Thus, a new PSEC (1, PSEC636) was isolated, which can be further detected in 14 green tea samples. A series of HCCs were synthesized (2–6), including three new acetylated HCCs (3–5). Then we used surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to analyze the equilibrium dissociation constants (KD) for the interaction of 12 catechins and Mpro. The KD values of PSEC636 (1), EGC-C (2), and EC-CDA (3) were 2.25, 2.81, and 2.44 μM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 1, 2, and 3 showed the potential Mpro inhibition with IC50 5.95 ± 0.17, 9.09 ± 0.22, and 23.10 ± 0.69 μM, respectively. Further, we used induced fit docking (IFD), binding pose metadynamics (BPMD), and molecular dynamics (MD) to explore the stable binding pose of Mpro-1, showing that 1 could tightly bond with the amino acid residues THR26, HIS41, CYS44, TYR54, GLU166, and ASP187. The computer modeling studies reveal that the ester, acetyl, and pyrogallol groups could improve inhibitory activity. Our research suggests that these catechins are effective Mpro inhibitors, and might be developed as therapeutics against COVID-19.

2.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 2): 137209, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104526

ABSTRACT

Despite increasing the public awareness of ubiquity of microplastics (MPs) in air, the issue on particular source of tire wear particles (TWPs) emission into atmosphere and their exposure-associated human health has not received the attention it deserves. Here we linked vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) estimates covering demography, socio-environmental, and transportation features and emission factors to predict regional emission patterns of TWP-derived atmospheric MPs. A data-driven probabilistic approach was developed to consider variability across the datasets and uncertainty of model parameters in terms of country-level and vehicle-type emissions. We showed that country-specific VKT from billion to trillion vehicle-kilometer resulted in 103-105 metric tons of airborne TWP-derived atmospheric MPs annually in the period 2015-2019, with the highest emissions from passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles. On average, we found that airborne TWP emissions from passenger cars by country had substantial decreased (up to ∼33%) during COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 and pronounced increased (by a factor ∼1.9) from vehicle electrification by the next three decades. We conclude that the stunning mass of airborne TWP is a predominant source of atmospheric MP. We underscore the necessity of TWP emissions control among the United States, China, and India. Our findings can be of great use to environmental transportation planners for devising vehicle/tire-oriented decision support tools. Our data offer information to enhance TWP-exposure estimates, to examine long-term exposure trends, and subsequently to improve health risk assessment during pandemic outbreak and future electrification.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 373, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096666

ABSTRACT

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that was once endemic in west and central Africa caused by monkeypox virus. However, cases recently have been confirmed in many nonendemic countries outside of Africa. WHO declared the ongoing monkeypox outbreak to be a public health emergency of international concern on July 23, 2022, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The rapidly increasing number of confirmed cases could pose a threat to the international community. Here, we review the epidemiology of monkeypox, monkeypox virus reservoirs, novel transmission patterns, mutations and mechanisms of viral infection, clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis and treatment measures. In addition, strategies for the prevention, such as vaccination of smallpox vaccine, is also included. Current epidemiological data indicate that high frequency of human-to-human transmission could lead to further outbreaks, especially among men who have sex with men. The development of antiviral drugs and vaccines against monkeypox virus is urgently needed, despite some therapeutic effects of currently used drugs in the clinic. We provide useful information to improve the understanding of monkeypox virus and give guidance for the government and relative agency to prevent and control the further spread of monkeypox virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Monkeypox virus
4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the barriers to abortion in Shanghai during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare pre-abortion mental health status before and during the crisis. METHODS: In this case-control study, two groups of women seeking abortion (age ≥18 years, pregnancy duration <98 days) were recruited from March to September, 2021 (n = 1070) and from February to April 2022 (n = 625). The evaluation included COVID-19-related abortion stress questions, the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Family Environment Scale Chinese version. The researchers conducted interviews and collected questionnaires. RESULTS: The median pregnancy duration at abortion among women during the pandemic was 65 days, compared with 51 days in the pre-pandemic group (P < 0.001). Anxiety and depression symptoms increased during the crisis (P < 0.001). Sleep disturbances were more common. Higher PSQI scores were related to increased anxiety and depression symptoms. A more negative family climate was described during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, abortion access was delayed and pre-abortion mental disorders increased. More attention should be paid to the mental health of women seeking abortions, and innovations should be promoted to ensure abortion services without delay.

5.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082311

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 983909, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080275

ABSTRACT

Background: To date, the repeated breakout of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic across many regions in China has caused continuous physical and mental harm to health care workers. This study investigates the psychological burden of the pandemic and its associated risk factors among Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) during a single wave of COVID-19. Methods: For this cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from January 16, 2022 to February 5, 2022, a total of 412 HCWs from Northwestern China were recruited. Their socio-demographic data and COVID-19 related survey variables were then collected using online self-rating questionnaires. In addition, the Chinese versions of well-validated instruments, including the 12-item General Health Questionnaire for psychiatric morbidity, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 for anxiety, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression and the Insomnia Severity Index-7 for insomnia, were used to assess the participants' mental health status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was eventually performed to identify the risk factors associated with the psychological outcomes. Results: Of the 388 participants who were included in the final study (94.17% response rate), the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and insomnia symptoms were 25.3% (95% CI: 20.9-29.6%), 40.7% (95% CI: 35.8-45.6%), and 30.9% (95% CI: 26.3-35.5%), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that being a woman and having a perceived need for psychological support were risk factors for all psychological outcomes, while poor disease cognition and perceived susceptibility were risk factors for anxiety. Poor disease cognition and being unvaccinated against COVID-19 were risk factors for depression, with the latter also being an independent risk factor for insomnia. Conclusion: This study has identified a relatively lower prevalence rate of psychological disorders among Chinese HCWs during a single wave, deeper into the COVID-19 pandemic. Female HCWs, and those who had a perceived need for psychological support, had poor disease cognition, were perceived as susceptible to COVID-19 and had not been vaccinated against COVID-19 deserve more attention.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2074016

ABSTRACT

Purpose To investigate the trends of myopia among primary and junior school students in the post-COVID-19 epidemic period. Method A prospective of cross-sectional study using spot photoscreenings in 123,538 children among primary and junior school students from 2019 to 2021 was conducted to evaluate the development of myopia in Xuzhou, China in the post-COVID-19 epidemic period. Equivalent refraction and the prevalence of myopia were recorded. Results The spherical equivalent refraction of myopia decreased across all grades except grade 1 (0.23 ± 0.56 D in 2019, 0.24 ± 0.63 D in 2020) from 2019 to 2020. However, refraction exhibited a hyperopic shift in 2021 compared to 2020 for grades 1–5 (no significant decreased for grade 4). The prevalence of myopia in all grades increased in 2020 compared to 2019, and the most dramatic changes were observed from grades 2–5 and grades 7–8 (P < 0.05). The changes in myopia prevalence in grades 1–4 were mild, and the reduction in myopia for Grade 5 is significant from 2020 to 2021. Nevertheless, students in grades 6 and 9 exhibited the greatest growth in myopia prevalence (P < 0.01). All grades had higher myopia prevalence in 2021 compared with 2019, except grade 1 (P = 0.25). The prevalence of myopia in girls was higher compared with boys, and the urban myopia prevalence was higher than in rural areas over the 3 years except in 2019 (P = 0.18). Conclusions The prevalence of myopia increased during the COVID-19 epidemic. However, the spherical equivalent refraction of lower grade children drifted to hyperopia and the trends of myopia development remained stable in the post-COVID-19 epidemic period. We should be more concerned about the prevalence of myopia in graduating for the primary or junior grades in the future.

8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-51, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2070055

ABSTRACT

Prolonged infection and possible evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in patients living with uncontrolled HIV-1 infection highlight the importance of an effective vaccination regimen, yet the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines and predictive immune biomarkers have not been well investigated. Herein, we report that the magnitude and persistence of antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) elicited by an Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine are impaired in SIV-infected macaques with high viral loads (> 105 genome copies per ml plasma, SIVhi) but not in macaques with low viral loads (< 105, SIVlow). After a second vaccination, the immune responses are robustly enhanced in all uninfected and SIVlow macaques. These responses also show a moderate increase in 70% SIVhi macaques but decline sharply soon after. Further analysis reveals that decreased antibody and CMI responses are associated with reduced circulating follicular helper T cell (TFH) counts and aberrant CD4/CD8 ratios, respectively, indicating that dysregulation of CD4+ T cells by SIV infection impairs the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity. Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine shows no impact on SIV loads or SIV-specific CMI responses. Our study underscores the necessity of frequent booster vaccinations in HIV-infected patients and provides indicative biomarkers for predicting vaccination effectiveness in these patients.

9.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105828, 2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069488

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 has a significant impact on global health and economy system. In this context, there have been some landmark advances in vaccine development. Over 100 new coronavirus vaccine candidates have been approved for clinical trials, with ten WHO-approved vaccines including four inactivated virus vaccines, two mRNA vaccines, three recombinant viral vectored vaccines and one protein subunit vaccine on the "Emergency Use Listing". Although the SARS-CoV-2 has an internal proofreading mechanism, there have been a number of mutations emerged in the pandemic affecting its transmissibility, pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Of these, mutations in the spike (S) protein and the resultant mutant variants have posed new challenges for vaccine development and application. In this review article, we present an overview of vaccine development, the prevalence of new coronavirus variants and their impact on protective efficacy of existing vaccines and possible immunization strategies coping with the viral mutation and diversity.

10.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061522

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence and significant clinical outcomes of pre-extensively drug-resistant plus additional drug-resistant tuberculosis (pre-XDR-plus) in Henan Provincial Chest Hospital between 2017 and 2021. METHODS: We analyzed and summarized the drug sensitivity test (DST) results of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains in TB patients seeking care in the Tuberculosis Clinical Medical Research Center of Henan Province between 2017 and 2021. Medical records of pre-extensively drug-resistant plus additional drug-resistant TB patients were statistically analyzed, including demographic characteristics, regimens, and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 3689 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, 639 (17.32%), 353 (9.56%), and 109 (2.95%), multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), pre-extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (pre-XDR), and pre-extensively drug-resistant plus additional drug-resistant tuberculosis (pre-XDR-plus), respectively. The proportion of MDR decreased from 19.1% in 2017 to 17.5% in 2021 (Chi-square = 0.686, P=0.407), the proportion of pre-XDR from 11.4% in 2017 to 9.0% in 2021 (Chi-square = 2.39, P= 0.122), and pre-XDR-plus from 4.7% in 2017 to 1.8% in 2020, with the declining trend was significant (Chi-square=9.348, P=0.002). The most commonly used anti-TB drugs were pyrazinamide (PZA,37/46, 80.43%) and cycloserine (CS, 32/46, 69.57%), followed by linezolid (LZD, 25/46, 54.35%), protionamide (TH, 25/46, 54.35%), and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS, 23/46, 50.00%). Patients receiving the LZD regimen were 5 times more likely to have a favorable outcome than those not receiving LZD (OR=6.421, 95% CI 2.101-19.625, P=0.001). Patients receiving a regimen containing CS were 4 times more likely to have a favorable outcome compared to those not taking CS (OR=5.444, 95% CI 1.650-17.926, P=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the population of pre-XDR-plus had significantly decreased over the past five years in the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital. The COVID-19and flood disaster affect TB patients' selection of medical services. In addition, the pre-XDR-plus patients whose regimens contain LZD or CS were more likely to have favorable outcomes.

11.
J Glob Health ; 12: 03058, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056221

Subject(s)
Tourism , Humans
12.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063846, 2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For some people, COVID-19 infection leads to negative health impacts that can last into the medium or long term. The long-term sequelae of COVID-19 infection, or 'long COVID', negatively affects not only physical health, but also mental health, cognition or psychological well-being. Complex, integrated interventions are recommended for long COVID, including psychological components; however, the effectiveness of such interventions has yet to be critically evaluated. This protocol describes a systematic review to be conducted of scientific literature reporting on clinical trials of interventions to promote mental health, cognition or psychological well-being among individuals with long COVID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines will be followed. A health sciences librarian will identify the relevant literature through comprehensive systematic searches of Medline, Embase, APA PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, medRxiv, PsyArXiv, China National Knowledge Internet and WANFANG Data databases, as well as The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Studies will be selected through a title and abstract review, followed by a full-text review using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extracted will include intervention descriptions and efficacy metrics. Data will be narratively synthesised; if the data allow, a meta-analysis will be conducted. Risk of bias assessment will be conducted using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for systematic reviews is not required. As researchers and clinicians respond to the new clinical entity that long COVID represents, this review will synthesise a rapidly emerging evidence base describing and testing interventions to promote mental health, cognition or psychological well-being. Results will therefore be disseminated through an open-access peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations to inform research and clinical practice. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022318678.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Humans , Knowledge , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
13.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(8): 827-834, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051245

ABSTRACT

Background: Usage of telemedicine for virtual dermatology care during the COVID-19 pandemic on a national scale is poorly characterized, particularly for nonvideo encounters. Objective: We sought to compare utilization of telephone and asynchronous virtual care for dermatologic concerns 3 months before (December 2019-February 2020) and during the pandemic (March-May 2020) across patient populations. Methods: A retrospective study was performed using a national claims database with >280 million patients within the COVID-19 Research Database to identify monthly telephone and asynchronous virtual visits by diagnosis, age, income, and patient race/ethnicity. Results: Although overall visits for dermatologic concerns decreased by 27.2% during the pandemic, telephone and asynchronous visits increased significantly. Patients most likely to use telephone visits during the pandemic were of older age (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.043, p < 0.001), African American race (RRR = 2.03, p < 0.001), and household income <$29,000 (RRR = 1.51, p < 0.001). Limitations: Racial and ethnic data were available for 39.04% of patients and income data for 38.1% of patients. Conclusions: Underserved populations including African Americans, elderly, and low-income patients were more likely to utilize telephone formats during the pandemic. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for these observed differences and whether there is differential quality between nonvideo and video telemedicine encounters to ensure that all patients are given equal access to the highest quality of virtual care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatology , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations
14.
Anal Chem ; 94(40): 13810-13819, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050235

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the epidemic has been spreading around the world for more than 2 years. Rapid, safe, and on-site detection methods of COVID-19 are in urgent demand for the control of the epidemic. Here, we established an integrated system, which incorporates a machine-learning-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for rapid COVID-19 screening and air-plasma-based disinfection modules to prevent potential secondary infections. A partial least-squares discrimination analysis and a convolutional neural network model were built using the collected infrared spectral dataset containing 857 training serum samples. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and prediction accuracy could all reach over 94% from the results of the field test regarding 968 blind testing samples. Additionally, the disinfection modules achieved an inactivation efficiency of 99.9% for surface and airborne tested bacteria. The proposed system is conducive and promising for point-of-care and on-site COVID-19 screening in the mass population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Neural Networks, Computer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods
15.
Curr Med Sci ; 42(5): 1094-1098, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological features in children after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This study collected throat swabs and serum samples from hospitalized pediatric patients of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei province, China before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Respiratory infected pathogens [adenovirus (ADV), influenza virus A/B (Flu A/B), parainfluenza virus 1/2/3 (PIV1/2/3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP)] were detected. The pathogens, age, and gender were used to analyze the epidemiological features in children after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The pathogen detection rate was significantly higher in females than in males (P<0.05), and the infection of PIV1 and MP was mainly manifested. After the COVID-19 pandemic, PIV1, PIV3, RSV, and MP had statistically different detection rates among the age groups (P<0.05), and was mainly detected in patients aged 0-6 years, 0-3 years, 0-3 years, and 1-6 years, respectively. When comparing before the COVID-19 pandemic, the total detection rate of common respiratory pathogens was lower (P<0.05). Except for the increase in the detection rate of PIV1 and CP, the infection rate of other pathogens had almost decreased. CONCLUSION: The prevention and control measures for the COVID-19 pandemic effectively changed the epidemiological features of common respiratory tract infectious diseases in pediatric children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
16.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(5): e834, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047625

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: It is well known that public health emergencies can affect the mental health of medical personnel, and many studies have focused on cross-sectional studies with short-term benefits. The present study aimed to investigate the long-term influence of infectious disease outbreak about the mental health of hospital staff. Methods: The demographic characteristics and mental health status of staff in Fuzhou, China, were analyzed by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) Scale and Depression Screening Scale (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9]) in February and December 2020. Results: There were no significant differences in anxiety levels during different time periods (p > 0.05), but there were significant differences among anxiety level and total score of GAD-7 scale (p < 0.001). There were significant differences among the number of people with depression, depression level, and total score on the PHQ-9 scale (p < 0.001). As the pandemic progressed, total scores of anxiety in medical staff with different titles decreased (p < 0.05), but depression scores in professionals with intermediate and senior titles increased significantly (p < 0.05). changes in anxiety and depression scores during different time periods also changed according to hospital worker specialty. Total scores of anxiety in doctors, nurses, medical technicians, and other staff members all decreased (p < 0.05), while total scores of depression in doctors, nurses, and other staff members significantly increased (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in total depression score among medical technicians (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Since the outbreak of an infectious disease public health emergency, the anxiety of hospital staff has decreased over time, but the depression has increased. The management and psychological support personnel in medical institutions should continue to pay attention to the mental health of medical staff, and it is necessary to take different intervention measures in different periods when implementing the psychological crisis prevention mechanism.

17.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043989

ABSTRACT

Background: Some viruses cause outbreaks, which require immediate attention. Neutralizing antibodies could be developed for viral outbreak management. However, the development of monoclonal antibodies is often long, laborious, and unprofitable. Here, we report the development of chicken polyclonal neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Layers were immunized twice with 14-day intervals using the purified receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2/Wuhan or SARS-CoV-2/Omicron. Eggs were harvested 14 days after the second immunization. Polyclonal IgY antibodies were extracted. Binding of anti-RBD IgYs was analyzed by immunoblot and indirect ELISA. Furthermore, the neutralization capacity of anti-RBD IgYs was measured in Vero-E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2-mCherry/Wuhan and SARS-CoV-2/Omicron using fluorescence and/or cell viability assays. In addition, the effect of IgYs on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 and host cytokine genes in the lungs of Syrian Golden hamsters was examined using qRT-PCR. Results: Anti-RBD IgYs efficiently bound viral RBDs in situ, neutralized the virus variants in vitro, and lowered viral RNA amplification, with minimal alteration of virus-mediated immune gene expression in vivo. Conclusions: Altogether, our results indicate that chicken polyclonal IgYs can be attractive targets for further pre-clinical and clinical development for the rapid management of outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Chickens , SARS-CoV-2 , Egg Yolk , RNA, Viral , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antiviral Agents , Cytokines
19.
Cell ; 185(23): 4333-4346.e14, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041612

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA booster vaccines provide protection from severe disease, eliciting strong immunity that is further boosted by previous infection. However, it is unclear whether these immune responses are affected by the interval between infection and vaccination. Over a 2-month period, we evaluated antibody and B cell responses to a third-dose mRNA vaccine in 66 individuals with different infection histories. Uninfected and post-boost but not previously infected individuals mounted robust ancestral and variant spike-binding and neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells. Spike-specific B cell responses from recent infection (<180 days) were elevated at pre-boost but comparatively less so at 60 days post-boost compared with uninfected individuals, and these differences were linked to baseline frequencies of CD27lo B cells. Day 60 to baseline ratio of BCR signaling measured by phosphorylation of Syk was inversely correlated to days between infection and vaccination. Thus, B cell responses to booster vaccines are impeded by recent infection.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , B-Lymphocytes/immunology
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