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1.
Vaccines ; 9(11):1328, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1524212

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global pandemic, has caused over 216 million cases and 4.50 million deaths as of 30 August 2021. Vaccines can be regarded as one of the most powerful weapons to eliminate the pandemic, but the impact of vaccines on daily COVID-19 cases and deaths by country is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between vaccines and daily newly confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 in each country worldwide. Methods: Daily data on firstly vaccinated people, fully vaccinated people, new cases and new deaths of COVID-19 were collected from 187 countries. First, we used a generalized additive model (GAM) to analyze the association between daily vaccinated people and daily new cases and deaths of COVID-19. Second, a random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the global pooled results. Results: In total, 187 countries and regions were included in the study. During the study period, 1,011,918,763 doses of vaccine were administered, 540,623,907 people received at least one dose of vaccine, and 230,501,824 people received two doses. For the relationship between vaccination and daily increasing cases of COVID-19, the results showed that daily increasing cases of COVID-19 would be reduced by 24.43% [95% CI: 18.89, 29.59] and 7.50% [95% CI: 6.18, 8.80] with 10,000 fully vaccinated people per day and at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Daily increasing deaths of COVID-19 would be reduced by 13.32% [95% CI: 3.81, 21.89] and 2.02% [95% CI: 0.18, 4.16] with 10,000 fully vaccinated people per day and at least one dose of vaccine, respectively. Conclusions: These findings showed that vaccination can effectively reduce the new cases and deaths of COVID-19, but vaccines are not distributed fairly worldwide. There is an urgent need to accelerate the speed of vaccination and promote its fair distribution across countries.

2.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1521443

ABSTRACT

Background and aims Observational studies showed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attacks universally and its most menacing progression uniquely endangers the elderly with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The causal association between COVID-19 infection or its severity and susceptibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) remains unknown. Methods and results The bidirectional causal relations of COVID-19 (including COVID-19, hospitalized COVID-19 compared with not hospitalized COVID-19, hospitalized COVID-19 compared with population, and severe COVID-19) and AF are determined by using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Genetically predicted severe COVID-19 was not significantly associated with risk of AF [odds ratio (OR), 1.037;95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005-1.071;P = 0. 023, q = 0.115]. In addition, genetically predicted AF was also not causally associated with severe COVID-19 (OR, 0.993;95% CI, 0.888-1.111;P = 0.905, q = 0.905). There was no evidence to support association between of genetically determined COVID-19 and risk of AF (OR, 1.111;95% CI, 0.971-1.272;P = 0.127, q = 0.318), and vice versa (OR, 1.016;95% CI, 0.976-1.058;P = 0.430, q = 0.851). Besides, no significant association was observed for hospitalized COVID-19 with AF. MR-Egger indicated no evidence of directional pleiotropy. Conclusion Overall, this MR study provides no clear support that COVID-19 is causally associated with the risk of AF.

3.
Journal of Food Safety and Quality ; 12(19):7831-7839, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1519509

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the import of aquatic products at Zhanjiang port has continued to increase, which has effectively promoted the development of the local economy. However, unqualified imported aquatic products have occurred from time to time, and it has always been an important duty of the customs to control the safety of imported food. Especially with the continuous outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic situation since 2020, it is particularly important to ensure the quality and safety of imported aquatic products, especially the traceability of the products. This article focused on analyzing the characteristics and functions of blockchain technology, combining with the problems of traceability of imported aquatic products in Zhanjiang, combined blockchain technology with three-dimensional customs supervision, explored the establishment of customs blockchain supervision model, and analyzed and studied the feasibility of the application of blockchain in the traceability of imported aquatic products in Zhanjiang. The traceability supervision system including production enterprises, importers and exporters, third-party institutions, logistics, warehousing, banking, insurance and other stakeholders was constructed. Finally, relevant application exploration schemes were put forward, and it was expected to provide some reference for improving the quality of imported products and perfecting the construction of imported food safety traceability management system.

4.
Mol Biomed ; 1(1): 14, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515460

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted extensive drug searching interets for the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Although currently several of clinically used "old" drugs have been repurposed to this new disease for the urgent clinical investigation, there is still great demand for more effective therapies for the anti-infections. Here we report the discovery that an "old" drug Emetine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus replication and displayed virus entry blocking effect in Vero cells at low dose. In addition, Emetine could significantly reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein level and moderately reduce the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) protein level in the M1 polarized THP-1 macrophages. In vivo animal pharmacokinetics (PK) study revealed that Emetine was enriched in the lung tissue and had a long retention time (over 12 h). With 1 mg/kg single oral dose, the effective concentration of Emetine in lung was up to 1.8 µM (mice) and 1.6 µM (rats) at 12 h, which is over 200-fold higher than the EC50 of the drug. The potent in vitro antiviral replication efficacy and the high enrichment in target tissue, combining with the well documented safety profiles in human indicate that low dose of Emetine might be a potentially effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection therapy. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s43556-020-00018-9.

5.
Phytomedicine ; : 153853, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that major Camellia sinensis (tea) catechins can inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), inspiring us to study 3CLpro inhibition of the recently discovered catechins from tea by our group. METHODS: Autodock was used to dock 3CLpro and 16 tea catechins. Further, a 3CLpro activity detection system was used to test their intra and extra cellular 3CLpro inhibitory activity. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to analyze the dissociation constant (KD) between the catechins and 3CLpro. RESULTS: Docking data suggested that 3CLpro interacted with the selected 16 catechins with low binding energy through the key amino acid residues Thr24, Thr26, Asn142, Gly143, His163, and Gln189. The selected catechins other than zijuanin D (3) and (-)-8-(5''R)-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinone-3-O-cinnamoylepicatechin (11) can inhibit 3CLpro intracellularly. The extracellular 3CLpro IC50 values of (-)-epicatechin 3-O-caffeoate (EC-C, 1), zijuanin C (2), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), etc-pyrrolidinone A (9), (+)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) are 1.58 ± 0.21, 41.2 ± 3.56, 0.90 ± 0.03, 46.71 ± 10.50, 3.38 ± 0.48, and 71.78 ± 8.36 µM, respectively. The KD values of 1, 6, and GCG are 4.29, 3.46, and 3.36 µM, respectively. CONCLUSION: Together, EC-C (1), etc-pyrrolidinone C and D (6), and GCG are strong 3CLpro inhibitors. Our results suggest that structural modification of catechins could be conducted by esterificating the 3-OH as well as changing the configuration of C-3, C-3''' or C-5''' to discover strong SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2835, 2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500559

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the symptoms and pathogens diversity of corn Fusarium sheath rot (CFSR), diseased samples were collected from 21 county-level regions in 12 prefecture-level districts of Sichuan Province from 2015 to 2018 in the present study. In the field, two symptom types appeared including small black spots with a linear distribution and wet blotches with a tawny or brown color. One hundred thirty-seven Fusarium isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis (EF1-α), and Koch's postulates were also assessed. The results identified the isolates as 8 species in the Fusarium genus, including F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. fujikuroi, F. asiaticum, F. equiseti, F. meridionale, F. graminearum and F. oxysporum, with isolation frequencies of 30.00, 22.67, 15.33, 7.33, 6.00, 5.33, 3.33 and 1.33%, respectively. Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum were the dominant and subdominant species, respectively. Two or more Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were simultaneously identified at a mixed infection rate of 14.67% in the present study. The pathogenicity test results showed that F. proliferatum and F. fujikuroi exhibited the highest virulence, with average disease indices of 30.28 ± 2.87 and 28.06 ± 1.96, followed by F. equiseti and F. verticillioides, with disease indices of 21.48 ± 2.14 and 16.21 ± 1.84, respectively. Fusarium asiaticum, F. graminearum and F. meridonale showed lower virulence, with disease indices of 13.80 ± 2.07, 11.57 ± 2.40 and 13.89 ± 2.49, respectively. Finally, F. orysporum presented the lowest virulence in CFSR, with a disease index of 10.14 ± 1.20. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of F. fujikuroi, F. meridionale and F. asiaticum as CFSR pathogens in China.


Subject(s)
Fusarium/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Zea mays/microbiology , China , Fusarium/genetics , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Phylogeny
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6304, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500462

ABSTRACT

Accumulating mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein can increase the possibility of immune escape, challenging the present COVID-19 prophylaxis and clinical interventions. Here, 3 receptor binding domain (RBD) specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 58G6, 510A5 and 13G9, with high neutralizing potency blocking authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus display remarkable efficacy against authentic B.1.351 virus. Surprisingly, structural analysis has revealed that 58G6 and 13G9 both recognize the steric region S470-495 on the RBD, overlapping the E484K mutation presented in B.1.351. Also, 58G6 directly binds to another region S450-458 in the RBD. Significantly, 58G6 and 510A5 both demonstrate prophylactic efficacy against authentic SARS-CoV-2 and B.1.351 viruses in the transgenic mice expressing human ACE2 (hACE2), protecting weight loss and reducing virus loads. Together, we have evidenced 2 potent neutralizing Abs with unique mechanism targeting authentic SARS-CoV-2 mutants, which can be promising candidates to fulfill the urgent needs for the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Epitopes , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects , Weight Loss/drug effects
8.
Genomics and Applied Biology ; 39(8):3912-3915, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1497998

ABSTRACT

Primary case, commonly known as "No. 0 patient", refers to the first person who is infected by a virus or bacterial disease when the epidemic situation spreads. "No. 0 patient" often causes a large-scale outbreak of infectious diseases. Tracing the epidemiology of "No. 0 patient" and the origin of the occurrence and development are helpful to make clear and understand the pathogen of infection. It is of great significance to control the source of infection and prevent the disease. In this study, from the confirmation of the first diagnosis case of COVID-19, the analysis of the earliest outbreak time point and the carding of the occurrence and development time line of COVID-19, the process from discovery to outbreak of COVID-19 is preliminarily restored, which has important reference value for further understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(20): 23442-23458, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hyperamylasemia was found in a group of patients with COVID-19 during hospitalization. However, the evolution and the clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in COVID-19, is not well characterized. DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, treatment and outcome information of 1,515 COVID-19 patients with available longitudinal amylase records collected from electronic medical system were analyzed to assess the prevalence and clinical significance of hyperamylasemia in this infection. Associated variables with hyperamylasemia in COVID-19 were also analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1,515 patients, 196 (12.9%) developed hyperamylasemia, among whom 19 (1.3%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal (ULN) and no clinical acute pancreatitis was seen. Multivariable ordered logistic regression implied older age, male, chronic kidney disease, several medications (immunoglobin, systemic corticosteroids, and antifungals), increased creatinine might be associated with hyperamylasemia during hospitalization. Restricted cubic spline analysis indicated hyperamylasemia had a J-shaped association with all-cause mortality and the estimated hazard ratio per standard deviation was 2.85 (2.03-4.00) above ULN. Based on the multivariable mixed-effect cox or logistic regression model taking hospital sites as random effects, elevated serum amylase during hospitalization was identified as an independent risk factor associated with in-hospital death and intensive complications, including sepsis, cardiac injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum amylase was independently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Since early intervention might change the outcome, serum amylase should be monitored dynamically during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Amylases/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Hyperamylasemia/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Journal of Food Safety and Quality ; 12(18):7440-7445, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1490295

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the import of aquatic products in China has maintained a rapid development. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia in the world in 2020 has brought a great impact on the import of aquatic products. This paper analyzed the global consumption and trade of aquatic products, studied China's imported products in 2020 from the aspects of import types, trading countries and trade modes, and analyzed that China's imported products had the characteristics of high quality and low price, large market potential, obvious decline in processing trade in the second half of the year affected by the new crown, and from the aspects of blocked transportation, decline in global output under the influence of public opinion, consumers' consumption had decreased, restrictive measures had been taken in some regions, corporate profits had been declining, the advantages of processing trade were no longer available, and the ability to cope with market changes was poor. Finally, we would conduct in-depth research on the reasons for the decline of China's imported aquatic products from the aspects of transmitting responsibility pressure to key national competent departments, strengthening the inspection and quarantine supervision of imported aquatic products strengthen self construction, provided technical support and guarantee, gave full play to the role of industry associations, expanded the import of high-quality aquatic products, promoted the increase of domestic aquaculture production, guided enterprises to explore the domestic market and make up for market vacancies, so as to provide some reference for meeting the people's good life needs and stabilizing market supply.

11.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291513

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset. The potential risk factors were also explored.Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients’ health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed.Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females compared with males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity.Interpretation: 15-month follow-up in this study aroused the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients. Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: All the authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The Research Ethics Committee of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital approved this study (2020SL007).

12.
Transp Res Part A Policy Pract ; 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487987

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented disruptions to many industries, and the transportation industry is among the most disrupted ones. We seek to address, in the context of a ride-sharing platform, the response of drivers to the pandemic and the post-pandemic recovery. We collected comprehensive trip data from one of the leading ride-sharing companies in China from September 2019 to August 2020, which cover pre-, during-, and post-pandemic phases in three major Chinese cities, and investigate the causal effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on driver behavior. We find that drivers only slightly reduced their shift decision in response to increased COVID-19 cases, likely because they have to make a living from providing ride-sharing services. Nevertheless, conditional on working, drivers exhibit strong risk aversion: As the number of new cases increases, drivers strategically adjust the scope of search for passengers, complete fewer trips, and as a result, make lower daily earnings. Finally, our heterogeneity analyses indicate that the effects appear to vary both across drivers and over time, with generally stronger effects on drivers who are older, more experienced, more active before the pandemic, and with higher status within the firm. Our findings have strong policy implications: These drivers tend to contribute more to the focal company, and also rely more on providing ride-sharing services to make a living. Therefore, they should be prioritized in stimulus plans offered by the government or the ride-sharing company.

13.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(10)2021 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480920

ABSTRACT

Eranthis longistipitata Regel is an endemic plant of Central Asia. The flavonoid profile of E. longistipitata leaves was studied by mass spectrometry for the first time (natural populations of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, in 70% aqueous-ethanol extracts by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry). Mass spectrometry revealed 18 flavonoid compounds. Flavonols featured the highest diversity, and 10 such substances were identified: 2 free aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol), 6 quercetin glycosides (peltatoside, hyperoside, reynoutrin, quercetin 3-sambubioside, rutin, and isoquercitrin), and 2 kaempferol glycosides (juglalin and trifolin). Two flavans (cianidanol and auriculoside), two hydroxyflavanones (6-methoxytaxifolin and aromadendrin), and one C-glycoside flavone-carlinoside-were identified. Dihydroxychalcones aspalathin, phloridzin, and phloretin were found too. Levels of rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, and hyperoside were confirmed by means of standards and high-performance liquid chromatography. Rutin concentration was the highest among all other identified flavonoid compounds: in the leaf samples from Kyrgyzstan, it ranged from 2.46 to 3.20 mg/g, and in those from Uzbekistan, from 1.50 to 3.01 mg/g. The diversity of flavonoid compounds in E. longistipitata leaves is probably due to external ecological and geographic factors and adaptive mechanisms.

14.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 20: 15330338211050764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477207

ABSTRACT

A pandemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major public health emergency that has spread in the fastest speed, and caused the most extensive infection world widely. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and computed tomography guided percutaneous needle biopsy (CTPNB) is the most common and significant method for the diagnosis of lung cancer. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the indications of TBB and CTPNB must be managed strictly. Therefore, it is extremely indispensable to perform meticulous and individualized management for lung cancer patients to protect the patients from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Lung/pathology , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Medical Oncology/methods , Postoperative Period , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Gen Psychiatr ; 34(5): e100517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476703
16.
J Virol ; : JVI0111021, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476389

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 variants can compromise the effectiveness of therapeutic antibodies. Most clinical-stage therapeutic antibodies target the spike receptor binding domain (RBD), but variants often have multiple mutations in several spike regions. To help predict antibody potency against emerging variants, we evaluated 25 clinical-stage therapeutic antibodies for neutralization activity against 60 pseudoviruses bearing spikes with single or multiple substitutions in several spike domains, including the full set of substitutions in B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), A.23.1 and R.1 variants. We found that 14 of 15 single antibodies were vulnerable to at least one RBD substitution, but most combination and polyclonal therapeutic antibodies remained potent. Key substitutions in variants with multiple spike substitutions predicted resistance, but the degree of resistance could be modified in unpredictable ways by other spike substitutions that may reside outside of the RBD. These findings highlight the importance of assessing antibody potency in the context of all substitutions in a variant and show that epistatic interactions in spike can modify virus susceptibility to therapeutic antibodies. Importance Therapeutic antibodies are effective in preventing severe disease from SARS-CoV-2infection (COVID-19), but their effectiveness may be reduced by virus variants with mutations affecting the spike protein. To help predict resistance to therapeutic antibodies in emerging variants, we profiled resistance patterns of 25 antibody products in late stages of clinical development against a large panel of variants that include single and multiple substitutions found in the spike protein. We found that the presence of a key substitution in variants with multiple spike substitutions can predict resistance against a variant, but that other substitutions can affect the degree of resistance in unpredictable ways. These finding highlight complex interactions among substitutions in the spike protein affecting virus neutralization and potentially virus entry into cells.

17.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has effected major changes to healthcare delivery within acute care settings. Rapid response calls (RRCs) in healthcare organisations have been effective at identifying and urgently managing acute clinical deterioration. Code-95 RRC were introduced to prewarn healthcare workers (HCWs) attending to patients suspected or confirmed with COVID-19 infection. AIMS: The primary aim of the study was to identify the personal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs involved in attending Code-95 RRC. We sought to evaluate their perception of risks and effects on wellbeing and identify potential opportunities for improvement at organisational levels. METHODS: We undertook a detailed survey on HCWs attending Code-95 RRCs, including questions that sought to understand the impact of the pandemic as well as their perception of infection risk and emotional wellbeing. This was a substudy of the prospective cross-sectional single-centre survey of HCWs that was conducted over a 3-week period at Frankston Hospital, Victoria, Australia. We adopted a quantitative content analysis approach for free-text responses in this secondary analysis. RESULTS: Four hundred two free-text comments were received from 297 respondents and were analysed. More than two-thirds (68%, 223/297) were female. Of all comments, 39% (155/402) were related to organisational issues including communication, confusion due to constantly changing infection control policies, and insufficient training. Thirty-three percent of comments (133/402) raised issues regarding the adequacy of personal protective equipment. Anxiety was reported in 25% of comments (101/402) with concerns predominantly relating to emotional stress and fatigue, risks of virus exposure and transmitting the infection to others, and COVID-19 precautions impairing care delivery. CONCLUSION(S): Our study raises important issues that have relevance for all healthcare organisations in the management of patients with COVID-19. These include the importance of improving communication, especially when infection control policies are revised, optimising training, maintaining adequate personal protective equipment, and HCW support. Early recognition and management of these issues are crucial to maintain optimal healthcare delivery.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major health challenge globally. Previous studies have suggested that changes in the glycosylation of IgG are closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the profiles of IgG N-glycome between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A case-control study was conducted, in which 104 COVID-19 patients and 104 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited. Serum IgG N-glycome composition was analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) approach. COVID-19 patients have a decreased level of IgG fucosylation, which upregulates antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) in acute immune responses. In severe cases, a low level of IgG sialylation contributes to the ADCC-regulated enhancement of inflammatory cytokines. The decreases in sialylation and galactosylation play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis via the activation of the lectin-initiated alternative complement pathway. IgG N-glycosylation underlines the complex clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460447

ABSTRACT

The WHO characterized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic. The influence of temperature on COVID-19 remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between temperature and daily newly confirmed COVID-19 cases by different climate regions and temperature levels worldwide. Daily data on average temperature (AT), maximum temperature (MAXT), minimum temperature (MINT), and new COVID-19 cases were collected from 153 countries and 31 provinces of mainland China. We used the spline function method to preliminarily explore the relationship between R0 and temperature. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the association between temperature and daily new cases of COVID-19, and a random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the pooled results in different regions in the second stage. Our findings revealed that temperature was positively related to daily new cases at low temperature but negatively related to daily new cases at high temperature. When the temperature was below the smoothing plot peak, in the temperate zone or at a low temperature level (e.g., <25th percentiles), the RRs were 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.15), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.15), and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.23) associated with a 1°C increase in AT, respectively. Whereas temperature was above the smoothing plot peak, in a tropical zone or at a high temperature level (e.g., >75th percentiles), the RRs were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.93), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.83), and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.81) associated with a 1°C increase in AT, respectively. The results were confirmed to be similar regarding MINT, MAXT, and sensitivity analysis. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in different regions and temperature levels.

20.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 232, 2021 08 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a leading cause of death in children and youth, with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts (referred to as non-fatal suicidal behaviors (NFSB)) being among its strongest predictors. Positive parenting (e.g., warmth, responsiveness), negative parenting (e.g., control, hostility), and parent-child relationship quality (e.g., trust, communication) have been reported to be associated with differences in NFSB in this population. To date, no comprehensive systematic review has considered together the wide range of parenting factors studied in relation to NFSB, and no meta-analysis of existing findings has been conducted. The present study will critically appraise and synthesize the existing evidence from observational studies that examine the relationships between parenting factors and (i) suicidal ideation and (ii) suicide attempt in children and youth. METHODS: Studies will be retrieved from APA PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases. Retrospective, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies, conducted in clinical and population settings, among youth aged less than 25 years and published as articles and dissertations in English or French will be eligible. Two reviewers will select articles using the Covidence Software after title and abstract screening and full-text assessment, will extract information using double data entry, and will appraise studies' quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Any disagreements will be discussed with a third reviewer. Publication bias will be evaluated using funnel plots and Egger's test. In addition to a narrative summary of results, meta-analyses will be conducted using results from at least three studies. Three-level random effect models will allow to derive pooled estimates from dependent effect sizes (from the same sample or study). In case of significant heterogeneity, moderation analyses will be performed considering participants' characteristics and methodological aspects of studies. The results will be reported according to the PRISMA guidelines, and the certainty of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: In highlighting parenting factors associated with NFSB and in estimating the overall strength of these associations in children and youth, our results will inform further intervention and prevention strategies designed for young people experiencing NFSB and their families. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020165345.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Systematic Reviews as Topic
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